Invitation to Geometry

Author: Z. A. Melzak

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486789489

Category: Mathematics

Page: 240

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Intended for students of many different backgrounds with only a modest knowledge of mathematics, this text features self-contained chapters that can be adapted to several types of geometry courses. Only a slight acquaintance with mathematics beyond the high-school level is necessary, including some familiarity with calculus and linear algebra. This text's introductions to several branches of geometry feature topics and treatments based on memorability and relevance. The author emphasizes connections with calculus and simple mechanics, focusing on developing students' grasp of spatial relationships. Subjects include classical Euclidean material, polygonal and circle isoperimetry, conics and Pascal's theorem, geometrical optimization, geometry and trigonometry on a sphere, graphs, convexity, and elements of differential geometry of curves. Additional material may be conveniently introduced in several places, and each chapter concludes with exercises of varying degrees of difficulty.

An Invitation to Arithmetic Geometry

Author: Dino Lorenzini

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821802674

Category: Arithmetical algebraic geometry

Page: 397

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Extremely carefully written, masterfully thought out, and skillfully arranged introduction ... to the arithmetic of algebraic curves, on the one hand, and to the algebro-geometric aspects of number theory, on the other hand. ... an excellent guide for beginners in arithmetic geometry, just as an interesting reference and methodical inspiration for teachers of the subject ... a highly welcome addition to the existing literature. --Zentralblatt MATH The interaction between number theory and algebraic geometry has been especially fruitful. In this volume, the author gives a unified presentation of some of the basic tools and concepts in number theory, commutative algebra, and algebraic geometry, and for the first time in a book at this level, brings out the deep analogies between them. The geometric viewpoint is stressed throughout the book. Extensive examples are given to illustrate each new concept, and many interesting exercises are given at the end of each chapter. Most of the important results in the one-dimensional case are proved, including Bombieri's proof of the Riemann Hypothesis for curves over a finite field. While the book is not intended to be an introduction to schemes, the author indicates how many of the geometric notions introduced in the book relate to schemes, which will aid the reader who goes to the next level of this rich subject.

An Invitation to Algebraic Geometry

Author: Karen E. Smith,Lauri Kahanpää,Pekka Kekäläinen,William Traves

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475744978

Category: Mathematics

Page: 164

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This is a description of the underlying principles of algebraic geometry, some of its important developments in the twentieth century, and some of the problems that occupy its practitioners today. It is intended for the working or the aspiring mathematician who is unfamiliar with algebraic geometry but wishes to gain an appreciation of its foundations and its goals with a minimum of prerequisites. Few algebraic prerequisites are presumed beyond a basic course in linear algebra.

Near the Horizon

An Invitation to Geometric Optics

Author: Henk W. Broer

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 0883851423

Category: Mathematics

Page: N.A

View: 472

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Near the Horizon starts out by considering several optical phenomena that can occur when the sun is near the horizon. One can sometimes see objects that are actually below the horizon. Sometimes there seems to be a dark strip in the middle of the solar disk. These are a result of the way that the atmosphere affects the geometry of light rays. Broer starts his book with the Fermat principle (rays of light take least-time paths) and deduces from it laws for refraction and reflection; by expressing these as conservation laws, he can handle both the case of inhomogeneous layers of air and the case of continuous variation in the refraction index. A surprising application is the brachistochrone problem, in which the path of fastest descent is determined by studying how a light ray would behave in a "flat earth" atmosphere whose refraction index is determined by the gravitational potential. This leads to a very interesting chapter on the cycloid and its properties. The final chapters move from the elementary theory to a more sophisticated version in which the Fermat Principle leads to a Riemannian metric whose geodesics are the paths of light rays. This gives us an optics which is geometric in a new sense, and serves as a nice demonstration of the physical applicability of Riemannian geometry. The book is written in a very personal and engaging style. Broer is passionate about the subject and its history, and his passion helps carry the reader along. The result is readable and charming.

An Invitation to 3-D Vision

From Images to Geometric Models

Author: Yi Ma,Stefano Soatto,Jana Kosecká,S. Shankar Sastry

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387217797

Category: Computers

Page: 528

View: 6524

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This book introduces the geometry of 3-D vision, that is, the reconstruction of 3-D models of objects from a collection of 2-D images. It details the classic theory of two view geometry and shows that a more proper tool for studying the geometry of multiple views is the so-called rank consideration of the multiple view matrix. It also develops practical reconstruction algorithms and discusses possible extensions of the theory.

