Introduction to Reliable and Secure Distributed Programming

Author: Christian Cachin,Rachid Guerraoui,Luís Rodrigues

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642152603

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 6497

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In modern computing a program is usually distributed among several processes. The fundamental challenge when developing reliable and secure distributed programs is to support the cooperation of processes required to execute a common task, even when some of these processes fail. Failures may range from crashes to adversarial attacks by malicious processes. Cachin, Guerraoui, and Rodrigues present an introductory description of fundamental distributed programming abstractions together with algorithms to implement them in distributed systems, where processes are subject to crashes and malicious attacks. The authors follow an incremental approach by first introducing basic abstractions in simple distributed environments, before moving to more sophisticated abstractions and more challenging environments. Each core chapter is devoted to one topic, covering reliable broadcast, shared memory, consensus, and extensions of consensus. For every topic, many exercises and their solutions enhance the understanding This book represents the second edition of "Introduction to Reliable Distributed Programming". Its scope has been extended to include security against malicious actions by non-cooperating processes. This important domain has become widely known under the name "Byzantine fault-tolerance".

Introduction to Reliable and Secure Distributed Programming

Author: Christian Cachin,Rachid Guerraoui,Luís Rodrigues

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642423277

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 6540

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In modern computing a program is usually distributed among several processes. The fundamental challenge when developing reliable and secure distributed programs is to support the cooperation of processes required to execute a common task, even when some of these processes fail. Failures may range from crashes to adversarial attacks by malicious processes. Cachin, Guerraoui, and Rodrigues present an introductory description of fundamental distributed programming abstractions together with algorithms to implement them in distributed systems, where processes are subject to crashes and malicious attacks. The authors follow an incremental approach by first introducing basic abstractions in simple distributed environments, before moving to more sophisticated abstractions and more challenging environments. Each core chapter is devoted to one topic, covering reliable broadcast, shared memory, consensus, and extensions of consensus. For every topic, many exercises and their solutions enhance the understanding This book represents the second edition of "Introduction to Reliable Distributed Programming". Its scope has been extended to include security against malicious actions by non-cooperating processes. This important domain has become widely known under the name "Byzantine fault-tolerance".

Introduction to Reliable Distributed Programming

Author: Rachid Guerraoui,Luís Rodrigues

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540288465

Category: Computers

Page: 300

View: 9710

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In modern computing a program is usually distributed among several processes. The fundamental challenge when developing reliable distributed programs is to support the cooperation of processes required to execute a common task, even when some of these processes fail. Guerraoui and Rodrigues present an introductory description of fundamental reliable distributed programming abstractions as well as algorithms to implement these abstractions. The authors follow an incremental approach by first introducing basic abstractions in simple distributed environments, before moving to more sophisticated abstractions and more challenging environments. Each core chapter is devoted to one specific class of abstractions, covering reliable delivery, shared memory, consensus and various forms of agreement. This textbook comes with a companion set of running examples implemented in Java. These can be used by students to get a better understanding of how reliable distributed programming abstractions can be implemented and used in practice. Combined, the chapters deliver a full course on reliable distributed programming. The book can also be used as a complete reference on the basic elements required to build reliable distributed applications.

Distributed Algorithms for Message-Passing Systems

Author: Michel Raynal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642381235

