Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance

Author: George Saliba

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262195577

Category: History

Page: 315

View: 6807

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The Islamic scientific tradition has been described many times in accounts of Islamic civilization and general histories of science, with most authors tracing its beginnings to the appropriation of ideas from other ancient civilizations--the Greeks in particular. In this thought-provoking and original book, George Saliba argues that, contrary to the generally accepted view, the foundations of Islamic scientific thought were laid well before Greek sources were formally translated into Arabic in the ninth century. Drawing on an account by the tenth-century intellectual historian Ibn al-Nadim [macron over i] that is ignored by most modern scholars, Saliba suggests that early translations from mainly Persian and Greek sources outlining elementary scientific ideas for the use of government departments were the impetus for the development of the Islamic scientific tradition. He argues further that there was an organic relationship between the Islamic scientific thought that developed in the later centuries and the science that came into being in Europe during the Renaissance.Saliba outlines the conventional accounts of Islamic science, then discusses their shortcomings and proposes an alternate narrative. Using astronomy as a template for tracing the progress of science in Islamic civilization, Saliba demonstrates the originality of Islamic scientific thought. He details the innovations (including new mathematical tools) made by the Islamic astronomers from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, and offers evidence that Copernicus could have known of and drawn on their work. Rather than viewing the rise and fall of Islamic science from the often-narrated perspectives of politics and religion, Saliba focuses on the scientific production itself and the complex social, economic, and intellectual conditions that made it possible.

God and Logic in Islam

The Caliphate of Reason

Author: John Walbridge

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139492348

Category: Religion

Page: N.A

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This book investigates the central role of reason in Islamic intellectual life. Despite widespread characterization of Islam as a system of belief based only on revelation, John Walbridge argues that rational methods, not fundamentalism, have characterized Islamic law, philosophy and education since the medieval period. His research demonstrates that this medieval Islamic rational tradition was opposed by both modernists and fundamentalists, resulting in a general collapse of traditional Islamic intellectual life and its replacement by more modern but far shallower forms of thought. However, the resources of this Islamic scholarly tradition remain an integral part of the Islamic intellectual tradition and will prove vital to its revival. The future of Islam, Walbridge argues, will be marked by a return to rationalism.

War, Peace, and Prosperity in the Name of God

The Ottoman Role in Europe's Socioeconomic Evolution

Author: Murat Iyigun

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022623228X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 987

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Differences among religious communities have motivated—and continue to motivate—many of the deadliest conflicts in human history. But how did political power and organized religion become so thoroughly intertwined? And how have religion and religiously motivated conflicts affected the evolution of societies throughout history, from demographic and sociopolitical change to economic growth? War, Peace, and Prosperity in the Name of God turns the focus on the “big three monotheisms”—Judaism, Islam, and Christianity—to consider these questions. Chronicling the relatively rapid spread of the Abrahamic religions among the Old World, Murat Iyigun shows that societies that adhered to a monotheistic belief in that era lasted longer, suggesting that monotheism brought some sociopolitical advantages. While the inherent belief in one true god meant that these religious communities had sooner or later to contend with one another, Iyigun shows that differences among them were typically strong enough to trump disagreements within. The book concludes by documenting the long-term repercussions of these dynamics for the organization of societies and their politics in Europe and the Middle East.

Galen, De diebus decretoriis, from Greek into Arabic

A Critical Edition, with Translation and Commentary, of Hunayn ibn Ishaq, Kitab ayyam al-buhran

Author: Glen M. Cooper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135193502X

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 2824

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This volume presents the first edition of the Arabic translation, by Hunayn ibn Ishaq, of Galen's Critical Days (De diebus decretoriis), together with the first translation of the text into a modern language. The substantial introduction contextualizes the treatise within the Greek and Arabic traditions. Galen's Critical Days was a founding text of astrological medicine. In febrile illnesses, the critical days are the days on which an especially severe pattern of symptoms, a crisis, was likely to occur. The crisis was thought to expel the disease-producing substances from the body. If its precise timing were known, the physician could prepare the patient so that the crisis would be most beneficial. After identifying the critical days based on empirical data and showing how to use them in therapy, Galen explains the critical days via the moon's influence. In the historical introduction Glen Cooper discusses the translation of the Critical Days in Arabic, and adumbrates its possible significance in the intellectual debates and political rivalries among the 9th-century Baghdad elite. It is argued that Galen originally composed the Critical Days both to confound the Skeptics of his own day and to refute a purely mathematical, rationalist approach to science. These features made the text useful in the rivalries between Baghdad scholars. Al-Kindi (d.c. 866) famously propounded a mathematical approach to science akin to the latter. The scholar-bureaucrat responsible for funding this translation, Muhammad ibn Musa (d. 873), al-Kindi's nemesis, may have found the treatise useful in refuting that approach. The commentary and notes to the facing page translation address issues of translation, as well as important concepts.

