International Tables for Crystallography, Space-Group Symmetry

Author: Theo Hahn

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 0792365909

Category: Science

Page: 932

View: 1559

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International Tables for Crystallography is the definitive resource and reference work for crystallography and structural science. Each of the eight volumes in the series contains articles and tables of data relevant to crystallographic research and to applications of crystallographic methods in all sciences concerned with the structure and properties of materials. Emphasis is given to symmetry, diffraction methods and techniques of crystal-structure determination, and the physical and chemical properties of crystals. The data are accompanied by discussions of theory, practical explanations and examples, all of which are useful for teaching. Volume A treats crystallographic symmetry in direct or physical space. It contains extensive tabulations and illustrations of the 17 plane groups, the 230 space groups and the 32 crystallographic point groups. Parts 1-5 of the volume present introductory material, including lists of symbols and terms, a guide to the use of the space-group tables, and the determination of space groups. Later parts discuss aspects of symmetry theory, such as crystal lattices and normalizers of space groups. Thoroughly updated and improved, the latest edition of Volume A includes an additional chapter on further properties of lattices.

International Tables for Crystallography: Reciprocal space

Author: Uri Shmueli

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780792365921

Category: Science

Page: 593

View: 8726

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The International Tables for Crystallography are jointly publishednbsp;with the International Union of Crystallography. Each print volume can be purchased individually. In addition the complete set of Vol A-G is available both in print and online (see right hand column). The general purpose of Volume B is to provide the user/reader with competent and useful accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. Several chapters have been revised and updated for the second edition, and five new chapters have been added (see Contents below). After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space.In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications; it concludes with the presentation of a convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. The new additions to this part are treatments of polymer crystallography and of reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and (new for the second edition) neutron diffraction techniques. It is important to note that the simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables of X-ray Crystallography, can now be found in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of Volume B. The volume is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature. International Tables for personal use can be purchased at a discount. Contact Customer Service for further information and to place an order.

Crystal Symmetries

Shubnikov Centennial Papers

Author: B. K. Vainshtein,I. Hargittai

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483299104

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 8796

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Crystal Symmetries is a timely account of the progress in the most diverse fields of crystallography. It presents a broad overview of the theory of symmetry and contains state of the art reports of its modern directions and applications to crystal physics and crystal properties. Geometry takes a special place in this treatise. Structural aspects of phase transitions, correlation of structure and properties, polytypism, modulated structures, and other topics are discussed. Applications of important techniques, such as X-ray crystallography, biophysical studies, EPR spectroscopy, crystal optics, and nuclear solid state physics, are represented. Contains 30 research and review papers.

Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560476

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 6856

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This highly readable, popular textbook for upper undergraduates and graduates comprehensively covers the fundamentals of crystallography and symmetry, applying these concepts to a large range of materials. New to this edition are more streamlined coverage of crystallography, additional coverage of magnetic point group symmetry and updated material on extraterrestrial minerals and rocks. New exercises at the end of chapters, plus over 500 additional exercises available online, allow students to check their understanding of key concepts and put into practice what they have learnt. Over 400 illustrations within the text help students visualise crystal structures and more abstract mathematical objects, supporting more difficult topics like point group symmetries. Historical and biographical sections add colour and interest by giving an insight into those who have contributed significantly to the field. Supplementary online material includes password-protected solutions, over 100 crystal structure data files, and Powerpoints of figures from the book.

Symmetry and Physical Properties of Crystals

Author: Cécile Malgrange,Christian Ricolleau,Michel Schlenker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401789932

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 3649

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Crystals are everywhere, from natural crystals (minerals) through the semiconductors and magnetic materials in electronic devices and computers or piezoelectric resonators at the heart of our quartz watches to electro-optical devices. Understanding them in depth is essential both for pure research and for their applications. This book provides a clear, thorough presentation of their symmetry, both at the microscopic space-group level and the macroscopic point-group level. The implications of the symmetry of crystals for their physical properties are then presented, together with their mathematical description in terms of tensors. The conditions on the symmetry of a crystal for a given property to exist then become clear, as does the symmetry of the property. The geometrical representation of tensor quantities or properties is presented, and its use in determining important relationships emphasized. An original feature of this book is that most chapters include exercises with complete solutions. This allows readers to test and improve their understanding of the material. The intended readership includes undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and materials-related aspects of electrical and optical engineering; researchers involved in the investigation of the physical properties of crystals and the design of applications based on crystal properties such as piezoelectricity, electro-optics, optical activity and all those involved in the characterization of the structural properties of materials.

