Introduction to Non-Euclidean Geometry


Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483295311

Category: Mathematics

Page: 274

View: 8868

An Introduction to Non-Euclidean Geometry covers some introductory topics related to non-Euclidian geometry, including hyperbolic and elliptic geometries. This book is organized into three parts encompassing eight chapters. The first part provides mathematical proofs of Euclid’s fifth postulate concerning the extent of a straight line and the theory of parallels. The second part describes some problems in hyperbolic geometry, such as cases of parallels with and without a common perpendicular. This part also deals with horocycles and triangle relations. The third part examines single and double elliptic geometries. This book will be of great value to mathematics, liberal arts, and philosophy major students.

Introductory Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: Henry Parker Manning

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486154645

Category: Mathematics

Page: 112

View: 2133

This fine and versatile introduction begins with the theorems common to Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry, and then it addresses the specific differences that constitute elliptic and hyperbolic geometry. 1901 edition.

Introduction to Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: Harold E. Wolfe

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486320375

Category: Mathematics

Page: 272

View: 8832

College-level text for elementary courses covers the fifth postulate, hyperbolic plane geometry and trigonometry, and elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry. Appendixes offer background on Euclidean geometry. Numerous exercises. 1945 edition.

Introduction to Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Arlan Ramsay,Robert D. Richtmyer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475755856

Category: Mathematics

Page: 289

View: 7555

This book is an introduction to hyperbolic and differential geometry that provides material in the early chapters that can serve as a textbook for a standard upper division course on hyperbolic geometry. For that material, the students need to be familiar with calculus and linear algebra and willing to accept one advanced theorem from analysis without proof. The book goes well beyond the standard course in later chapters, and there is enough material for an honors course, or for supplementary reading. Indeed, parts of the book have been used for both kinds of courses. Even some of what is in the early chapters would surely not be nec essary for a standard course. For example, detailed proofs are given of the Jordan Curve Theorem for Polygons and of the decomposability of poly gons into triangles, These proofs are included for the sake of completeness, but the results themselves are so believable that most students should skip the proofs on a first reading. The axioms used are modern in character and more "user friendly" than the traditional ones. The familiar real number system is used as an in gredient rather than appearing as a result of the axioms. However, it should not be thought that the geometric treatment is in terms of models: this is an axiomatic approach that is just more convenient than the traditional ones.

Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: Stefan Kulczycki

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486155013

Category: Mathematics

Page: 208

View: 541

This accessible approach features stereometric and planimetric proofs, and elementary proofs employing only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes the systematic exposition. 1961 edition.

Geometry Illuminated

An Illustrated Introduction to Euclidean and Hyperbolic Plane Geometry

Author: Matthew Harvey

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 1939512115

Category: Mathematics

Page: 560

View: 8845

Geometry Illuminated is an introduction to geometry in the plane, both Euclidean and hyperbolic. It is designed to be used in an undergraduate course on geometry, and as such, its target audience is undergraduate math majors. However, much of it should be readable by anyone who is comfortable with the language of mathematical proof. Throughout, the goal is to develop the material patiently. One of the more appealing aspects of geometry is that it is a very "visual" subject. This book hopes to takes full advantage of that, with an extensive use of illustrations as guides. Geometry Illuminated is divided into four principal parts. Part 1 develops neutral geometry in the style of Hilbert, including a discussion of the construction of measure in that system, ultimately building up to the Saccheri-Legendre Theorem. Part 2 provides a glimpse of classical Euclidean geometry, with an emphasis on concurrence results, such as the nine-point circle. Part 3 studies transformations of the Euclidean plane, beginning with isometries and ending with inversion, with applications and a discussion of area in between. Part 4 is dedicated to the development of the Poincaré disk model, and the study of geometry within that model. While this material is traditional, Geometry Illuminated does bring together topics that are generally not found in a book at this level. Most notably, it explicitly computes parametric equations for the pseudosphere and its geodesics. It focuses less on the nature of axiomatic systems for geometry, but emphasizes rather the logical development of geometry within such a system. It also includes sections dealing with trilinear and barycentric coordinates, theorems that can be proved using inversion, and Euclidean and hyperbolic tilings.

Non-Euclidean Geometry in the Theory of Automorphic Functions

Author: Jacques Hadamard

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821890479

Category: Mathematics

Page: 95

View: 7784

This is the English translation of a volume originally published only in Russian and now out of print. The book was written by Jacques Hadamard on the work of Poincare. Poincare's creation of a theory of automorphic functions in the early 1880s was one of the most significant mathematical achievements of the nineteenth century. It directly inspired the uniformization theorem, led to a class of functions adequate to solve all linear ordinary differential equations, and focused attention on a large new class of discrete groups. It was the first significant application of non-Euclidean geometry. This unique exposition by Hadamard offers a fascinating and intuitive introduction to the subject of automorphic functions and illuminates its connection to differential equations, a connection not often found in other texts.

Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometries

Development and History

Author: Marvin J. Greenberg

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1429281332

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 1461

This is the definitive presentation of the history, development and philosophical significance of non-Euclidean geometry as well as of the rigorous foundations for it and for elementary Euclidean geometry, essentially according to Hilbert. Appropriate for liberal arts students, prospective high school teachers, math. majors, and even bright high school students. The first eight chapters are mostly accessible to any educated reader; the last two chapters and the two appendices contain more advanced material, such as the classification of motions, hyperbolic trigonometry, hyperbolic constructions, classification of Hilbert planes and an introduction to Riemannian geometry.

