Human Accomplishment

The Pursuit of Excellence in the Arts and Sciences, 800 B.C. to 1950

Author: Charles Murray

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061745677

Category: History

Page: 688

View: 6501

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A sweeping cultural survey reminiscent of Barzun's From Dawn to Decadence. "At irregular times and in scattered settings, human beings have achieved great things. Human Accomplishment is about those great things, falling in the domains known as the arts and sciences, and the people who did them.' So begins Charles Murray's unique account of human excellence, from the age of Homer to our own time. Employing techniques that historians have developed over the last century but that have rarely been applied to books written for the general public, Murray compiles inventories of the people who have been essential to the stories of literature, music, art, philosophy, and the sciences—a total of 4,002 men and women from around the world, ranked according to their eminence. The heart of Human Accomplishment is a series of enthralling descriptive chapters: on the giants in the arts and what sets them apart from the merely great; on the differences between great achievement in the arts and in the sciences; on the meta-inventions, 14 crucial leaps in human capacity to create great art and science; and on the patterns and trajectories of accomplishment across time and geography. Straightforwardly and undogmatically, Charles Murray takes on some controversial questions. Why has accomplishment been so concentrated in Europe? Among men? Since 1400? He presents evidence that the rate of great accomplishment has been declining in the last century, asks what it means, and offers a rich framework for thinking about the conditions under which the human spirit has expressed itself most gloriously. Eye-opening and humbling, Human Accomplishment is a fascinating work that describes what humans at their best can achieve, provides tools for exploring its wellsprings, and celebrates the continuing common quest of humans everywhere to discover truths, create beauty, and apprehend the good.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8151

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Future Tense

The Lessons of Culture in an Age of Upheaval

Author: Roger Kimball

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 1594036470

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 846

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We are living in an age of unprecedented upheaval. The future of Western culture is uncertain. America’s economic and political vitality are more fragile than ever. The preservation of tradition is far from guaranteed. Many have observed that we are living through a world historical moment of which Hegel spoke: a time when many of the traditional assumptions about the shape and future of culture are suddenly in play. As The New Criterion embarks on its fourth decade of publication, the magazine commemorates its commitment to the civilizing values of informed criticism with the publication of Future Tense: The Lessons of Culture in an Age of Upheaval. Compiling the writings of some of the greatest essayists of our time, Future Tense examines this pivotal period through a variety of lenses. Beginning with a meditation on memorials after the 9/11 attacks (Michael J. Lewis), the essays address patriotism in relation to Pericles (Victor Davis Hanson), twenty-first century American pride and leadership (Andrew Roberts), the future of religion in America (David Bentley Hart), and the unwinding of the welfare state (Kevin D. Williamson). Continuing this arc, pieces examine self-knowledge and modern technology (Anthony Daniels), the cultural capital of museums (James Panero), and the difficulties of making law in the modern world (Andrew C. McCarthy). In its penultimate essay, the book explores the possibility of a forthcoming political revolution (James Piereson), then closes with a reflection of culture’s role in the economy of life and the fragility of civilization (Roger Kimball). Taken together, these prominent writers demonstrate an acute understanding of the value of Western thought as well as the challenges it faces. Future Tense is an engaging discourse on the prospects of society and an important collection for anyone concerned with the longevity of traditional culture.

Tod und Leben großer amerikanischer Städte

Author: Jane Jacobs

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3035602123

Category: Architecture

Page: 220

View: 9152

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In The Death and Life of Great American Cities durchleuchtet Jane Jacobs 1961 die fragwürdigen Methoden der Stadtplanung und Stadtsanierung in Amerika, der "New Yorker" nannte es das unkonventionellste und provozierendste Buch über Städtebau seit langem. Die deutsche Ausgabe wurde schnell auch im deutschsprachigem Raum zu einer viel gelesenen und diskutierten Lektüre. Sie ist jetzt wieder in einem Nachdruck zugänglich, mit einem Vorwort von Gerd Albers (1993), das nach der Aktualität dieser Streitschrift fragt.

The Philosophy of Creativity

New Essays

Author: Elliot Samuel Paul,Scott Barry Kaufman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199836973

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 4995

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Creativity pervades human life. It is the mark of individuality, the vehicle of self-expression, and the engine of progress in every human endeavor. It also raises a wealth of neglected and yet evocative philosophical questions: What is the role of consciousness in the creative process? How does the audience for a work for art influence its creation? How can creativity emerge through childhood pretending? Do great works of literature give us insight into human nature? Can a computer program really be creative? How do we define creativity in the first place? Is it a virtue? What is the difference between creativity in science and art? Can creativity be taught? The new essays that comprise The Philosophy of Creativity take up these and other key questions and, in doing so, illustrate the value of interdisciplinary exchange. Written by leading philosophers and psychologists involved in studying creativity, the essays integrate philosophical insights with empirical research.