Medicine and Pharmacy in Byzantine Hospitals

A study of the extant formularies

Author: David Bennett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317010744

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 6792

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Scholars have made conflicting claims for Byzantine hospitals as medical institutions and as the forebears of the modern hospital. In this study is the first systematic examination of the evidence of the xenôn texts, or Xenonika, on which all such claims must in part rest. These texts, compiled broadly between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, are also transcribed or edited, with the exception of the combined texts of Romanos and Theophilos that, the study proposes, were originally a single manual and teaching work for doctors, probably based on xenôn practice. A schema of their combined chapter headings sets out the unified structure of this text. A short handlist briefly describes the principal manuscripts referred to throughout the study. The introduction briefly examines our evidence for the xenônes from the early centuries of the East Roman Empire to the fall of Constantinople in 1453. Chapter 3 examines the texts in xenon medical practice and compares them to some other medical manuals and remedy texts of the Late period and to their structures. The xenôn-ascribed texts are discussed one by one in chapters 4–8; the concluding chapter 9 draw together the common, as well as the divergent, aspects of each text and looks to the comparative evidence for hospital medical practice of the time in the West.

Saltpeter

The Mother of Gunpowder

Author: David Cressy

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019969575X

Category: History

Page: 237

View: 6100

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The story of the science, the technology, the politics and the military applications of saltpeter - the vital but mysterious substance that governments from the Tudors to the Victorians regarded as an 'inestimable treasure'.

黑天鵝效應(擴充新版) 

如何及早發現最不可能發生但總是發生的事

Author: 納西姆‧尼可拉斯‧塔雷伯

Publisher: 大塊文化出版股份有限公司

ISBN: 9862132612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 624

View: 9148

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在極端世界生存的10個原則,徹底改變你的世界觀 所謂黑天鵝,是指看似極不可能發生的事件,它具三大特性:不可預測性;衝擊力強大;以及,一旦發生之後,我們會編造出某種解釋,使它看起來不如實際上那麼隨機,而且更易於預測。Google的驚人成就就是一個黑天鵝事件;九一一也是。作者認為黑天鵝潛藏在幾乎每一件事的背後——從宗教之興起,到我們個人生活中的大小事件。 為什麼要等到事情發生之後,我們才認得出黑天鵝現象呢?部分的答案是,在應該注意普遍現象時,人們長久以來卻習慣注意特定事件。我們習慣注意已經知道的事情,卻一而再再而三忽略我們所不知道的事情。因此,我們無法真正地評估機會;我們很容易將事情簡化、予以敘述、分類;而且我們不夠開放,沒能珍視那些能夠想像「不可能事物」的人。 多年來,作者一直在研究我們是怎樣欺騙自己,以為自己知道的比實際上知道的還多。我們總是只看到無足輕重的事情,而大的事件卻繼續在你我的驚嘆聲中出現,並形塑著這個世界。本書試圖解釋我們對於「我們所不知道的事物」所知道的一切。作者提出簡單得令人吃驚的技巧,協助讀者面對黑天鵝現象,並從這些意外的大事件獲益。 優雅、驚豔,且應用廣泛,《黑天鵝效應》猛力衝擊了文化業、社交圈和知識界,成為琅琅上口、被廣為引用的概念和詞彙。作者在擴充新版中新增五萬餘字,提出違反直覺卻實用的作法,能提高社會和我們自己對黑天鵝事件的免疫力,得以在極端世界中生存。《黑天鵝效應》已改變了許多人的世界觀,生活在黑天鵝事件層出不窮的世界,每個人都該讀這本書。 ■《黑天鵝效應》改變了我對世界如何運作的觀點。 ──丹尼爾‧康尼曼(Daniel Kahneman) 諾貝爾經濟學獎得主 ■(本書)扭轉了當代思維。 ──《泰晤士報》(The Times) ■非常有趣、具說服力……令人沉醉其中。 ──《金融時報》(Financial Times) ■風格獨具,精采絕倫。 ──尼爾˙弗格森(Niall Ferguson) 《洛杉磯時報》(Los Angeles Times) ■大師之作! ──克里斯‧安德森(Chris Anderson) 《連線》(Wired)雜誌主編,《長尾理論》(The Long Tail)作者 ■長期對風險模型提出批評的人,例如……塔雷伯……現在被讚為先知。 ──《經濟學人》(The Economist) ■塔雷伯不僅提出了(這場危機的)解釋,更已預知它會發生。 ──大衛‧布魯克斯(David Brooks) 《紐約時報》(The New York Times) ■有關現實世界的運作方式,《黑天鵝效應》的內容勝過幾十座的圖書館。 ──湯姆‧畢德士(Tom Peters) 《追求卓越》(In Search of Excellence)作者 ■亞馬遜、《經濟學人》、《彭博商業週刊》、《金融時報》年度推薦好書 ■亞馬遜非文學類銷售冠軍 ■《紐約時報》、《華爾街日報》排行榜長銷暢銷書 ■入選2008年科管百大好書——科技、環境與政策類評選 ■獲2008年誠品書店五月選書