Structure Determination by X-ray Crystallography

Analysis by X-rays and Neutrons

Author: Mark Ladd,Rex Palmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146143954X

Category: Science

Page: 756

View: 7498

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The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.

Symmetry and Structure

Readable Group Theory for Chemists

Author: Sidney F. A. Kettle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470516188

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 7787

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Building on the foundation of the Second Edition, Symmetry and Structure: Readable Group Theory for Chemists, Third Edition turns the complex and potentially difficult subject of group theory into an accessible and readable account of this core area of chemistry. By using a diagrammatical approach and demonstrating the physical principles involved in understanding group theory, the text provides a non-mathematical, yet thorough, treatment of this broad topic. This new edition has been fully revised and updated to include a much more three-dimensional and accurate visualization of many of the key topics. The chapter on octahedral molecules is extended to cover the important topic of the ligand field theory of octahedral transition metal complexes. Problems and summaries are included at the end of each chapter, the book provides detailed answers to frequently asked questions, and numerous diagrams and tables are featured for ease of reading and to enhance student understanding. Symmetry and Structure: Readable Group Theory for Chemists, Third Edition is an essential textbook for all students, researchers and lecturers in chemistry, biochemistry, chemical engineering, physics and material science.

International Tables for Crystallography, Reciprocal Space

Author: Uri Shmueli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402082054

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 7533

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International Tables for Crystallography are no longer available for purchase from Springer. For further information please contact Wiley Inc. (follow the link on the right hand side of this page). Volume B presents accounts of the numerous aspects of reciprocal space in crystallographic research. After an introductory chapter, Part 1 presents the reader with an account of structure-factor formalisms, an extensive treatment of the theory, algorithms and crystallographic applications of Fourier methods, and fundamental as well as advanced treatments of symmetry in reciprocal space. In Part 2, these general accounts are followed by detailed expositions of crystallographic statistics, the theory of direct methods, Patterson techniques, isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering, and treatments of the role of electron microscopy and diffraction in crystal structure determination, including applications of direct methods to electron crystallography. Part 3 deals with applications of reciprocal space to molecular geometry and `best'-plane calculations, and contains a treatment of the principles of molecular graphics and modelling and their applications. A convergence-acceleration method of importance in the computation of approximate lattice sums is presented and the part concludes with a discussion of the Ewald method. Part 4 contains treatments of various diffuse-scattering phenomena arising from crystal dynamics, disorder and low dimensionality (liquid crystals), and an exposition of the underlying theories and/or experimental evidence. Polymer crystallography and reciprocal-space images of aperiodic crystals are also treated. Part 5 of the volume contains introductory treatments of the theory of the interaction of radiation with matter (dynamical theory) as applied to X-ray, electron and neutron diffraction techniques. The simplified trigonometric expressions for the structure factors in the 230 three-dimensional space groups, which appeared in Volume I of International Tables for X-ray Crystallography, are now given in Appendix 1.4.3 to Chapter 1.4 of this volume. Volume B is a vital addition to the library of scientists engaged in crystal structure determination, crystallographic computing, crystal physics and other fields of crystallographic research. Graduate students specializing in crystallography will find much material suitable for self-study and a rich source of references to the relevant literature.