Plateau's Problem

An Invitation to Varifold Geometry

Author: Frederick J. Almgren

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821827472

Category: Mathematics

Page: 78

View: 7435

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There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encourage young mathematicians to study this fascinating subject further. Judging from the success of his students, it achieves this exceedingly well.

Invitation to Combinatorial Topology

Author: Maurice Fréchet,Ky Fan

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486147886

Category: Mathematics

Page: 136

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Elementary text, accessible to anyone with a background in high school geometry, covers problems inherent to coloring maps, homeomorphism, applications of Descartes' theorem, topological polygons, more. Includes 108 figures. 1967 edition.

An Invitation to Web Geometry

Author: Jorge Vitorio Pereira,Luc Pirio

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319145622

Category: Mathematics

Page: 213

View: 6577

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This book takes an in-depth look at abelian relations of codimension one webs in the complex analytic setting. In its classical form, web geometry consists in the study of webs up to local diffeomorphisms. A significant part of the theory revolves around the concept of abelian relation, a particular kind of functional relation among the first integrals of the foliations of a web. Two main focuses of the book include how many abelian relations can a web carry and which webs are carrying the maximal possible number of abelian relations. The book offers complete proofs of both Chern’s bound and Trépreau’s algebraization theorem, including all the necessary prerequisites that go beyond elementary complex analysis or basic algebraic geometry. Most of the examples known up to date of non-algebraizable planar webs of maximal rank are discussed in detail. A historical account of the algebraization problem for maximal rank webs of codimension one is also presented.

An Invitation to Noncommutative Geometry

Author: Matilde Marcolli

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812814337

Category: Mathematics

Page: 506

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This is the first existing volume that collects lectures on this important and fast developing subject in mathematics. The lectures are given by leading experts in the field and the range of topics is kept as broad as possible by including both the algebraic and the differential aspects of noncommutative geometry as well as recent applications to theoretical physics and number theory. Sample Chapter(s). A Walk in the Noncommutative Garden (1,639 KB). Contents: A Walk in the Noncommutative Garden (A Connes & M Marcolli); Renormalization of Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory (H Grosse & R Wulkenhaar); Lectures on Noncommutative Geometry (M Khalkhali); Noncommutative Bundles and Instantons in Tehran (G Landi & W D van Suijlekom); Lecture Notes on Noncommutative Algebraic Geometry and Noncommutative Tori (S Mahanta); Lectures on Derived and Triangulated Categories (B Noohi); Examples of Noncommutative Manifolds: Complex Tori and Spherical Manifolds (J Plazas); D-Branes in Noncommutative Field Theory (R J Szabo). Readership: Researchers in mathematical and theoretical physics, geometry and topology, algebra and number theory.

Invitation to Dynamical Systems

Author: Edward R. Scheinerman

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486275329

Category: Mathematics

Page: 408

View: 8681

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This text is designed for those who wish to study mathematics beyond linear algebra but are unready for abstract material. Rather than a theorem-proof-corollary exposition, it stresses geometry, intuition, and dynamical systems. 1996 edition.

Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Birger Iversen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521435080

Category: Mathematics

Page: 298

View: 9427

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Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics. In this book, the rich geometry of the hyperbolic plane is studied in detail, leading to the focal point of the book, Poincare's polygon theorem and the relationship between hyperbolic geometries and discrete groups of isometries. Hyperbolic 3-space is also discussed, and the directions that current research in this field is taking are sketched. This will be an excellent introduction to hyperbolic geometry for students new to the subject, and for experts in other fields.

A Royal Road to Algebraic Geometry

Author: Audun Holme

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642192258

Category: Mathematics

Page: 366

View: 8592

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This book is about modern algebraic geometry. The title A Royal Road to Algebraic Geometry is inspired by the famous anecdote about the king asking Euclid if there really existed no simpler way for learning geometry, than to read all of his work Elements. Euclid is said to have answered: “There is no royal road to geometry!” The book starts by explaining this enigmatic answer, the aim of the book being to argue that indeed, in some sense there is a royal road to algebraic geometry. From a point of departure in algebraic curves, the exposition moves on to the present shape of the field, culminating with Alexander Grothendieck’s theory of schemes. Contemporary homological tools are explained. The reader will follow a directed path leading up to the main elements of modern algebraic geometry. When the road is completed, the reader is empowered to start navigating in this immense field, and to open up the door to a wonderful field of research. The greatest scientific experience of a lifetime!

