International Trade and Economic Relations in a Nutshell

Author: Ralph Folsom,Michael Gordon,Michael Van Alstine

Publisher: West Academic Publishing

ISBN: 9781634599108

Category: Commercial treaties

Page: 437

View: 2888

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This Nutshell examines the legal rules governing international trade and economic relations. After initial chapters on the legal and practical environment for trade enterprises, it analyzes the principal institutions and rules governing international trade. Special attention is paid to the World Trade Organization (WTO), the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the WTO Dispute Settlement Body, regulation of imports (including tariff rates, customs classification and valuation, and rules of origin), and trade remedy responses to import competition. Export controls, foreign corrupt practices, preferential trade agreements, and the trade law of the European Union and the North American Free Trade Agreement are also examined. U.S. law coverage is emphasized.

Global Trade and Conflicting National Interests

Author: Ralph E. Gomory,William J. Baumol

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026235134X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 215

View: 9807

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Ralph Gomory and William Baumol adapt classical trade models to the modern world economy.In this book Ralph Gomory and William Baumol adapt classical trade models to the modern world economy. Trade today is dominated by manufactured goods, rapidly moving technology, and huge firms that benefit from economies of scale. This is very different from the largely agricultural world in which the classical theories originated. Gomory and Baumol show that the new and significant conflicts resulting from international trade are inherent in modern economies.Today improvement in one country's productive capabilities is often attainable only at the expense of another country's general welfare. The authors describe why and when this is so and why, in a modern free-trade environment, a country might have a vital stake in the competitive strength of its industries.

Losing the Global Development War

A Contemporary Critique of the IMF, the World Bank, and the WTO

Author: John Warren Head

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004161880

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 2068

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This book offers a new perspective in examining the key global economic organizations - the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank (and its regional counterparts), and the World Trade Organization. Aimed at ordinary informed readers, the text draws upon the author's many years of familiarity with these organizations to evaluate them from a legal and policy perspective, touching on issues of "mission creep," "democracy deficit," and more. The book depicts such issues as the central struggles in a "Global Development War" that is now being lost because of certain ideological and institutional failings that currently afflict the global institutions. That war can be won, the author asserts, only by adopting an ideology of liberal, intelligent, participatory, multilateral, and sustainable human development.

International Trade and Developing Countries

Bargaining Coalitions in GATT and WTO

Author: Amrita Narlikar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113436704X

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 8820

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A keen analysis of how and why countries bargain together in groups in world affairs, and why such coalitions are crucial to individual developing nations. It also reveals the effects these negotiating blocs are having on world affairs. Successful coalition building has proven to be a difficult and expensive process. Allies are often not obvious and need to be carefully identified. Large numbers do not necessarily entail a proportionate increase in influence. And the weak have the choice of teaming up against or jumping on the bandwagon with the strong. Even after it has been organised, collective action entails costs of many kinds. This book investigates the relevance and workability of coalitions as instruments of bargaining power for the weak. More specifically, this analyzes the coalition strategies of developing countries at the inter-state level, particularly in the context of international trade. Given the nature of this enquiry, this new study uses theoretical and empirical methods to complement each other. The theoretical approach draws from a plethora of writings: formal theories of clubs and coalitions, theories of domestic political economy and theories of international relations. The empirical analysis of comparable coalitions becomes necessary to assist in this theorising, so the greater part of the book focuses mainly (though not exclusively) on coalitions involving developing countries on the issue-area of trade in services. Through the case-studies of the Uruguay Round and an analytical overview of more recent coalitions, this text fills an important gap in the literature of international political economy and international relations where most GATT/WTO-based coalitions have eluded record. This book will be of great interest to all students of international relations, politics and globalization.

Advanced Introduction to International Intellectual Property

Author: Susy Frankel,Daniel K Gervais

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 178347050X

Category: Law

Page: 144

View: 4189

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Elgar Advanced Introductions are stimulating and thoughtful introductions to major fields in the social sciences and law, expertly written by the world’s leading scholars. This authoritative introduction provides a detailed overview of the complexities of the international intellectual property regime and the ways in which it operates. The authors cover the key international institutions and agreements that regulate and inform intellectual property at an international level such as the TRIPS Agreement, WIPO, WTO, the Paris Convention and the Berne Convention. The book serves as a platform to understand and contextualize policy discussions on topics such as public health, Internet regulation, as well as regional and bilateral trade treaties. Key features include: • Accessible and carefully summarized overview of the field • Comprehensive and up-to-date review of all major international intellectual property institutions and instruments • Introduces current issues within international IP negotiations • Provides tools to analyze the history and possible future development of international IP norms. Students, researchers, policy makers and practitioners of intellectual property will find this book to be an invaluable resource in gaining an understanding of the international rules and context in which both domestic and international IP policy issues should be understood.

