Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 2570

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: Carol Kendall,Jeffrey J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444501554

Category: Science

Page: 839

View: 7387

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566702492

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 4302

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Tracers in Hydrology

Author: Christian Leibundgut,Piotr Maloszewski,Christoph K?lls

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119965012

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 9091

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Tracers in Hydrology and Water Research is a comprehensive overview of the application of natural and artificial tracers in hydrology and environmental research. Taking a unique approach by providing the reader with a systematic and state of the art description of natural and artificial tracers, the book also covers key analytical techniques and applications, and modern tracer methods in the context of systematic hydrology. Tracers have become a primary tool for process investigation, qualitative and quantitative system analysis and integrated resource management. This book will outline the fundamentals of the subject, and examine the latest research findings, clearly showing the entire process of tracer application through the inclusion of numerous integrated case studies. As many techniques derive from different scientific disciplines (chemistry, biology, physics), the effort of compilation and integration into modern hydrology and environmental science research and application requires substantial continuity and experience, which certifies this group of authors. This book will be an invaluable reference not only for students and researchers within the field of Hydrology and Hydrogeology but also for engineers and other tracer techniques applying users.

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 6942

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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Isotopes in the Water Cycle

Past, Present and Future of a Developing Science

Author: Pradeep K. Aggarwal,Joel R. Gat,Klaus F. Froehlich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402066719

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 382

View: 9177

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Environmental isotope and nuclear techniques provide unmatched insights into the processes governing the water cycle and its variability. This monograph presents state of the art applications and new developments of isotopes in hydrology, environmental disciplines and climate change studies. Coverage ranges from the assessment of groundwater resources in terms of recharge and flow regime to studies of the past and present global environmental and climate changes.

Andean Hydrology

Author: Diego A. Rivera,Alex Godoy-Faundez,Mario Lillo Saavedra

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351652044

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 8100

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This book describes the ecosystem of the Andean watersheds, covering the Californian valley, tropical Andes, and southern Andes. Case studies of the new methods and techniques used for hydrological research in the Andes are provided, and sustainability issues pertaining to Andean water resources are discussed in the context of climate change, social and economic issues, and public policy. Furthermore, the impact of economic development on the Andean ecosystem, specifically the effect on the water cycle and the water-energy-food nexus, are examined.

Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics

Past, Present and Future Hydrological Research for Integrated Land and Water Management

Author: M. Bonell,L. A. Bruijnzeel

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139443845

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2098

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Forests, Water and People in the Humid Tropics is a comprehensive review of the hydrological and physiological functioning of tropical rain forests, the environmental impacts of their disturbance and conversion to other land uses, and optimum strategies for managing them. The book brings together leading specialists in such diverse fields as tropical anthropology and human geography, environmental economics, climatology and meteorology, hydrology, geomorphology, plant and aquatic ecology, forestry and conservation agronomy. The editors have supplemented the individual contributions with invaluable overviews of the main sections and provide key pointers for future research. Specialists will find authenticated detail in chapters written by experts on a whole range of people-water-land use issues, managers and practitioners will learn more about the implications of ongoing and planned forest conversion, while scientists and students will appreciate a unique review of the literature.

Stable Isotope Ecology

Author: Brian Fry

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387337456

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 9997

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A solid introduction to stable isotopes that can also be used as an instructive review for more experienced researchers and professionals. The book approaches the use of isotopes from the perspective of ecological and biological research, but its concepts can be applied within other disciplines. A novel, step-by-step spreadsheet modeling approach is also presented for circulating tracers in any ecological system, including any favorite system an ecologist might dream up while sitting at a computer. The author’s humorous and lighthearted style painlessly imparts the principles of isotope ecology. The online material contains color illustrations, spreadsheet models, technical appendices, and problems and answers.

Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science

Author: Robert Michener,Kate Lajtha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470691174

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 5952

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This book highlights new and emerging uses of stable isotope analysis in a variety of ecological disciplines. While the use of natural abundance isotopes in ecological research is now relatively standard, new techniques and ways of interpreting patterns are developing rapidly. The second edition of this book provides a thorough, up-to-date examination of these methods of research. As part of the Ecological Methods and Concepts series which provides the latest information on experimental techniques in ecology, this book looks at a wide range of techniques that use natural abundance isotopes to: follow whole ecosystem element cycling understand processes of soil organic matter formation follow the movement of water in whole watersheds understand the effects of pollution in both terrestrial and aquatic environments study extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents follow migrating organisms In each case, the book explains the background to the methodology, looks at the underlying principles and assumptions, and outlines the potential limitations and pitfalls. Stable Isotopes in Ecology and Environmental Science is an ideal resource for both ecologists who are new to isotopic analysis, and more experienced isotope ecologists interested in innovative techniques and pioneering new uses.

