Die Entstehung sozialer Normen

ein Integrationsversuch soziologischer, sozialpsychologischer und ökonomischer Erklärungen

Author: Karl-Dieter Opp

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783169446704

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 7404

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Die Entstehung sozialer Normen

Author: Klaus Eichner

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 332288659X

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 6989

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Die Identifizierung einer sozialen Norm in einem Kollektiv über soziales Verhalten - d.h. über das normierte Verhalten bzw. über die Sanktionierung abweichenden Verhaltens - erweist sich, so scheint es, als Sackgasse. Unabhängig davon, ob das, was als Kriterium der ~~essung von sozialen Normen vorgelegt wird, mit der sozialen norm selbst identisch ist oder ob eine soziale Norm mehr ist als das, was das Meßkriterium beschreibt - darauf wird am Ende dieses Kapitels ganz allgemein zurückzu kommen sein - ist das soziale Verhalten offensichtlich kein brauchbarer Indikator für das Vorliegen einer sozialen Norm. Normiertes Verhalten als Normkriterium erweist sich als überflüssige "Verdoppelung" der sozialen Realität: Das, was ohnehin geschieht und ohnehin Gegenstand soziologischer Theo rienprüfung ist, wird nach einem solchen Kriterium zu einer 15 zweiten Realität stilisiert, der normativen. ) Sanktion als Normkriterium ist der problematische Versuch, eine Unterklasse von Normen zum Meßkriterium für Normen an sich zu machen. 2.2. Soziale Normen als "soziale Tatsachen" In der bisherigen Darstellung wurde davon ausgegangen, daß so ziale Normen sich zwar auf Kollektive beziehen, Kriterium des Vorliegens einer sozialen Norm jedoch jeweils das soziale Ver halten von Individuen aus dem Kollektiv sei, (wenn auch etwa in Form sogenannter analytischer kollektiver ~1erkmale, wie etwa Durchschnittsverhalten etc., d.h. durch Verrechnungen in dividueller Daten zu Kennziffern für ein Kollektiv).

Economics and Ethics?

Author: Peter Groenewegen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134825269

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 9438

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In December 1994, social scientists from the fields of economics, philosophy, political science and anthropology attended a workshop to discuss the current state of the economics-ethics nexus by way of examining both past and contemporary practice. The proceedings of this conference presented a wide variety of attitudes and included an examination of economics and ethics: * from an economist's and a philosopher's perspective * in order to assess the contemporary implications of the relationship * in the late 19th century against the background of a long utilitarian tradition This is a set of stimulating reflections by practitioners - including Chen Liew Ten, Bob Coats and Geoffrey Brennan - on the tricky associations between economics and ethics.

How Do You Know?

The Economics of Ordinary Knowledge

Author: Russell Hardin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400830664

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 5289

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How do ordinary people come to know or believe what they do? We need an account of this process to help explain why people act as they do. You might think I am acting irrationally--against my interest or my purpose--until you realize that what you know and what I know differ significantly. My actions, given my knowledge, might make eminently good sense. Of course, this pushes our problem back one stage to assess why someone knows or believes what they do. That is the focus of this book. Russell Hardin supposes that people are not usually going to act knowingly against their interests or other purposes. To try to understand how they have come to their knowledge or beliefs is therefore to be charitable in assessing their rationality. Hardin insists on such a charitable stance in the effort to understand others and their sometimes objectively perverse actions. Hardin presents an essentially economic account of what an individual can come to know and then applies this account to many areas of ordinary life: political participation, religious beliefs, popular knowledge of science, liberalism, culture, extremism, moral beliefs, and institutional knowledge. All of these can be enlightened by the supposition that people are attempting reasonable actions under the severe constraints of acquiring better knowledge when they face demands that far outstretch their possibilities.

Self-leadership in social work

Reflections from practice

Author: Mckitterick, Bill

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447314883

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 216

View: 5904

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This book is a call for confident, skilled and knowledgeable practice in social work. The current managerialist agenda has restricted judgement and the exercise of discretion in the profession, and, more damagingly, has played down the social justice components of social work, as well as the responsibilities for therapeutic and change-orientated interventions. This book explores how, through strong self-leadership, social workers can both explain and demonstrate how social work can achieve positive change. Offering a fresh and innovative view on leadership for social workers, managers of social services and social work students at all levels, the book identifies tactics and strategies to provide leadership both within a team and in senior positions.