Handbook of the Psychology of Science

Author: Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 0826106242

Category: Psychology

Page: 544

View: 5743

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"Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators

The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences

Author: Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic,Sophie von Stumm,Adrian Furnham

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444343113

Category: Psychology

Page: 632

View: 4691

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The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview of recent research, current perspectives, practical applications, and likely future developments in individual differences. Brings together the work of the top global researchers within the area of individual differences, including Philip L. Ackerman, Ian J. Deary, Ed Diener, Robert Hogan, Deniz S. Ones and Dean Keith Simonton Covers methodological, theoretical and paradigm changes in the area of individual differences Individual chapters cover core areas of individual differences including personality and intelligence, biological causes of individual differences, and creativity and emotional intelligence

Civilization

The West and the Rest

Author: Niall Ferguson

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101548029

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 2153

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From the bestselling author of The Ascent of Money and The Square and the Tower Western civilization’s rise to global dominance is the single most important historical phenomenon of the past five centuries. How did the West overtake its Eastern rivals? And has the zenith of Western power now passed? Acclaimed historian Niall Ferguson argues that beginning in the fifteenth century, the West developed six powerful new concepts, or “killer applications”—competition, science, the rule of law, modern medicine, consumerism, and the work ethic—that the Rest lacked, allowing it to surge past all other competitors. Yet now, Ferguson shows how the Rest have downloaded the killer apps the West once monopolized, while the West has literally lost faith in itself. Chronicling the rise and fall of empires alongside clashes (and fusions) of civilizations, Civilization: The West and the Rest recasts world history with force and wit. Boldly argued and teeming with memorable characters, this is Ferguson at his very best.

Black Rednecks & White Liberals

Hope, Mercy, Justice and Autonomy in the American Health Care System

Author: Thomas Sowell

Publisher: Encounter Books

ISBN: 1594032769

Category: Social Science

Page: 250

View: 5107

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This explosive new book challenges many of the long-prevailing assumptions about blacks, about Jews, about Germans, about slavery, and about education. Plainly written, powerfully reasoned, and backed with a startling array of documented facts, Black Rednecks and White Liberals takes on not only the trendy intellectuals of our times but also such historic interpreters of American life as Alexis de Tocqueville and Frederick Law Olmsted. In a series of long essays, this book presents an in-depth look at key beliefs behind many mistaken and dangerous actions, policies, and trends. It presents eye-opening insights into the historical development of the ghetto culture that is today wrongly seen as a unique black identity--a culture cheered on toward self-destruction by white liberals who consider themselves "friends" of blacks. An essay titled "The Real History of Slavery" presents a jolting re-examination of that tragic institution and the narrow and distorted way it is too often seen today. The reasons for the venomous hatred of Jews, and of other groups like them in countries around the world, are explored in an essay that asks, "Are Jews Generic?" Misconceptions of German history in general, and of the Nazi era in particular, are also re-examined. So too are the inspiring achievements and painful tragedies of black education in the United States. "Black Rednecks and White Liberals" is the capstone of decades of outstanding research and writing on racial and cultural issues by Thomas Sowell.

The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning

Author: Keith J. Holyoak, Ph.D.,Robert G. Morrison, Ph.D.

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019993830X

Category: Psychology

Page: 864

View: 1751

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Thinking and reasoning, long the academic province of philosophy, have over the past century emerged as core topics of empirical investigation and theoretical analysis in the modern fields of cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience. Formerly seen as too complicated and amorphous to be included in early textbooks on the science of cognition, the study of thinking and reasoning has since taken off, brancing off in a distinct direction from the field from which it originated. The Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning is a comprehensive and authoritative handbook covering all the core topics of the field of thinking and reasoning. Written by the foremost experts from cognitive psychology, cognitive science, and cognitive neuroscience, individual chapters summarize basic concepts and findings for a major topic, sketch its history, and give a sense of the directions in which research is currently heading. Chapters include introductions to foundational issues and methods of study in the field, as well as treatment of specific types of thinking and reasoning and their application in a broad range of fields including business, education, law, medicine, music, and science. The volume will be of interest to scholars and students working in developmental, social and clinical psychology, philosophy, economics, artificial intelligence, education, and linguistics.

The Wiley Handbook of Genius

Author: Dean Keith Simonton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118367391

Category: Psychology

Page: 680

View: 6017

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With contributions from a multi-disciplinary group of expertcontributors, this is the first handbook to discuss all aspects ofgenius, a topic that endlessly provokes and fascinates. The first handbook to discuss all aspects of genius withcontributions from a multi-disciplinary group of experts Covers the origins, characteristics, careers, and consequencesof genius with a focus on cognitive science, individualdifferences, life-span development, and social context Explores individual genius, creators, leaders, and performersas diverse as Queen Elizabeth I, Simón Bolívar, MohandasGandhi, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Leo Tolstoy, John William Coltrane,Georgia O’Keeffe, and Martha Graham. Utilizes a variety of approaches—from genetics,neuroscience, and longitudinal studies to psychometric tests,interviews, and case studies—to provide a comprehensivetreatment of the subject

In Our Hands

A Plan to Replace the Welfare State

Author: Charles A. Murray

Publisher: Aei Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 214

View: 3998

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Arguing that the current welfare state cannot survive, proposes the elimination of all income transfer programs such as Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, welfare, and corporate subsidies, and the substitution of an annual cash grant of $10,000 for life for all Americans over the age of twenty-one.