Category: Computers

Page: 500

View: 4981

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Distributed computing is at the heart of many applications. It arises as soon as one has to solve a problem in terms of entities -- such as processes, peers, processors, nodes, or agents -- that individually have only a partial knowledge of the many input parameters associated with the problem. In particular each entity cooperating towards the common goal cannot have an instantaneous knowledge of the current state of the other entities. Whereas parallel computing is mainly concerned with 'efficiency', and real-time computing is mainly concerned with 'on-time computing', distributed computing is mainly concerned with 'mastering uncertainty' created by issues such as the multiplicity of control flows, asynchronous communication, unstable behaviors, mobility, and dynamicity. While some distributed algorithms consist of a few lines only, their behavior can be difficult to understand and their properties hard to state and prove. The aim of this book is to present in a comprehensive way the basic notions, concepts, and algorithms of distributed computing when the distributed entities cooperate by sending and receiving messages on top of an asynchronous network. The book is composed of seventeen chapters structured into six parts: distributed graph algorithms, in particular what makes them different from sequential or parallel algorithms; logical time and global states, the core of the book; mutual exclusion and resource allocation; high-level communication abstractions; distributed detection of properties; and distributed shared memory. The author establishes clear objectives per chapter and the content is supported throughout with illustrative examples, summaries, exercises, and annotated bibliographies. This book constitutes an introduction to distributed computing and is suitable for advanced undergraduate students or graduate students in computer science and computer engineering, graduate students in mathematics interested in distributed computing, and practitioners and engineers involved in the design and implementation of distributed applications. The reader should have a basic knowledge of algorithms and operating systems.

Guide to Reliable Distributed Systems

Building High-Assurance Applications and Cloud-Hosted Services

Author: Amy Elser

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447124154

Category: Computers

Page: 730

View: 1240

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This book describes the key concepts, principles and implementation options for creating high-assurance cloud computing solutions. The guide starts with a broad technical overview and basic introduction to cloud computing, looking at the overall architecture of the cloud, client systems, the modern Internet and cloud computing data centers. It then delves into the core challenges of showing how reliability and fault-tolerance can be abstracted, how the resulting questions can be solved, and how the solutions can be leveraged to create a wide range of practical cloud applications. The author’s style is practical, and the guide should be readily understandable without any special background. Concrete examples are often drawn from real-world settings to illustrate key insights. Appendices show how the most important reliability models can be formalized, describe the API of the Isis2 platform, and offer more than 80 problems at varying levels of difficulty.

Programming Distributed Computing Systems

A Foundational Approach

Author: Carlos A. Varela,Gul Agha

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262313367

Category: Computers

Page: 296

View: 7796

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Starting from the premise that understanding the foundations of concurrent programming is key to developing distributed computing systems, this book first presents the fundamental theories of concurrent computing and then introduces the programming languages that help develop distributed computing systems at a high level of abstraction. The major theories of concurrent computation -- including the p-calculus, the actor model, the join calculus, and mobile ambients -- are explained with a focus on how they help design and reason about distributed and mobile computing systems. The book then presents programming languages that follow the theoretical models already described, including Pict, SALSA, and JoCaml. The parallel structure of the chapters in both part one (theory) and part two (practice) enable the reader not only to compare the different theories but also to see clearly how a programming language supports a theoretical model. The book is unique in bridging the gap between the theory and the practice of programming distributed computing systems. It can be used as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in computer science or as a reference for researchers in the area of programming technology for distributed computing. By presenting theory first, the book allows readers to focus on the essential components of concurrency, distribution, and mobility without getting bogged down in syntactic details of specific programming languages. Once the theory is understood, the practical part of implementing a system in an actual programming language becomes much easier.

Introduction to Distributed Algorithms

Author: Gerard Tel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521794831

Category: Computers

Page: 596

View: 2251

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Distributed algorithms have been the subject of intense development over the last twenty years. The second edition of this successful textbook provides an up-to-date introduction both to the topic, and to the theory behind the algorithms. The clear presentation makes the book suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses, whilst the coverage is sufficiently deep to make it useful for practising engineers and researchers. The author concentrates on algorithms for the point-to-point message passing model, and includes algorithms for the implementation of computer communication networks. Other key areas discussed are algorithms for the control of distributed applications (wave, broadcast, election, termination detection, randomized algorithms for anonymous networks, snapshots, deadlock detection, synchronous systems), and fault-tolerance achievable by distributed algorithms. The two new chapters on sense of direction and failure detectors are state-of-the-art and will provide an entry to research in these still-developing topics.