The Tropics of Empire

Why Columbus Sailed South to the Indies

Author: Nicolás Wey Gómez

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 9961

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A radical revision of the geographical history of the discovery of the Americas that links Columbus's southbound route with colonialism, slavery, and today’s divide between the industrialized North and the developing South.

The Making of the Arab Intellectual

Empire, Public Sphere and the Colonial Coordinates of Selfhood

Author: Dyala Hamzah

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415488346

Category: History

Page: 278

View: 7474

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In the wake of the Ottoman Empire’s nineteenth-century reforms, as guilds waned and new professions emerged, the scholarly ‘estate’ underwent social differentiation. Some found employment in the state’s new institutions as translators, teachers and editors, whilst others resisted civil servant status. Gradually, the scholar morphed into the public writer. Despite his fledgling status, he catered for the public interest all the more so since new professionals such as doctors, engineers and lawyers endorsed this latest social role as an integral part of their own self-image. This dual preoccupation with self-definition and all things public is the central concern of this book. Focusing on the period after the tax-farming scholar took the bow and before the alienated intellectual prevailed on the contemporary Arab cultural scene, it situates the making of the Arab intellectual within the dysfunctional space of competing states’ interests known as the ‘Nahda’. Located between Empire and Colony, the emerging Arab public sphere was a space of over- and under-regulation, hindering accountability and upsetting allegiances. The communities that Arab intellectuals imagined, including the Pan-Islamic, Pan-Arab and socialist sat astride many a polity and never became contained by post-colonial states. Examining a range of canonical and less canonical authors, this interdisciplinary approach to The Making of the Modern Arab Intellectual will be of interest to students and scholars of the Middle East, history, political science, comparative literature and philosophy.

Science in Translation

Movements of Knowledge Through Cultures and Time

Author: Scott L. Montgomery

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226534817

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 4848

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In this innovative work, Scott L. Montgomery explores the diverse roles that translation has played in the development of science from antiquity to the present—from the Arabic translations of Greek and Latin texts whose reintroduction to Europe was crucial to the Renaissance, to the origin and evolution of modern science in Japan. "[A] book of great richness, as much for its examples as for its ideas, which keenly illustrate the development of knowledge across languages and epochs. It is a book to read and reread. Its subject is important; it is ours, it is our history." -André Clas, Meta: Journal des Traducteurs "[T]his book . . . seems to stand alone on the shelf. A good thing, therefore, that it is so full of good things, both in the content and the prose." —William R. Everdell, MAA Online "[A]n impressive work. . . . By reminding us of the role of diverse cultures in the elevation of science within a particular nation or civilization, the book makes a substantial contribution to the postmodern worldview that emphasizes multiculturalism." —Choice

Ḥadīth Al-dār

Author: Dār al-Āthār al-Islāmīyah (Kuwait, Kuwait)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Islamic art

Page: N.A

View: 7188

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Islamic Civilization

History, Contributions, and Influence : a Compendium of Literature

Author: Shaikh M. Ghazanfar

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 547

View: 6246

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In order to help relieve the blind spot Westerners have about the importance of Islamic influence in Western culture and society, Ghazanfar (emeritus economics, U. of Idaho) cites and substantially annotates more than 600 English-language books and articles pertaining to Islamic history, contributions to knowledge, and the impact of that knowledge

Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 7713

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Historical Abstracts

Modern history abstracts, 1450-1914

Author: Eric H. Boehm

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History, Modern

Page: N.A

View: 3006

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