International tables for crystallography

Brief teaching edition of volume A, Space-group symmetry

Author: Theo Hahn

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub

ISBN: 9780792342526

Category: Science

Page: 154

View: 5531

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The Fourth revised and enlarged Teaching Edition is based on the Fourth revised and corrected Edition (1996) of Volume A of International Tables for Crystallography, and has its own special subject index. The work comprises the 17 plane groups (two-dimensional space groups), 24 selected space groups and those basic text sections of Volume A which are necessary for the understanding of the space-group examples, for the determination of space groups, and for the transformations between the various space-group descriptions. The new edition contains new diagrams for all plane groups and space groups and includes space group No. 64 (Cmca) as an example of a space group with the double' glide plane e. The Teaching Edition serves a threefold purpose: it should provide a handy tool for researchers and students to familiarize themselves with the use of the space-group tables in Volume A; it is designed for use in classroom teaching; and it can serve as a laboratory handbook, since the 24 examples chosen include most of the frequently occurring space groups for both organic and inorganic crystals.

X-Ray Diffraction by Disordered Lamellar Structures

Theory and Applications to Microdivided Silicates and Carbons

Author: Victor A. Drits,Cyril Tchoubar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642748023

Category: Science

Page: 371

View: 2202

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New methods for the determination of the nature, proportion, and distribution of structural defects in microcrystallized lamellar systems are of utmost importance not only to experimentalists but also to theoreticians. Mathematical formalism - indispensable for such analyses - is well-illustrated by various examples, allowing this method to be easily adopted and even to be applied to other solids with lamellar or pseudo-lamellar structures.

Computational Chemistry of Solid State Materials

A Guide for Materials Scientists, Chemists, Physicists and others

Author: Richard Dronskowski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527612297

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 7615

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This is the first book to present both classical and quantum-chemical approaches to computational methods, incorporating the many new developments in this field from the last few years. Written especially for "non"-theoretical readers in a readily comprehensible and implemental style, it includes numerous practical examples of varying degrees of difficulty. Similarly, the use of mathematical equations is reduced to a minimum, focusing only on those important for experimentalists. Backed by many extensive tables containing detailed data for direct use in the calculations, this is the ideal companion for all those wishing to improve their work in solid state research.

Introduction to Crystal Growth and Characterization

Author: Klaus-Werner Benz,Wolfgang Neumann

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527684344

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 438

View: 9329

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This new textbook provides for the first time a comprehensive treatment of the basics of contemporary crystallography and crystal growth in a single volume. The reader will be familiarized with the concepts for the description of morphological and structural symmetry of crystals. The architecture of crystal structures of selected inorganic and molecular crystals is illustrated. The main crystallographic databases as data sources of crystal structures are described. Nucleation processes, their kinetics and main growth mechanism will be introduced in fundamentals of crystal growth. Some phase diagrams in the solid and liquid phases in correlation with the segregation of dopants are treated on a macro- and microscale. Fluid dynamic aspects with different types of convection in melts and solutions are discussed. Various growth techniques for semiconducting materials in connection with the use of external field (magnetic fields and microgravity) are described. Crystal characterization as the overall assessment of the grown crystal is treated in detail with respect to - crystal defects - crystal quality - field of application Introduction to Crystal Growth and Characterization is an ideal textbook written in a form readily accessible to undergraduate and graduate students of crystallography, physics, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It is also a valuable resource for all scientists concerned with crystal growth and materials engineering.

Reaching Students

What Research Says about Effective Instruction in Undergraduate Science and Engineering

Author: Linda Kober,Board on Science Education,Nancy Kober,National Research Council,Division on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academy Press