Distributed Computing

Fundamentals, Simulations, and Advanced Topics

Author: Hagit Attiya,Jennifer Welch

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471453246

Category: Computers

Page: 414

View: 9235

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The explosive growth of distributed computing systems makes understanding them imperative. To make this notoriously difficult subject accessible, 'Distributed Computing; Fundamentals, Simulations, and Advanced Topics; Second Edition', provides a solid introduction to the mathematical foundations and theory of distributed computing, highlighting common themes and basic techniques. The authors present the fundamental issues underlying the design of distributed systems - communication, coordination, synchronization, and uncertainty - as well as fundamental algorithmic concepts and lower-bound techniques. The book’s unifying approach emphasizes the similarities between different models and explains inherent discrepancies between them.

Distributed Algorithms

Author: Nancy A. Lynch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080504704

Category: Computers

Page: 904

View: 8401

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In Distributed Algorithms, Nancy Lynch provides a blueprint for designing, implementing, and analyzing distributed algorithms. She directs her book at a wide audience, including students, programmers, system designers, and researchers. Distributed Algorithms contains the most significant algorithms and impossibility results in the area, all in a simple automata-theoretic setting. The algorithms are proved correct, and their complexity is analyzed according to precisely defined complexity measures. The problems covered include resource allocation, communication, consensus among distributed processes, data consistency, deadlock detection, leader election, global snapshots, and many others. The material is organized according to the system model—first by the timing model and then by the interprocess communication mechanism. The material on system models is isolated in separate chapters for easy reference. The presentation is completely rigorous, yet is intuitive enough for immediate comprehension. This book familiarizes readers with important problems, algorithms, and impossibility results in the area: readers can then recognize the problems when they arise in practice, apply the algorithms to solve them, and use the impossibility results to determine whether problems are unsolvable. The book also provides readers with the basic mathematical tools for designing new algorithms and proving new impossibility results. In addition, it teaches readers how to reason carefully about distributed algorithms—to model them formally, devise precise specifications for their required behavior, prove their correctness, and evaluate their performance with realistic measures.

Elements of Distributed Computing

Author: Vijay K. Garg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471036005

Category: Computers

Page: 423

View: 7172

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A lucid and up-to-date introduction to the fundamentals of distributed computing systems As distributed systems become increasingly available, the need for a fundamental discussion of the subject has grown. Designed for first-year graduate students and advanced undergraduates as well as practicing computer engineers seeking a solid grounding in the subject, this well-organized text covers the fundamental concepts in distributed computing systems such as time, state, simultaneity, order, knowledge, failure, and agreement in distributed systems. Departing from the focus on shared memory and synchronous systems commonly taken by other texts, this is the first useful reference based on an asynchronous model of distributed computing, the most widely used in academia and industry. The emphasis of the book is on developing general mechanisms that can be applied to a variety of problems. Its examples-clocks, locks, cameras, sensors, controllers, slicers, and synchronizers-have been carefully chosen so that they are fundamental and yet useful in practical contexts. The text's advantages include: Emphasizes general mechanisms that can be applied to a variety of problems Uses a simple induction-based technique to prove correctness of all algorithms Includes a variety of exercises at the end of each chapter Contains material that has been extensively class tested Gives instructor flexibility in choosing appropriate balance between practice and theory of distributed computing

Replication

Theory and Practice

Author: Bernadette Charron-Bost

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642112935

Category: Computers

Page: 290

View: 8354

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Replication is a topic of interest in the distributed computing, distributed systems, and database communities. Although these communities have traditionally looked at replication from different viewpoints and with different goals (e.g., performance versus fault tolerance), recent developments have led to a convergence of these different goals. The objective of this state-of-the-art survey is not to speculate about the future of replication, but rather to understand the present, to make an assessment of approximately 30 years of research on replication, and to present a comprehensive view of the achievements made during this period of time. This book is the outcome of the seminar entitled A 30-Year Perspective on Replication, which was held at Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, in November 2007. The book is organized in 13 self-contained chapters written by most of the people who have contributed to developing state-of-the-art replication techniques. It presents a comprehensive view of existing solutions, from a theoretical as well as from a practical point of view. It covers replication of processes/objects and of databases; replication for fault tolerance and replication for performance - benign faults and malicious (Byzantine) faults - thus forming a basis for both professionals and students of distributed computing, distributed systems, and databases.