Modern Geometry with Applications

Author: George A. Jennings

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461208556

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 7756

This introduction to modern geometry differs from other books in the field due to its emphasis on applications and its discussion of special relativity as a major example of a non-Euclidean geometry. Additionally, it covers the two important areas of non-Euclidean geometry, spherical geometry and projective geometry, as well as emphasising transformations, and conics and planetary orbits. Much emphasis is placed on applications throughout the book, which motivate the topics, and many additional applications are given in the exercises. It makes an excellent introduction for those who need to know how geometry is used in addition to its formal theory.

Crocheting Adventures with Hyperbolic Planes

Author: Daina Taimina

Publisher: A K Peters, Ltd.

ISBN: 1568814526

Category: Crafts & Hobbies

Page: 148

View: 9343

This richly illustrated book discusses non-Euclidean geometry and the hyperbolic plane in an accessible way. The author provides instructions for how to crochet models of the hyperbolic plane, pseudosphere, and catenoid/helicoids. With this knowledge, the reader has a hands-on tool for learning the properties of the hyperbolic plane and negative curvature. The author also explores geometry and its historical connections with art, architecture, navigation, and motion, as well as the history of crochet, which provides a context for the significance of a physical model of a mathematical concept that has plagued mathematicians for centuries.

Einführung in die mathematische Logik

Klassische Prädikatenlogik

Author: Hans Hermes

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322996425

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 208

View: 8596

Das vorliegende, 1963 in erster Auflage erschienene Buch ist aus Vorlesungen hervorgegangen. Es soll eine Einführung in die klassische zweiwertige Prädikaten logik geben. Die Beschränkung auf die klassische Logik soll nicht besagen, daß diese Logik prinzipiell einen Vorzug vor anderen, nichtklassischen Logiken besitzt. Die klassische Logik empfiehlt sich jedoch als Einführung in die Logik wegen ihrer Einfachheit und als Fundament für die Anwendung deshalb, weil sie der klassischen Mathematik und damit den darauf aufgebauten exakten Wissenschaften zugrunde liegt. Das Buch wendet sich primär an Studierende der Mathematik, die in den An fängervorlesungen bereits einige grundlegende mathematische Begriffe, wie den Gruppenbegriff, kennengelernt haben. Der Leser soll dazu geführt werden, daß er die Vorteile einer Formalisierung einsieht. Der übergang von der Umgangssprache zu einer formalisierten Sprache, welcher erfahrungsgemäß gewisse Schwierigkeiten bereitet, wird eingehend besprochen und eingeübt. Die Analyse desmathemati schen Umgangs mit den grundlegenden mathematischen Strukturen führt in zwangloser Weise zum semantisch begründeten Folgerungsbegriff.

Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Birger Iversen

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521435284

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 5209

Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics. In this book, the rich geometry of the hyperbolic plane is studied in detail, leading to the focal point of the book, Poincare's polygon theorem and the relationship between hyperbolic geometries and discrete groups of isometries. Hyperbolic 3-space is also discussed, and the directions that current research in this field is taking are sketched. This will be an excellent introduction to hyperbolic geometry for students new to the subject, and for experts in other fields.

Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

Author: Michael P. Hitchman

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 0763754579

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 7981

The content of Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology is motivated by questions that have ignited the imagination of stargazers since antiquity. What is the shape of the universe? Does the universe have and edge? Is it infinitely big? Dr. Hitchman aims to clarify this fascinating area of mathematics. This non-Euclidean geometry text is organized intothree natural parts. Chapter 1 provides an overview including a brief history of Geometry, Surfaces, and reasons to study Non-Euclidean Geometry. Chapters 2-7 contain the core mathematical content of the text, following the ErlangenProgram, which develops geometry in terms of a space and a group of transformations on that space. Finally chapters 1 and 8 introduce (chapter 1) and explore (chapter 8) the topic of cosmic topology through the geometry learned in the preceding chapters.

Introduction to Projective Geometry

Author: C. R. Wylie

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 576

View: 974

This introductory volume offers strong reinforcement for its teachings, with detailed examples and numerous theorems, proofs, and exercises, plus complete answers to all odd-numbered end-of-chapter problems. 1970 edition.

The Elements of Non-Euclidean Geometry

Author: Julian Lowell Coolidge

Publisher: Merchant Books

ISBN: 9781603861496

Category: Mathematics

Page: 256

View: 3489

An Unabridged, Digitally Enlarged Printing. Chapters Include: Foundation For Metrical Geometry In A Limited Region Congruent Transformations The Three Hypotheses The Introduction Of Trigonometric Formulae Analytic Formulae Consistency And Significance Of The Axioms The Geometric And Analytic Extension Of Space The Groups Of Congruent Transformations - Point, Line, And Plane Treated Analytically The Higher Line Geometry The Circle And The Sphere Conic Sections Quadric Surfaces Areas And Volumes Introduction To Differential Geometry Differential Line-Geometry Multiply Connected Spaces The Projective Basis Of Non-Euclidean Geometry The Differential Basis For Euclidean And Non-Euclidean Geometry Comprehensive Index