Foreign Investment Law in a Nutshell

Author: Ralph Folsom

Publisher: West Academic Publishing

ISBN: 9781634602839

Category:

Page: 396

View: 7662

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Foreign investment is commonplace around the globe. Inbound and outbound foreign investment flows are massive as home country investors merge or acquire existing businesses or establish new companies in host countries. Investors purchase stocks and bonds on foreign exchanges, and sometimes foreign sovereign debt. The sums involved are staggering. Unlike international trade law governed significantly by the World Trade Organization, no uniform body of foreign investment law exists. Hence foreign investment law is predominantly national in character and varies considerably. Foreign Investment Law in a Nutshell reviews the law, practice, regulation and dispute settlement of foreign investment. Following the Nutshell tradition, citations are minimized creating a book that reads easily. Students, academics, lawyers, government officials and people in business will find it useful. After introducing entry and operational control patterns found primarily in the developing world, notably expropriation, this Nutshell focuses on investing in China, Europe and North America as "case studies". It also explores the multitude of foreign investment treaties (BITs) and the dynamic law of NAFTA on foreign investment. The controversial foreign investor-host state arbitration systems for disputes established under BITs and NAFTA are closely examined.

Advanced Introduction to International Trade Law

Author: Michael J. Trebilcock

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1783471611

Category: Law

Page: 232

View: 4810

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øThis book presents an accessible yet nuanced introduction to the basic structure and principles of international trade law. It explores the development of the international trade law regime, principally GATT and WTO law, and through clear and concise

Negotiating the World Economy

Author: John S. Odell

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801486463

Category: Political Science

Page: 252

View: 7910

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What goes on when government negotiators bargain over trade frictions? Does their behaviour have significant effects? This author argues that international variations in the process make a substantial difference to the outcomes of international economic issues and that the process can be improved.

China in Africa

Author: Chris Alden

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1848134983

Category: Political Science

Page: 176

View: 8841

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Nowhere in the world is China’s rapid rise to power more evident than in Africa. From multi-billion dollar investments in oil and minerals to the influx of thousands of merchants, labourers and cheap consumer goods, China’s economic and political reach is redefining Africa’s traditional ties with the international community. This book investigates the emerging relationship between China and Africa to determine whether this engagement will be that of a development partner, economic competitor or new hegemon. Alden argues that in order to understand Chinese involvement on the continent, we need to recognize the range of economic, diplomatic and security rationales behind Beijing’s Africa policy as well as the response of African elites to China’s entreaties. Only then can the new challenges and opportunities for Africa and the West be accurately assessed.

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Law, Economics, and Politics

Author: Bernard M. Hoekman,Petros C. Mavroidis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317585488

Category: Political Science

Page: 186

View: 4999

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is one of the most important international organizations in existence today. It contains a set of disciplines that affect the ability of governments to impose trade restrictions, and has helped to support the steady expansion of international trade since the 1950s. The WTO has been the focus of vociferous protests by anti-globalization activists and has experienced great difficulties in agreeing to new trade rules since its establishment. At the same time it has become the premier global forum for the settlement of trade disputes and has proven to provide a robust framework for international cooperation in the trade area. This book separates the facts from the propaganda and provides an accessible overview of the WTO’s history, structure and policies as well as a discussion of the future of the organization. It also confronts the criticisms of the WTO and assesses their validity. New to the second edition: discussion of legislative amendments to the WTO Agreement, in particular Aid for Trade, the Agreement on Trade Facilitation and the Bali Package evaluation of case law developments and major disputes since 2007, including analysis of the WTO and the financial crisis – in particular the trade policy responses of WTO Members and institutional response reflection on recent shifts to mega-regional agreements (TPP, TISA, TTIP) and their implications what next post Bali? Fully updated throughout, this book continues to be essential reading for students of international trade, international political economy, commercial law and international organizations as well as activists and others interested in a balanced account of a key global institution.