First Things

A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Religion and sociology

Page: N.A

View: 1127

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Die Mühle des Hamlet

Ein Essay über Mythos und das Gerüst der Zeit

Author: Giorgio de Santillana,Hertha v. Dechend

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783709193853

Category: Computers

Page: 522

View: 6123

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Die Mühle des Hamlet enthält den Bericht über eine faszinierende Expedition der Autoren durch die Kulturgeschichte der Menschheit. Gestützt auf zahllose Dokumente aus fast aller Welt und eine entsprechend umfangreiche Bibliographie gelingt es den Autoren, überzeugend und detailliert nachzuweisen, daß die großen universellen Mythen - unter denen die Mühle des Hamlet, oder vielmehr die des skandinavischen Amlodhi, nur als das Ende einer langen Kette zu sehen ist - einen gemeinsamen Ursprung haben, der nicht auf der Erde zu finden ist, sondern im Sternenhimmel: Der Mythos ist eine Sprache für die Darstellung, die Überlieferung und die Handhabung eines umfangreichen und komplexen Korpus astronomischer Kenntnisse gewesen und damit - als Sprache der astronomisch berechenbaren und strukturierbaren Zeit - der Ursprung des wissenschaftlichen Denkens. Das Buch läßt die Unhaltbarkeit der gängigen Vorstellung deutlich werden, die Weltbilder unserer Vorfahren ließen sich allein aus den vermeintlichen Inhalten der Mythen ermitteln, als handle es sich dabei um wörtlich zu nehmende Beschreibungen.

Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane

Author: Alfred Wegener

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3867416397

Category:

Page: 144

View: 9567

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Professor Alfred Wegener war Vorstand der Deutschen Seewarte und Dozent für Geophysik an der Hamburgischen Universität. Sein hier wieder aufgelegtes Werk über die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane war bahnbrechend für die Forschung auf diesem Gebiet und ist bis heute unbedingt lesenswert.

Enlightenment Now

The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0698177886

Category: Psychology

Page: 576

View: 3546

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INSTANT NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER A NEW YORK TIMES NOTABLE BOOK OF 2018 ONE OF THE ECONOMIST'S BOOKS OF THE YEAR "My new favorite book of all time." --Bill Gates If you think the world is coming to an end, think again: people are living longer, healthier, freer, and happier lives, and while our problems are formidable, the solutions lie in the Enlightenment ideal of using reason and science. Is the world really falling apart? Is the ideal of progress obsolete? In this elegant assessment of the human condition in the third millennium, cognitive scientist and public intellectual Steven Pinker urges us to step back from the gory headlines and prophecies of doom, which play to our psychological biases. Instead, follow the data: In seventy-five jaw-dropping graphs, Pinker shows that life, health, prosperity, safety, peace, knowledge, and happiness are on the rise, not just in the West, but worldwide. This progress is not the result of some cosmic force. It is a gift of the Enlightenment: the conviction that reason and science can enhance human flourishing. Far from being a naïve hope, the Enlightenment, we now know, has worked. But more than ever, it needs a vigorous defense. The Enlightenment project swims against currents of human nature--tribalism, authoritarianism, demonization, magical thinking--which demagogues are all too willing to exploit. Many commentators, committed to political, religious, or romantic ideologies, fight a rearguard action against it. The result is a corrosive fatalism and a willingness to wreck the precious institutions of liberal democracy and global cooperation. With intellectual depth and literary flair, Enlightenment Now makes the case for reason, science, and humanism: the ideals we need to confront our problems and continue our progress.

Zerbricht der Westen?

Über die gegenwärtige Krise in Europa und Amerika

Author: Heinrich August Winkler

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 340671174X

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 4217

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Der Westen steckt in seiner schwersten Krise. Heinrich August Winkler analysiert die Ursachen und erklärt die Zusammenhänge. Mit seinem glasklar formulierten Buch gibt der berühmte Autor der "Geschichte des Westens" dem Leser einen politischen Kompass in die Hand, der dabei hilft, sich im ebenso verwirrenden wie gefährlichen Krisenbündel unserer Zeit zurechtzufinden. Zerbricht der Westen? Finanzkrise, Flüchtlingsströme, Brexit, autoritäre Regime in der EU und an ihren Grenzen, dazu ein amerikanischer Präsident, der weltweit für tiefe Verunsicherung sorgt – Europa und Amerika haben mit so vielen Herausforderungen gleichzeitig zu kämpfen, dass Endzeitstimmung aufkommt. Gleichsam als "Geschichte auf Widerruf" beschreibt der wohl beste Kenner des Westens Schritt für Schritt die jüngsten Ereignisse – und er spart dabei nicht mit klaren Urteilen über das, was falsch gelaufen ist, was richtig bleibt und was sich dringend ändern muss, wenn der Westen die Krise überwinden will.