Human Factors for Highway Engineers

Author: Ray Fuller,Jorge A. Santos

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080434124

Category: Psychology

Page: 325

View: 7904

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Humans are highly mobile but at a price: over a million people are killed annually on the road, at least 30 times as many are injured, of whom 1 in 10 may be permanently disabled. How can we design a road or highway or transport system so as to provide both a high level of mobility and a high level of safety?For too long, from the perspective of the road user, highway engineers have had to employ their intuitions, personal experiences, shared 'know-how' and a 'wait-and-see' approach in many elements of highway design. Now the science of human behavior can provide both fundamental knowledge and principles to enable matching roadway and transport system design to human strengths, limitations and variability in performance; an understanding of human contributory factors in accidents; and the undertaking of informed safety audits and reviews.-- The first book ever to provide psychological knowledge and insight into human behavior on the road and how this can be integrated into highway engineering-- Discusses the use of human factors to improve road safety-- Demonstrates how highway design can increase safety and reduce risk

Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems

Author: John L. Campbell

Publisher: Transportation Research Board

ISBN: 0309258162

Category: Human engineering

Page: N.A

View: 2861

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"This report completes and updates the first edition of NCHRP Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems (HFG), which was published previously in three collections. The HFG contains guidelines that provide human factors principles and findings for consideration by, and is a resource document for, highway designers, traffic engineers, and other safety practitioners."--Foreword.

The Human Factors of Transport Signs

Author: Candida Castro,Tim Horberry

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203457412

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 8165

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The ubiquitous nature of transport signs on roadways, railways, and in airports can lead to an overload of visual information, yet little research has been done to understand the design and use of such signs from a driver’s perspective. The Human Factors of Transport Signs explores key transport sign research and examines new technologies that are revolutionizing signaling. While concentrating largely on the road environment and general signing issues, the authors also address specific railway and other transport modality topics. International contributors discuss driver psychology and interaction with transport signs as well as the strengths and weaknesses of different types of signs. This text is designed to be an easily-accessible information source for professionals in transportation design, highway engineering, applied psychology, and human factors, as well as for students preparing to enter these fields. Features: Summarizes the main findings about transport signs into an easily-accessible resource Covers transport signs in the road, rail, and aviation fields Reviews new technology in the field, including Variable Message Signs and Intelligent Transport Systems Discusses the main evidence detailing the interaction of transport signs and driver behavior

The Handbook of Highway Engineering

Author: T.F. Fwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420039504

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 888

View: 5014

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Modern highway engineering reflects an integrated view of a road system's entire lifecycle, including any potential environmental impacts, and seeks to develop a sustainable infrastructure through careful planning and active management. This trend is not limited to developed nations, but is recognized across the globe. Edited by renowned authority T.F. Fwa, The Handbook of Highway Engineering provides a comprehensive, up-to-date treatment of all aspects of highway development and engineering. Its three sections range from consideration of socio-economic and environmental factors to design, construction, maintenance, and management. Beginning with financing, access management, environmental impacts, road safety, and noise, the book explores the expanded responsibilities of the modern highway engineer as well as the increasing trend toward privatization of project development and financing. The next section considers technical issues in highway and pavement engineering, including materials, new mechanistic-empirical design approaches, and new closed-form solutions for backcalculation as well as deflection and stress computation in multi-slab systems. Rounding out the discussion, the final section examines construction, management, performance evaluation including nondestructive testing, and a chapter devoted to highway asset management. Featuring contributions from eminent experts representing eight countries on four continents, The Handbook of Highway Engineering supplies all of the tools needed to manage the entire integrated process of modern highway development and engineering.

Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems

Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22 (tutorials 4, 5, 6), 23 (updated), 24, 25, 26 (updated). Collection C

Author: John L. Campbell

Publisher: Transportation Research Board

ISBN: 0309154693

Category: Roads

Page: N.A

View: 5453

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NCHRP report 600 explores human factors principles and findings for consideration by highway designers and traffic engineers. The report is designed to help the nonexpert in human factors to consider more effectively the roadway user's capabilities and limitations in the design and operation of highway facilities.

Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety

Theory, Evidence and Action

Author: Christina Rudin-Brown,Samantha Jamson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439856672

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 467

View: 1332

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Despite being an accepted construct in traffic and transport psychology, the precise nature of behavioural adaptation, including its causes and consequences, has not yet been established within the road safety community. A comprehensive collection of recent literature, Behavioural Adaptation and Road Safety: Theory, Evidence, and Action explores behavioural adaptation in road users. It examines behavioural adaptation within the context of historical and theoretical perspectives, and puts forth tangible—and practical—solutions that can effectively address adverse behavioural adaptation to road safety interventions before it occurs. Edited by Christina Rudin-Brown and Samantha Jamson, with chapters authored by leading road safety experts in driver psychology and behaviour, the book introduces the concept of behavioural adaptation and details its more relevant issues. It reviews the definition of behavioural adaptation that was put forward by the OECD in 1990 and then puts this definition through its paces, identifying where it may be lacking and how it might be improved. This sets the context for the remaining chapters which take the OECD definition as their starting points. The book discusses the various theories and models of behavioural adaptation and more general theories of driver behaviour developed during the last half century. It provides examples of the "evidence" for behavioural adaptation—instances in which behavioural adaptation arose as a consequence of the introduction of safety countermeasures. The book then focuses on the internal, "human" element and considers countermeasures that might be used to limit the development of behavioural adaptation in various road user groups. The book concludes with practical tools and methodologies to address behavioural adaptation in research and design, and to limit the potential negative effects before they happen. Supplying easy-to-understand, accessible solutions that can be implemented early on in a road safety intervention’s design or conception phase, the chapters represent the most extensive compilation of literature relating to behavioural adaptation and its consequences since the 1990 OECD report. The book brings together earlier theories of behavioural adaptation with more recent theories in the area and combines them with practical advice, methods, and tangible solutions that can minimise the potential negative impact of behavioural adaptation on road user safety and address it before it occurs. It is an essential component of any road safety library, and should be of particular relevance to researchers, practitioners, designers, and policymakers who are interested in maximizing safety while at the same time encouraging innovation and excellence in road transport-related design.

Human Factors Guidance for Intelligent Transportation Systems at the Highway-rail Intersection

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Highway-railroad grade crossings

Page: 192

View: 9137

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This document provides guidance recommendations and supporting material to assist designers and implementers of intelligent transportation system (ITS) applications related to highway-rail intersections (HRI). The guidance focuses specifically on roadway user human factors requirements associated with ITS as applied to HRIs. The guidance is intended to be of immediate help to practitioners but also to serve as a resource and impetus toward the development of consensus standards and other more formal guidance or specification. The document has four parts. Part I describes the purpose and scope and provides a human factors conceptualization of the roadway user. Part II provides an overview of ITS applications that have been implemented at HRIs. Part III presents general human factors guidance that cuts across various specific HRI applications, for topics such as message factors, roadside displays, in-vehicle displays, and displays for pedestrians. Part IV presents guidance for specific HRI applications, including train arrival warnings, advance information about the HRI, enforcement and control of vehicles, and light rail transit. Each guidance chapter provides background on the topic, an explicit statement of the major human factors issues, and a set of guidance recommendations (with accompanying rationale for each). This report includes over 130 guidance recommendations.

Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving

Author: Candida Castro

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420055337

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 266

View: 3735

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Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.

Road Engineering for Development, Second Edition

Author: Richard Robinson,Bent Thagesen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780415279482

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 5570

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Developing countries in the tropics have different natural conditions and different institutional and financial situations to industrialized countries. However, most textbooks on highway engineering are based on experience from industrialized countries with temperate climates, and deal only with specific problems. Road Engineering for Development (published as Highway and Traffic Engineering in Developing Countries in its first edition) provides a comprehensive description of the planning, design, construction and maintenance of roads in developing countries. It covers a wide range of technical and non-technical problems that may confront road engineers working in this area. The technical content of the book has been fully updated and current development issues are focused on. Designed as a fundamental text for civil engineering students this book also offers a broad, practical view of the subject for practising engineers. It has been written with the assistance of a number of world-renowned specialist professional engineers with many years experience in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Central America.

Human Factors in Traffic Safety

Author: Robert E. Dewar,Paul L. Olson

Publisher: Lawyers & Judges Publishing

ISBN: 9781933264240

Category: Law

Page: 533

View: 6757

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Introducing readers to the behavior of drivers, this title covers a wide variety of perspectives on human factors, ranging from the design of roads, vehicles, and traffic control devices to emotional and motivational determinants of driver behavior. This new edition has been extensively revised and contains new chapters on driver education and driver distraction.