Fault-tolerant Agreement in Synchronous Message-passing Systems

Author: Michel Raynal

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608455254

Category: Computers

Page: 167

View: 1204

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The present book focuses on the way to cope with the uncertainty created by process failures (crash, omission failures and Byzantine behavior) in synchronous message-passing systems (i.e., systems whose progress is governed by the passage of time). To that end, the book considers fundamental problems that distributed synchronous processes have to solve. These fundamental problems concern agreement among processes (if processes are unable to agree in one way or another in presence of failures, no non-trivial problem can be solved). They are consensus, interactive consistency, k-set agreement and non-blocking atomic commit. Being able to solve these basic problems efficiently with provable guarantees allows applications designers to give a precise meaning to the words "cooperate" and "agree" despite failures, and write distributed synchronous programs with properties that can be stated and proved. Hence, the aim of the book is to present a comprehensive view of agreement problems, algorithms that solve them and associated computability bounds in synchronous message-passing distributed systems. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Synchronous Model, Failure Models, and Agreement Problems / Consensus and Interactive Consistency in the Crash Failure Model / Expedite Decision in the Crash Failure Model / Simultaneous Consensus Despite Crash Failures / From Consensus to k-Set Agreement / Non-Blocking Atomic Commit in Presence of Crash Failures / k-Set Agreement Despite Omission Failures / Consensus Despite Byzantine Failures / Byzantine Consensus in Enriched Models

Distributed Computing

Principles, Algorithms, and Systems

Author: Ajay D. Kshemkalyani,Mukesh Singhal

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139470315

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 4248

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Designing distributed computing systems is a complex process requiring a solid understanding of the design problems and the theoretical and practical aspects of their solutions. This comprehensive textbook covers the fundamental principles and models underlying the theory, algorithms and systems aspects of distributed computing. Broad and detailed coverage of the theory is balanced with practical systems-related issues such as mutual exclusion, deadlock detection, authentication, and failure recovery. Algorithms are carefully selected, lucidly presented, and described without complex proofs. Simple explanations and illustrations are used to elucidate the algorithms. Important emerging topics such as peer-to-peer networks and network security are also considered. With vital algorithms, numerous illustrations, examples and homework problems, this textbook is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of electrical and computer engineering and computer science. Practitioners in data networking and sensor networks will also find this a valuable resource. Additional resources are available online at www.cambridge.org/9780521876346.

Concurrent Programming: Algorithms, Principles, and Foundations

Author: Michel Raynal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642320279

Category: Computers

Page: 516

View: 1062

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The advent of new architectures and computing platforms means that synchronization and concurrent computing are among the most important topics in computing science. Concurrent programs are made up of cooperating entities -- processors, processes, agents, peers, sensors -- and synchronization is the set of concepts, rules and mechanisms that allow them to coordinate their local computations in order to realize a common task. This book is devoted to the most difficult part of concurrent programming, namely synchronization concepts, techniques and principles when the cooperating entities are asynchronous, communicate through a shared memory, and may experience failures. Synchronization is no longer a set of tricks but, due to research results in recent decades, it relies today on sane scientific foundations as explained in this book. In this book the author explains synchronization and the implementation of concurrent objects, presenting in a uniform and comprehensive way the major theoretical and practical results of the past 30 years. Among the key features of the book are a new look at lock-based synchronization (mutual exclusion, semaphores, monitors, path expressions); an introduction to the atomicity consistency criterion and its properties and a specific chapter on transactional memory; an introduction to mutex-freedom and associated progress conditions such as obstruction-freedom and wait-freedom; a presentation of Lamport's hierarchy of safe, regular and atomic registers and associated wait-free constructions; a description of numerous wait-free constructions of concurrent objects (queues, stacks, weak counters, snapshot objects, renaming objects, etc.); a presentation of the computability power of concurrent objects including the notions of universal construction, consensus number and the associated Herlihy's hierarchy; and a survey of failure detector-based constructions of consensus objects. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in computer science or computer engineering, graduate students in mathematics interested in the foundations of process synchronization, and practitioners and engineers who need to produce correct concurrent software. The reader should have a basic knowledge of algorithms and operating systems.