ISBN: 9780309300438

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 7613

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The undergraduate years are a turning point in producing scientifically literate citizens and future scientists and engineers. Evidence from research about how students learn science and engineering shows that teaching strategies that motivate and engage students will improve their learning. So how do students best learn science and engineering? Are there ways of thinking that hinder or help their learning process? Which teaching strategies are most effective in developing their knowledge and skills? And how can practitioners apply these strategies to their own courses or suggest new approaches within their departments or institutions? "Reaching Students" strives to answer these questions. "Reaching Students" presents the best thinking to date on teaching and learning undergraduate science and engineering. Focusing on the disciplines of astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and physics, this book is an introduction to strategies to try in your classroom or institution. Concrete examples and case studies illustrate how experienced instructors and leaders have applied evidence-based approaches to address student needs, encouraged the use of effective techniques within a department or an institution, and addressed the challenges that arose along the way. The research-based strategies in "Reaching Students" can be adopted or adapted by instructors and leaders in all types of public or private higher education institutions. They are designed to work in introductory and upper-level courses, small and large classes, lectures and labs, and courses for majors and non-majors. And these approaches are feasible for practitioners of all experience levels who are open to incorporating ideas from research and reflecting on their teaching practices. This book is an essential resource for enriching instruction and better educating students.

Observations and Predictions of Eclipse Times by Early Astronomers

Author: J.M. Steele

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401595283

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 1650

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Eclipses have long been seen as important celestial phenomena, whether as omens affecting the future of kingdoms, or as useful astronomical events to help in deriving essential parameters for theories of the motion of the moon and sun. This is the first book to collect together all presently known records of timed eclipse observations and predictions from antiquity to the time of the invention of the telescope. In addition to cataloguing and assessing the accuracy of the various records, which come from regions as diverse as Ancient Mesopotamia, China, and Europe, the sources in which they are found are described in detail. Related questions such as what type of clocks were used to time the observations, how the eclipse predictions were made, and how these prediction schemes were derived from the available observations are also considered. The results of this investigation have important consequences for how we understand the relationship between observation and theory in early science and the role of astronomy in early cultures, and will be of interest to historians of science, astronomers, and ancient and medieval historians.

Crystal Structure Determination

Author: Werner Massa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662042487

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 5070

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A concise introduction to modern crystal structure determination, emphasizing both the crystallographic background and the successive practical steps. In the theoretical sections, more importance is attached to a good understanding, than to a rigorous mathematical treatment. The most important measuring techniques, including the use of modern area detectors, and the methods of data reduction, structure solution and refinement are discussed from a practical point of view. Special emphasis is put on the ability to recognize and avoid possible errors and traps, and to judge the quality of results.

Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications, Second Edition

Author: Maureen M. Julian

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466552921

Category: Science

Page: 680

View: 8323

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Taking a straightforward, logical approach that emphasizes symmetry and crystal relationships, Foundations of Crystallography with Computer Applications, Second Edition provides a thorough explanation of the topic for students studying the solid state in chemistry, physics, materials science, geological sciences, and engineering. It is also written for scientists who want to teach themselves. Computers are an essential part of crystallography, and computer-based exercises are integrated into this book. The material is presented with the goal of creating an understanding of how atoms are arranged in crystals and how crystal systems are related to each other. See What’s New in the Second Edition: Eight new chapters that give detailed crystallographic analyses of one crystal chosen for each crystal system Numerous molecular examples and suggestions for student projects Coverage of special topics that naturally arise in the treatment of the crystals Suggestions for student projects with date that can be found in the free Teaching Subset of the Cambridge Structural Database Point group and space group diagrams have been color coded using a new scheme devised by the author to emphasize the change of handedness of the symmetry operations All the Starter Programs have been rewritten and improved, and a new one has been added in Chapter 6 on the graphing of intensity vs. 2θ for powder diffraction data New appendices contain detailed information about the 32 three-dimensional point groups and the 10 two-dimensional point groups The book explains the individual entities, such as symmetry operations, and also explains how they fit together in a larger context. Coverage includes lattices, symmetry operations, metric matrices, point groups, space groups, reciprocal lattices, properties of x-rays, and electron density maps, all leading to a formal description of the crystal structures and an interpretation of the published crystallographic data. The author connects general properties such as the piezoelectric effect, compressibility, thermal expansion, and Mosely’s relationship in ordering the elements of the periodic table giving students a thorough foundation in the subject.

X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography

Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems

Author: Yoshio Waseda,Eiichiro Matsubara,Kozo Shinoda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642166358

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 5971

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X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.