Stable Isotope Techniques in the Study of Biological Processes and Functioning of Ecosystems

Author: M.J. Unkovich,J.S. Pate,A. McNeill,J. Gibbs

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940159841X

Category: Science

Page: 293

View: 2726

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In the last two decades technological advances in isotope ratio mass spectrometry have been very rapid, opening up new possibilities for analysis of biological and environmental materials. The new instrumentation has facilitated faster analysis of samples via automated sample preparation and multi-isotope analysis of single samples, resulting in considerable cost savings, and enabling access to isotope analysis for many more researchers. These changes are reflected in the rapidly growing international literature on stable isotopes. While there have been some excellent books and review papers aimed at interpreting isotope signals in biology and environmental science, there have been fewer attempts to provide practical tools for researchers making forays into this exciting new arena. This book aims to address this inadequacy by providing a set of practical guidelines for the application of a range of novel and well proven stable isotope techniques to the fields of plant physiological ecology, agriculture, marine ecology and palaeoecology. The book is the outcome of a weeklong workshop held under the auspices of the Cooperative Research Centre for Legumes in Mediterranean Agriculture (CLIMA 1992 - 2000) at The University of Western Australia and the CSIRO Floreat Laboratories, Perth, Western Australia, in February 1999. The workshop was designed to provide practical tools and experiences for researchers and students concerned with how one goes about using stable isotopes in field investigations.

Regional Ground-Water Quality

Author: William M. Alley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471284536

Category: Science

Page: 634

View: 2445

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General design considerations. Establishing a conceptual framework. Ground-water quality surveys. Geostatistical models. Inorganic chemical processes. Organic chemical concepts. Subsurface microbiology. Geochemical models. Use of environmental isotopes. Nitrate. Organic contaminants. Pesticides. Pathogens. Acid precipitation. Natural radionuclides. Freshwater-salt water environments. Analysis of karst aquifers. Case studies.

Automatic Diatom Identification

Author: Hans Du Buf

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810248864

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 5860

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This is the first book to deal with automatic diatom identification. It provides the necessary background information concerning diatom research, useful for both diatomists and non-diatomists. It deals with the development of electronic databases, image preprocessing, automatic contour extraction, the application of existing contour and ornamentation features and the development of new ones, as well as the application of different classifiers (neural networks, decision trees, etc.). These are tested using two image sets: (i) a very difficult set of Sellaphora pupula with 6 demes and 120 images; (ii) a mixed genera set with 37 taxa and approximately 800 images. The results are excellent, and recognition rates well above 90% have been achieved on both sets. The results are compared with identification rates obtained by human experts. One chapter of the book deals with automatic image capture, i.e. microscope slide scanning at different resolutions using a motorized microscope stage, autofocusing, multifocus fusion, and particle screening to select only diatoms and to reject debris. This book is the final scientific report of the European ADIAC project (Automatic Diatom Identification and Classification), and it lists the web-sites with the created public databases and an identification demo.

Sustainability Criteria for Water Resource Systems

Author: Daniel P. Loucks,John S. Gladwell,International Hydrological Programme

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521560443

Category: Science

Page: 139

View: 3724

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Water resources professionals have an obligation to conceive and manage water resource systems such that they will fully contribute to an improved quality of life for all humans, now and into the future. Those water resource systems that will be able to satisfy the changing demands that will inevitably be placed on them, without significant system degradation, can be called 'sustainable'. An international group of experts have reviewed various guidelines for achieving greater degrees of sustainability and the extent to which they have been applied in a number of case studies. Approaches for measuring and modelling sustainability are provided. Ways in which these measures and models might be used when evaluating alternative designs and operating policies are illustrated. The monograph will be particularly valuable for practising engineers and planners, and as a supplementary text for graduate students in civil and environmental engineering, hydrology, geography and economics.

Fundamentals of Hydrology

Author: Tim Davie

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 0415399866

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 4162

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In order to manage the world's increasingly scarce water resources we must have a sound understanding of how water moves around the planet and what influences water quality. Fundamentals of Hydrology provides an engaging and comprehensive introduction to this subject and provides real-life examples of water resource management in a changing world. The second edition of this popular book brings the text up-to-date with additional case studies and diagrams and a greater synthesis of water quality with physical hydrology. The chapters on runoff and evaporation have been updated and the final chapter on hydrology in a changing world has more material on water resource management strategies. Additionally the chapter on streamflow analysis now includes a more in-depth section on modelling runoff. The book begins with a comprehensive coverage of precipitation, evaporation, water stored in the ground and as snow and ice, and runoff. These physical hydrological processes show with respect to the fundamental knowledge about the process, its measurement and estimation and how it ties in with water quality. Following this is a section on analyzing streamflow data, including using computer models and combining hydrology and ecology for in-stream flow assessment. A chapter on water quality shows how to measure and estimate it in a variable environment and finishes with a section on pollution treatment. The final chapter brings the text together to discuss water resource management andreal-life issues that are faced by hydrologists in a constantly changing world. Fundamentals of Hydrology is a lively and accessible introduction to the study of hydrology at university level. This new edition continues to provide an understanding of hydrological processes, knowledge of the techniques used to assess water resources and an up-to-date overview of water resource management in a changing world. Throughout the text, wide-ranging examples and case studies are used to clearly explain ideas and methods. Short chapter summaries, essay questions, guides to further reading and a glossary are also included.

Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes

Author: Ian Clark

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466591749

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3494

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Understand the Environmental Processes That Control Groundwater Quality The integration of environmental isotopes with geochemical studies is now recognized as a routine approach to solving problems of natural and contaminated groundwater quality. Advanced sampling and analytical methods are readily accessible and affordable, providing abundant geochemical and isotope data for high spatial resolution and high frequency time series. Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes provides the theoretical understanding and interpretive methods and contains a useful chapter presenting the basics of sampling and analysis. This text teaches the thermodynamic basis and principal reactions involving the major ions, gases and isotopes during groundwater recharge, weathering and redox evolution. Subsequent chapters apply these principles in hands-on training for dating young groundwaters with tritium and helium and ancient systems with radiocarbon, radiohalides and noble gases, and for tracing reactions of the major contaminants of concern in groundwaters. Covers the basics of solutes, gases and isotopes in water, and concentration-activity relationships and reactions Describes tracing the water cycle, weathering, and the geochemical evolution of water quality Explores dating groundwater as young as a few years to over hundreds of millions of years Uses case studies to demonstrate the application of geochemistry and isotopes for contaminated groundwaters Accessible to consultants and practitioners as well as undergraduates, Groundwater Geochemistry and Isotopes presents the basics of environmental isotopes and geochemistry, and provides you with a full understanding of their use in natural and contaminated groundwater.

Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws

Sexual Oppression and Gender Hierarchies in Queer Men's Lives

Author: Chris Kendall,Wayne Martino

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135834032

Category: History

Page: 194

View: 7398

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A candid re-examination of what it means to be a gay man Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws: Sexual Oppression and Gender Hierarchies in Queer Men’s Lives explores the impact and effects of sexual oppression and power relationships within the gay male community. This controversial book features thoughtful and provocative essays from authors, educators, and activists who challenge the stigmatization and issues of power they face as gay men who don’t fit the masculine mold formed by the gay porn industry and the media. Their poignant words reveal the sting of finding discrimination and alienation where least expected as the rise of sexualized hyper-masculinity, racism, and femiphobia among gay men has created a need to re-examine appropriate gay male identity and sexuality. Editors Christopher Kendall and Wayne Martino, who have written about and researched the negative side of gay male pornography, the links between sexism and homophobia, gay male suicide, and the impact of masculinity and sexuality on gay men, divide the book’s powerful essays into two sections: “The Dynamics of Sex/Gender Oppression” and “When Gender Harms and Oppression Becomes the Norm.” The first section challenges the assumptions that form the basis of gay male identity. Relying on the work of radical feminists and cultural theorists, the authors explore the meaning of “gender” in a society that expects men to act according to a masculine ideal—and punishes them when they don’t. The book’s second section analyzes the reality of gender oppression caused by inequality and sexualized gender hierarchies. Contributors discuss what can happen when gay men take seriously the sexual role models that are offered and what happens if they dare to reject them. Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws examines: effeminacy in gay men’s lives the idealization of the gay male body straight-acting masculinities and the rejection of the feminine narcissism, masculinity, and body absorption racialized masculinity the feminization of the Asian gay male in gay pornography gay male rape domestic violence and much more! Gendered Outcasts and Sexual Outlaws is an eye-opening re-evaluation of what being “gay” means, why being gay is still considered socially unacceptable, and how the gay male community can respond to systemic stigmatization and hate.

Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology

Author: Peter G. Cook,Andrew L. Herczeg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461545579

Category: Science

Page: 529

View: 5629

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Environmental Tracers in Subsurface Hydrology synthesizes the research of specialists into a comprehensive review of the application of environmental tracers to the study of soil water and groundwater flow. The book includes chapters which cover ionic tracers, noble gases, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, chlorine-36, oxygen-18, deuterium, and isotopes of carbon, strontium, sulphur and nitrogen. Applications of the tracers include the estimation of vertical and horizontal groundwater velocities, groundwater recharge rates, inter-aquifer leakage and mixing processes, chemical processes and palaeohydrology. Practicing hydrologists, soil physicists and hydrology professors and students will find the book to be a valuable support in their work.

Forest Hydrology

Processes, Management and Assessment

Author: Devendra Amatya,Thomas Williams,Leon Bren,Carmen de Jong

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 1780646607

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 308

View: 9043

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Forests cover approximately 26% of the world's land surface area and represent a distinct biotic community. They interact with water and soil in a variety of ways, providing canopy surfaces which trap precipitation and allow evaporation back into the atmosphere, thus regulating how much water reaches the forest floor as through fall, as well as pull water from the soil for transpiration. The discipline "forest hydrology" has been developed throughout the 20th century. During that time human intervention in natural landscapes has increased, and land use and management practices have intensified. The book will be useful for graduate students, professionals, land managers, practitioners, and researchers with a good understanding of the basic principles of hydrology and hydrologic processes.