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology

Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355074

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 7553

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The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars

Economic Analysis and Moral Philosophy

Author: Daniel M. Hausman,Michael S. McPherson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521558501

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 249

View: 5172

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Understanding moral philosophy can help one to do economics better, and philosophers can learn by drawing on economic insights and analytical tools. This book argues that standard views of rationality lead economists to espouse questionable moral principles, and discusses methods of economic evaluation in terms of welfare and other moral criteria. It also contains a brief discussion of the relevance of social choice and game theory to philosophy. There is a glossary and at the end of each chapter are suggestions for further reading.

Das unbeschriebene Blatt

Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104903905

Category: Social Science

Page: 768

View: 3584

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Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort zur Neuausgabe! Auf John Locke geht die Vorstellung zurück, der Mensch sei ein leeres Blatt, auf dem im Verlauf des Lebens die persönlichen Erfahrungen eingetragen werden. In seinem mittlerweile klassischen Buch »Das unbeschriebene Blatt. Die moderne Leugnung der menschlichen Natur« bezieht Bestseller-Autor Steven Pinker ganz die Gegenposition: Mit Witz, Brillanz und Gelehrsamkeit analysiert er die Geschichte dieser Idee und zeigt, wie falsch sie ist – mit allen kruden Auswirkungen auf Vorstellungen von Sexualität, Rasse, Kindererziehung, Intelligenz usw. Die Rolle der Gene wird systematisch unterschätzt; aber das bedeutet nicht, dass wir ihnen völlig ausgeliefert sind. Pinker zeigt nämlich auch, wie befreiend diese Sichtweise sein kann. Ein unterhaltsames und anschauliches Buch zur Natur des Menschen, ein echter Lesegenuss.

Rational Choice: Theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate

Author: Andreas Diekmann,Klaus Eichner,Peter Schmidt,Thomas Voss

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531908669

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 5262

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In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen. Darüber hinaus dominiert die RC-Theorie mittlerweile zahlreiche Felder der empirischen Forschung. In diesem Band beschreiben namhafte Autoren die umfangreichen theoretischen und empirischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. Ein Schwerpunkt der theoretischen Arbeiten sind Analysen sozialer Normen. Die empirischen Beiträge und Anwendungen behandeln ein breites Spektrum von Themen, u.a. aus der Soziologie des abweichenden Verhaltens, der politischen Soziologie und der Analyse des Terrorismus. Abgerundet werden die Aufsätze durch methodologische Überlegungen. Der Band liefert Studierenden und Forschern eine umfassende Orientierung über wichtige Entwicklungslinien dieses Forschungsprogramms.

Social Administration

Author: Roger A. Lohmann,Nancy Lohmann

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231502613

Category: Social Science

Page: 544

View: 9457

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By making explicit linkages both to social work practice and to the history of management thought, covering the rapidly expanding field of nonprofit studies, and incorporating management approaches from Henri Fayol's principles to Total Quality Management, this pioneering work grounds the practice of social administration in the profession of social work and agency-based practice better than any text presently available. The book also addresses ways in which the strategic vision of social administrators can be used to build humane and lasting welfare institutions, further social justice, and confront oppression. To accomplish this task, the authors blend several perspectives: social administration as management, as a form of social work practice emphasizing professional and community leadership, as decision making influenced by values and ethics and as institution building. Divided into an introduction, an afterword, and twenty-five topical chapters, Social Administration discusses issues of executive and program leadership as well as such environmental concerns as community, social agency, and a range of special topics, including accountability, ethics, contracting, and working with boards.

Theorie sozialer Konflikte

Author: Lewis A. Coser

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783531165820

Category: Social Science

Page: 195

View: 4806

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Lewis A. Coser versucht in diesem Klassiker der modernen Sozialwissenschaften im Anschluß an Georg Simmels berühmter Untersuchung über den "Streit" den Begriff des sozialen Konfliktes zu klären und dessen empirische Anwendungsmöglichkeiten aufzuzeigen. Als eines der wichtigsten Bücher der neueren Konfliktforschung hat es in der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts die in diesem Zusammenhang geführten theoretischen Kontroversen maßgeblich bestimmt und eine Vielzahl von empirischen Untersuchungen angeregt.

Organizing for Collective Action

The Polítical Economies of Associations

Author: David Knoke

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202304120

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 1457

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Organizing for Collective Action investigates the political and economic behaviors of national associations, including trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and public interest groups. It focuses upon the ways that these organizations acquire resources and allocate them to various collective actions, particularly for member services, public relations, and political action. This analysis is structured around three broad theoretical paradigms for collective action: (1) the problem of societal integration which concerns the ways that people are tied to organizations and the ways that organizations connect their members with the larger society; (2) the problem of organizational governance which considers how individuals become unified collectivities capable of acting in a coordinated manner, and (3) the problem of public policy influence which involves interactions among public and private interest groups to formulate the binding decisions under which we all must live.