Using Human Factors Engineering to Improve Patient Safety

Author: N.A

Publisher: Joint Commission on

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 144

View: 4141

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Human factors engineering (HFE) is concerned with understanding human characteristics and how humans interact with the world around them, and applying that knowledge to the design of systems that are safe, efficient and comfortable. This book describes how to use HFE tools and principles to curb preventable errors and minimize patient harm.

Ageing, cognition, and neuroscience. Envejecimiento, cognición y neurociencia

Author: Soledad BALLESTEROS JIMÉNEZ

Publisher: Editorial UNED

ISBN: 8436267613

Category: Psychology

Page: 348

View: 6629

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La ciencia conductual, la ciencia cognitiva y la neurociencia están realizando grandes progresos en la comprensión de los cambios cognitivos que se producen durante el proceso de envejecimiento. Especialistas de distintos campos, tales como la psicología conductual y cognitiva y las neurociencias, que están investigando en un número de áreas diferentes, fueron invitados a participar en este volumen. Estas áreas incluyen el estudio de los mecanismos básicos que explican el declive cognitivo asociado a la edad, los procesos mentales (percepción, atención, memoria, razonamiento y lenguaje), los cambios neurológicos que ocurren a nivel molecular y celular que influyen en el funcionamiento mental durante el ciclo vital, los cambios cerebrales y conductuales asociados a la edad que se producen en las enfermedades neurodegenerativas, tales como la enfermedad de Alzheimer, métodos experimentales y clínicos e intervenciones sociales.

Traffic Safety and Human Behavior

Author: David Shinar

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1786352222

Category: Transportation

Page: 1249

View: 4205

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This comprehensive 2nd edition covers the key issues that relate human behavior to traffic safety. In particular it covers the increasing roles that pedestrians and cyclists have in the traffic system; the role of infotainment in driver distraction; and the increasing role of driver assistance systems in changing the driver-vehicle interaction.

Human Factors Psychology

Author: P.A. Hancock

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080867014

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 452

View: 1382

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This book is a collection of contemporary applications of psychological insights into practical human factors issues. The topics are arranged largely according to an information processing/energetic approach to human behavior. Consideration is also given to human-computer interaction and organizational design.

Geometric Design Projects for Highways

An Introduction

Author: John George Schoon

Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers

ISBN: 9780784404256

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 152

View: 6969

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Provides an overall perspective of how various elements contributing to highway design interact to create a basis for the preliminary route selection and design. This book presents projects from the initial provision of a topographic map and specifications through to the investment and user cost estimates of a particular highway.

ICCTP 2010

Integrated Transportation Systems Green, Intelligent, Reliable

Author: Heng Wei,Yinhai Wang,Jian Rong,Jiancheng Weng

Publisher: ASCE Publications

ISBN: 9780784476055

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 4119

View: 5656

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Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Chinese Transportation Professionals, held in Beijing, China, August 4-8, 2010. Sponsored by North American Chinese Overseas Transportation Association (NACOTA); Beijing University of Technology; Transportation and Development Institute of ASCE; Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation in Developing Countries; National Natural Science foundation of China. This collection of 444 papers focuses on ways meet the needs of urban transportation systems in a capacity that is environmentally sound, socially equitable, and economically viable. In the last two decades, many large cities in China have experienced rapid urban sprawl, which has been resulted in extensive expansion and motorization of the cities. The threat of increasingly unsustainable urban transportation systems has become a focus of attention as the awareness of the unhealthy interaction between a surging demand for transportation services and the environmental impact of such increases. Topics include: comprehensive transportation planning; traffic safety theory and technology; transportation management; operation technology and systems; and public transportation technology and systems. This proceedings will be valuable to everyone in the transportation engineering industry.

Understanding Driving

Applying Cognitive Psychology to a Complex Everyday Task

Author: John A. Groeger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134690975

Category: Psychology

Page: 270

View: 7596

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This book closely examines what is involved in driving. It identifies the aspects of perception, attention, learning, memory, decision making and action control which are drawn upon in order to enable us to drive, and the brain systems involved. It attempts to show how studying tasks such as driving can help to understand how these fundamental aspects of cognition combine to facilitate performance in complex everyday tasks. In doing so it shows how a very broad range of laboratory based findings can be applied, and that through our attempts to apply this knowledge to complex everyday tasks, we gain, in return, a greater understanding of fundamental aspects of human cognition.