International Business Transactions in a Nutshell

Author: Ralph Folsom,Michael Gordon,Michael Ramsey,Michael Van Alstine

Publisher: West Academic Publishing

ISBN: 9781634598934

Category: Commercial law

Page: 497

View: 9836

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This work examines the law and practices relevant to the principal forms of international business and commercial transactions. It includes chapters on negotiating business transactions; the law governing international sales of goods; structuring international sales transactions; financing such transactions, especially through letters of credit; technology transfers; the initiation, operation, and termination of, as well as the limitations imposed on, foreign investments; property takings, including the options for protecting against and remedies for such actions; the extraterritorial regulation of international business; anti-corruption law; and the resolution of international disputes, whether through litigation in domestic court or through international arbitration.

Italy and Albania

Financial Relations in the Fascist Period

Author: Alessandro Roselli

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857713906

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 2313

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The first full and comprehensive examination of the turbulent financial and economic relationship between Italy and Albania in the twentieth century, which throws new light on Italian Fascist imperialism._x000D_ Italy and Albania retraces the complicated foreign and economic strategy that led in 1939 to the “union of the two crowns” of Italy and Albania. Drawing on original research, Roselli shows how Italy’s strategy towards Albania veered between the extremes of a minimum of economic penetration and a maximum of political interference. He shows how, from an Albanian perspective, King Zog’s policy was an impossible balancing act between the conflicting interests of foreign powers. Often presented as a trophy of Fascist foreign policy, the Italian experience in Albania in the interwar period can be regarded as a major economic failure. The huge inflow of Italian capital to Albania – consisting almost entirely of government money – failed not only to set in motion a stable expansion of the Albanian economy but also to produce a return for Italy in terms of the exploitation of the country’s natural resources or its trade with Albania._x000D_ Contemporary observers were impressed by the strength of Albania’s currency, its monetary regime based on the gold standard, and its strong balance of payments. But this was largely window dressing, behind which there was an extremely backward economy that siphoned resources out of Italy, without that country gaining any appreciable advantage. Seen in this light, the events of 1939 –the Italian occupation of Albania and the Union between the two countries – become the inevitable consequence of a state of economic affairs that was unacceptable to Fascist Italy._x000D_ Italy’s involvement in Albania did not end with the defeat of Fascism, as the long international controversy surrounding the gold of the Albanian Central Bank demonstrates. This book makes a major contribution to our understanding of the history of both countries and the make up of Europe today._x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ ‘Roselli devotes his closing chapter to the Bank of England’s custodianship of the gold reserve of the National Bank of Albania. This must be seen as the definitive academic analysis, previous detailed documentation having all been governmental...Roselli’s research furnishes the authoritative history of the ‘international debates which lasted for the entire Cold War period’. To the study of what was arguably the longest-running ‘incident’ of the Cold War, the book is an invaluable contribution.’_x000D_ Michael Kaser, Emeritus Fellow of St Antony’s College, University of Oxford; Honorary Professor, University of Birmingham

Global Value Chains in a Changing World

Author: Deborah Kay Elms,Patrick Low

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789287038821

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 409

View: 6303

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A collection of papers by some of the world's leading specialists on global value chains (GVCs). It examines how GVCs have evolved and the challenges they face in a rapidly changing world. The approach is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from economists, political scientists, supply chain management specialists, practitioners and policy-makers. Co-published with the Fung Global Institute and the Temasek

Economic Diplomacy and the Geography of International Trade

Author: Peter A. G. van Bergeijk

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1781007772

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 223

View: 2819

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The book presents an overview of the general aspects of trade uncertainty, a central element in the analysis of economic diplomacy, illustrating that some instruments, such as sanctions (both positive and negative), increase trade uncertainty, whilst others - multilateral trade policy, for instance - aim to reduce this uncertainty. Commercial policy and bilateral economic diplomacy are explored, and economic sanctions analysed. An extensive review of the literature and empirical investigations of 161 sanctions and the commercial relationships of 37 countries provide topical and empirical perspectives on how international diplomacy may both be a cost and a benefit of the key drivers of productivity growth. Finally, policy conclusions are drawn, and a future research agenda presented.

In Defense of Globalization

With a New Afterword

Author: Jagdish Bhagwati

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199838967

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 344

View: 1988

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In the passionate debate that currently rages over globalization, critics have been heard blaming it for a host of ills afflicting poorer nations, everything from child labor to environmental degradation and cultural homogenization. Now Jagdish Bhagwati, the internationally renowned economist, takes on the critics, revealing that globalization, when properly governed, is in fact the most powerful force for social good in the world today. Drawing on his unparalleled knowledge of international and development economics, Bhagwati explains why the "gotcha" examples of the critics are often not as compelling as they seem. With the wit and wisdom for which he is renowned, Bhagwati convincingly shows that globalization is part of the solution, not part of the problem. This edition features a new afterword by the author, in which he counters recent writings by prominent journalist Thomas Friedman and the Nobel Laureate economist Paul Samuelson and argues that current anxieties about the economic implications of globalization are just as unfounded as were the concerns about its social effects.