Quorum Systems

With Applications to Storage and Consensus

Author: Marko Vukolić

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1608456838

Category: Computers

Page: 148

View: 4335

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A quorum system is a collection of subsets of nodes, called quorums, with the property that each pair of quorums have a non-empty intersection. Quorum systems are the key mathematical abstraction for ensuring consistency in fault-tolerant and highly available distributed computing. Critical for many applications since the early days of distributed computing, quorum systems have evolved from simple majorities of a set of processes to complex hierarchical collections of sets, tailored for general adversarial structures. The initial non-empty intersection property has been refined many times to account for, e.g., stronger (Byzantine) adversarial model, latency considerations or better availability. This monograph is an overview of the evolution and refinement of quorum systems, with emphasis on their role in two fundamental applications: distributed read/write storage and consensus.Table of Contents: Introduction / Preliminaries / Classical Quorum Systems / Classical Quorum-Based Emulations / Byzantine Quorum Systems / Latency-efficient Quorum Systems / Probabilistic Quorum Systems

Distributed Systems

An Algorithmic Approach, Second Edition

Author: Sukumar Ghosh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466552980

Category: Computers

Page: 554

View: 3373

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Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach, Second Edition provides a balanced and straightforward treatment of the underlying theory and practical applications of distributed computing. As in the previous version, the language is kept as unobscured as possible—clarity is given priority over mathematical formalism. This easily digestible text: Features significant updates that mirror the phenomenal growth of distributed systems Explores new topics related to peer-to-peer and social networks Includes fresh exercises, examples, and case studies Supplying a solid understanding of the key principles of distributed computing and their relationship to real-world applications, Distributed Systems: An Algorithmic Approach, Second Edition makes both an ideal textbook and a handy professional reference.

Distributed Programming with Ruby

Author: Mark Bates

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional

ISBN: 0321699939

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 4037

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Complete, Hands-On Guide to Building Advanced Distributed Applications with Ruby Distributed programming techniques make applications easier to scale, develop, and deploy—especially in emerging cloud computing environments. Now, one of the Ruby community’s leading experts has written the first definitive guide to distributed programming with Ruby. Mark Bates begins with a simple distributed application, and then walks through an increasingly complex series of examples, demonstrating solutions to the most common distributed programming problems. Bates presents the industry’s most useful coverage of Ruby’s standard distributed programming libraries, DRb and Rinda. Next, he introduces powerful third-party tools, frameworks, and libraries designed to simplify Ruby distributed programming, including his own Distribunaut. If you’re an experienced Ruby programmer or architect, this hands-on tutorial and practical reference will help you meet any distributed programming challenge, no matter how complex. Coverage includes Writing robust, secure, and interactive applications using DRb—and managing its drawbacks Using Rinda to build applications with improved flexibility, fault tolerance, and service discovery Simplifying DRb service management with RingyDingy Utilizing Starfish to facilitate communication between distributed programs and to write MapReduce functions for processin large data sets Using Politics to customize the processes running on individual server instances in a cloud computing environment Providing reliable distributed queuing with the low-overhead Starling messaging server Implementing comprehensive enterprise messaging with RabbitMQ and Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) Offloading heavyweight tasks with BackgrounDRb and DelayedJob

The Art of Multiprocessor Programming

Author: Maurice Herlihy,Nir Shavit

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123973376

Category: Computers

Page: 508

View: 714

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Revised and updated with improvements conceived in parallel programming courses, The Art of Multiprocessor Programming is an authoritative guide to multicore programming. It introduces a higher level set of software development skills than that needed for efficient single-core programming. This book provides comprehensive coverage of the new principles, algorithms, and tools necessary for effective multiprocessor programming. Students and professionals alike will benefit from thorough coverage of key multiprocessor programming issues. This revised edition incorporates much-demanded updates throughout the book, based on feedback and corrections reported from classrooms since 2008 Learn the fundamentals of programming multiple threads accessing shared memory Explore mainstream concurrent data structures and the key elements of their design, as well as synchronization techniques from simple locks to transactional memory systems Visit the companion site and download source code, example Java programs, and materials to support and enhance the learning experience