An Introduction to Algebraic Geometry

Author: Kenji Ueno

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821811444

Category: Mathematics

Page: 246

View: 8407

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This introduction to algebraic geometry allows readers to grasp the fundamentals of the subject with only linear algebra and calculus as prerequisites. After a brief history of the subject, the book introduces projective spaces and projective varieties, and explains plane curves and resolution of their singularities. The volume further develops the geometry of algebraic curves and treats congruence zeta functions of algebraic curves over a finite field. It concludes with a complex analytical discussion of algebraic curves. The author emphasizes computation of concrete examples rather than proofs, and these examples are discussed from various viewpoints. This approach allows readers to develop a deeper understanding of the theorems.

Invitation to the Mathematics of Fermat-Wiles

Author: Yves Hellegouarch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080478777

Category: Mathematics

Page: 400

View: 7327

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Assuming only modest knowledge of undergraduate level math, Invitation to the Mathematics of Fermat-Wiles presents diverse concepts required to comprehend Wiles' extraordinary proof. Furthermore, it places these concepts in their historical context. This book can be used in introduction to mathematics theories courses and in special topics courses on Fermat's last theorem. It contains themes suitable for development by students as an introduction to personal research as well as numerous exercises and problems. However, the book will also appeal to the inquiring and mathematically informed reader intrigued by the unraveling of this fascinating puzzle. Rigorously presents the concepts required to understand Wiles' proof, assuming only modest undergraduate level math Sets the math in its historical context Contains several themes that could be further developed by student research and numerous exercises and problems Written by Yves Hellegouarch, who himself made an important contribution to the proof of Fermat's last theorem

An Invitation to Quantum Cohomology

Kontsevich's Formula for Rational Plane Curves

Author: Joachim Kock,Israel Vainsencher

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817644956

Category: Mathematics

Page: 162

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Elementary introduction to stable maps and quantum cohomology presents the problem of counting rational plane curves Viewpoint is mostly that of enumerative geometry Emphasis is on examples, heuristic discussions, and simple applications to best convey the intuition behind the subject Ideal for self-study, for a mini-course in quantum cohomology, or as a special topics text in a standard course in intersection theory

Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

Author: Michael P. Hitchman

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 0763754579

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 7505

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The content of Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology is motivated by questions that have ignited the imagination of stargazers since antiquity. What is the shape of the universe? Does the universe have and edge? Is it infinitely big? Dr. Hitchman aims to clarify this fascinating area of mathematics. This non-Euclidean geometry text is organized intothree natural parts. Chapter 1 provides an overview including a brief history of Geometry, Surfaces, and reasons to study Non-Euclidean Geometry. Chapters 2-7 contain the core mathematical content of the text, following the ErlangenProgram, which develops geometry in terms of a space and a group of transformations on that space. Finally chapters 1 and 8 introduce (chapter 1) and explore (chapter 8) the topic of cosmic topology through the geometry learned in the preceding chapters.

Linear Geometry

Author: Rafael Artzy

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486466279

Category: Mathematics

Page: 273

View: 9084

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Most linear algebra texts neglect geometry in general and linear geometry in particular. This text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students stresses the relationship between algebra and linear geometry. It begins by using the complex number plane as an introduction to a variety of transformations and their groups in the Euclidean plane, explaining algebraic concepts as they arise. A brief account of Poincaré's model of the hyperbolic plane and its transformation group follow. Succeeding chapters contain a systematic treatment of affine, Euclidean, and projective spaces over fields that emphasizes transformations and their groups, along with an outline of results involving other geometries. An examination of the foundations of geometry starts from rudimentary projective incidence planes, then gradually adjoins axioms and develops various non-Desarguesian, Desarguesian, and Pappian planes, their corresponding algebraic structures, and their collineation groups. The axioms of order, continuity, and congruence make their appearance and lead to Euclidean and non-Euclidean planes. Lists of books for suggested further reading follow the third and fourth chapters, and the Appendix provides lists of notations, axioms, and transformation groups.

An Invitation to Mathematics

From Competitions to Research

Author: Dierk Schleicher,Malte Lackmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642195334

Category: Mathematics

Page: 220

View: 7165

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This Invitation to Mathematics consists of 14 contributions, many from the world's leading mathematicians, which introduce the readers to exciting aspects of current mathematical research. The contributions are as varied as the personalities of active mathematicians, but together they show mathematics as a rich and lively field of research. The contributions are written for interested students at the age of transition between high school and university who know high school mathematics and perhaps competition mathematics and who want to find out what current research mathematics is about. We hope that it will also be of interest to teachers or more advanced mathematicians who would like to learn about exciting aspects of mathematics outside of their own work or specialization. Together with a team of young ``test readers'', editors and authors have taken great care, through a substantial ``active editing'' process, to make the contributions understandable by the intended readership.