Globalization, Trade and Poverty in Ghana

Author: Charles Ackah,Ernest Aryeetey

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 9988647360

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 8294

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The persistence of poverty in many developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the face of increased globalisation and rapid trade liberalisation during the past two decades has inspired considerable debate on the impact of globalisation, in general, and trade liberalisation, in particular, on poverty. In Ghana, as in many other African countries, poverty remains the fundamental problem confronting policy makers in the new millennium as highlighted in the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. Yet, between 1991 and 2006, the headcount index of poverty fell by 23.2 percentage points with the proportion of the population living below the national poverty line falling from 51.7% in 1991/92 to 28.5% in 2005/06. Poverty had fallen in the countryside as well as in the towns, though progress had been more rapid in rural areas. This optimism is, however, tempered by the fact that while poverty declined, inequality increased significantly during the same period. Large reductions in the incidence of poverty have occurred among private sector employees in both the formal and informal sectors, and among public sector wage employees, but export farmers have experienced the largest reduction in consumption poverty. Poverty reduction among the large numbers of food crop farmers, on the other hand, has been modest. Reductions in the incidence of poverty over the period have been smaller also for the non-farm self employed and informal sector wage employees. A recent publication by the World Bank suggests that had there been no change in inequality, the reduction in poverty would have reached 27.5 percentage points, so that Ghana would have achieved the Millenium Development Goal (MDG) target of reducing poverty by half in relation to its level of 1991/92. This book is one response to the challenge posed by the paucity of recent empirical evidence on the poverty and distributional impacts of trade policy reform in Ghana. The main objective of the study is to contribute to our understanding of the poverty and distributional impact of trade policy reform in Ghana by analyzing how trade liberalisation affects the well-being of households and in particular, if the outcome it generates is pro-poor, with particular interest in the gender-differentiated impact.

Understanding NAFTA

Mexico, Free Trade, and the New North America

Author: William A. Orme

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9780292760462

Category: Political Science

Page: 335

View: 9704

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"Very readable book written during height of NAFTA debate. Remains a valuable resource for discussing impact of the trade agreement in Mexico and US"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.

A World in Disarray

American Foreign Policy and the Crisis of the Old Order

Author: Richard Haass

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0399562370

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 507

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"A valuable primer on foreign policy: a primer that concerned citizens of all political persuasions—not to mention the president and his advisers—could benefit from reading." —The New York Times An examination of a world increasingly defined by disorder and a United States unable to shape the world in its image, from the president of the Council on Foreign Relations Things fall apart; the center cannot hold. The rules, policies, and institutions that have guided the world since World War II have largely run their course. Respect for sovereignty alone cannot uphold order in an age defined by global challenges from terrorism and the spread of nuclear weapons to climate change and cyberspace. Meanwhile, great power rivalry is returning. Weak states pose problems just as confounding as strong ones. The United States remains the world’s strongest country, but American foreign policy has at times made matters worse, both by what the U.S. has done and by what it has failed to do. The Middle East is in chaos, Asia is threatened by China’s rise and a reckless North Korea, and Europe, for decades the world’s most stable region, is now anything but. As Richard Haass explains, the election of Donald Trump and the unexpected vote for “Brexit” signals that many in modern democracies reject important aspects of globalization, including borders open to trade and immigrants. In A World in Disarray, Haass argues for an updated global operating system—call it world order 2.0—that reflects the reality that power is widely distributed and that borders count for less. One critical element of this adjustment will be adopting a new approach to sovereignty, one that embraces its obligations and responsibilities as well as its rights and protections. Haass also details how the U.S. should act towards China and Russia, as well as in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. He suggests, too, what the country should do to address its dysfunctional politics, mounting debt, and the lack of agreement on the nature of its relationship with the world. A World in Disarray is a wise examination, one rich in history, of the current world, along with how we got here and what needs doing. Haass shows that the world cannot have stability or prosperity without the United States, but that the United States cannot be a force for global stability and prosperity without its politicians and citizens reaching a new understanding.