Distributed and Cloud Computing

From Parallel Processing to the Internet of Things

Author: Kai Hwang,Jack Dongarra,Geoffrey C. Fox

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128002042

Category: Computers

Page: 672

View: 6399

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Distributed and Cloud Computing: From Parallel Processing to the Internet of Things offers complete coverage of modern distributed computing technology including clusters, the grid, service-oriented architecture, massively parallel processors, peer-to-peer networking, and cloud computing. It is the first modern, up-to-date distributed systems textbook; it explains how to create high-performance, scalable, reliable systems, exposing the design principles, architecture, and innovative applications of parallel, distributed, and cloud computing systems. Topics covered by this book include: facilitating management, debugging, migration, and disaster recovery through virtualization; clustered systems for research or ecommerce applications; designing systems as web services; and social networking systems using peer-to-peer computing. The principles of cloud computing are discussed using examples from open-source and commercial applications, along with case studies from the leading distributed computing vendors such as Amazon, Microsoft, and Google. Each chapter includes exercises and further reading, with lecture slides and more available online. This book will be ideal for students taking a distributed systems or distributed computing class, as well as for professional system designers and engineers looking for a reference to the latest distributed technologies including cloud, P2P and grid computing. Complete coverage of modern distributed computing technology including clusters, the grid, service-oriented architecture, massively parallel processors, peer-to-peer networking, and cloud computing Includes case studies from the leading distributed computing vendors: Amazon, Microsoft, Google, and more Explains how to use virtualization to facilitate management, debugging, migration, and disaster recovery Designed for undergraduate or graduate students taking a distributed systems course—each chapter includes exercises and further reading, with lecture slides and more available online

Introduction to Computer Networks and Cybersecurity

Author: Chwan-Hwa (John) Wu,J. David Irwin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466572140

Category: Computers

Page: 1336

View: 1367

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If a network is not secure, how valuable is it? Introduction to Computer Networks and Cybersecurity takes an integrated approach to networking and cybersecurity, highlighting the interconnections so that you quickly understand the complex design issues in modern networks. This full-color book uses a wealth of examples and illustrations to effectively connect the principles of networks and networking protocols with the relevant cybersecurity issues. Get the Fundamentals of Internet Architecture and the Protocol Layers Organized into six parts, the book walks you through the fundamentals, starting with the way most people first encounter computer networks—through the Internet architecture. Part 1 covers the most important Internet applications and the methods used to develop them. Part 2 discusses the network edge, consisting of hosts, access networks, LANs, and the physical media used with the physical and link layers. Part 3 explores the network core, including packet/circuit switches, routers, and the Internet backbone, and Part 4 examines reliable transport and the management of network congestion. Learn about Malware and Security Systems Building on the concepts and principles, the book then delves into state-of-the-art cybersecurity mechanisms in Part 5. It reviews the types of malware and the various security systems, made up of firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and other components. Crucially, it provides a seamless view of an information infrastructure in which security capabilities are built in rather than treated as an add-on feature. The book closes with a look at emerging technologies, including virtualization and data center and cloud computing unified communication. Understand Cyber Attacks—and What You Can Do to Defend against Them This comprehensive text supplies a carefully designed introduction to both the fundamentals of networks and the latest advances in Internet security. Addressing cybersecurity from an Internet perspective, it prepares you to better understand the motivation and methods of cyber attacks and what you can do to protect the networks and the applications that run on them. Pedagogical Features The book’s modular design offers exceptional flexibility, whether you want to use it for quick reference, self-study, or a wide variety of one- or two-semester courses in computer networks, cybersecurity, or a hybrid of both. Learning goals in each chapter show you what you can expect to learn, and end-of-chapter problems and questions test your understanding. Throughout, the book uses real-world examples and extensive illustrations and screen captures to explain complicated concepts simply and clearly. Ancillary materials, including PowerPoint® animations, are available to instructors with qualifying course adoption.