Land and Marine Hydrogeology

Author: M. Taniguchi,K. Wang,T. Gamo

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080535364

Category: Science

Page: 208

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This volume represents an effort to bring together communities of land-based hydrogeology and marine hydrogeology. The issues of submarine groundwater discharge and its opposite phenomenon of seawater invasion are discussed in this book from the geophysical, geochemical, biological, and engineering perspectives. This is where land hydrogeology and marine hydrogeology overlap. Submarine groundwater discharge is a rapidly developing research field. The SCOR and LOICZ of the IGBP have recently established a working group for this research. IASPO and IAHS under IUGG also recently formed a new joint committee "Seawater/Groundwater Interactions" to collaborate with oceanographers and hydrologists. The other articles introduce frontier research topics in more typical land and marine environments, such as fluid flow in karst aquifers, the biological aspects of fluids in sedimentary basins and submarine sedimentary formations, respectively, and vigorous fluid flow in subsea formations and their significance in global tectonics. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal activities at a number of active continental margins are also reviewed, and multidisciplinary geophysical constraints of the permeability of young igneous oceanic crust are summarized. A variety of driving mechanisms for fluid flow is discussed in land and subsea formations; terrestrial hydraulic gradient, buoyancy driven free convection, tidally induced flow, flow induced by tectonic strain, flow due to sediment compaction.

Groundwater and the Environment

Applications for the Global Community

Author: Igor S. Zektser,Lorne G. Everett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420032895

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 192

View: 6993

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Historically, water has been treated as an inexhaustible resource. However, with the growth of population and development of industry and agriculture, freshwater demand has increased drastically, and its shortage felt in roughly 60% of the Earth. As early as 1931, renowned Russian scholar A.P. Karpansky wrote: "Water is not only a mineral resource, not only a means for developing agriculture. Water is a real culture bearer, it is a living blood, that creates life where there was none". Groundwater and the Environment: Remediation Applications and the Global Community covers one of the most important ecological problems - the impact on the environment of intensive groundwater pumping out. Drawing on more than a quarter century of study, Zektser analyses and makes conclusions about groundwater exploitation throughout the world. He focuses on the close connection of groundwater to the environment - its affect on surface water streams, reservoirs, seas, landscapes, and vegetation. The author demonstrates the importance of groundwater to the potable water supply, and its interaction with the environment. He stresses the significance of groundwater as a mineral resource. He provides techniques for assessing and mapping natural groundwater resources and develops these principles for studying water and hydrochemicals in coastal zones. In the last twenty years, the global awareness of groundwater as one of the most important natural resources has grown. Any changes in the groundwater causes changes in the environment. Groundwater and the Environment: Remediation Applications and the Global Community increases your ability to predict the possible changes to the environment and to follow the principle: "When using - protect, when protecting - use!"

Environmental Isotopes in Hydrogeology

Author: Ian D. Clark,Peter Fritz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482242915

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 8051

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Groundwater is an increasingly important resource to human populations around the world, and the study and protection of groundwater is an essential part of hydrogeology - the subset of hydrology that concentrates on the subsurface. Environmental isotopes, naturally occurring nuclides in water and solutes, have become fundamental tools for tracing the recharge, history, and contamination of groundwater.

Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

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This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.

Land-Based and Marine Hazards

Scientific and Management Issues

Author: Mohammed I. El-Sabh,Srinivasan Venkatesh,H. Denis,Tad S. Murty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400902735

Category: Science

Page: 303

View: 529

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Causes of major disasters are many and diverse, and the risks associated with them endanger human lives, property, the environment, the economy, and even the country's political and social well-being. It is clear that, with rapid population growth, environmental degradation, climate change, poorly regulated industries, and continued economic uncertainty, the chances are that communities may become more vulnerable to disasters. The dramatic losses in recent years from volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and landslides, wildland fires, droughts and floods, cyclones and storm surges attest to the fact that we are still a long way from applying even the knowledge we have today to make communities safe. Tackling this problem requires a sound evaluation of disaster mitigation policies and tools. As a contribution to the International Decade for Natural Disasters Reduction (IDNDR), the fifth international symposium HAZARDS-93 was held in Qingdao, P.R. China on 29 August - 3 September, 1993. China is a country frequently hit by almost all kinds of disasters. Its history is one of combating natural disasters and working towards their reduction. More than 250 scientists, engineers and government officials from 20 countries met for the purpose of engaging in a free exchange of knowledge, experience and ideas regarding the scientific and socio-economic aspects of mitigating losses from natural and man- made disasters. A total of 180 papers were presented at 28 sessions covering a very broad range of topics related to disaster management. The twenty-one articles included in this book deal with the scientific and management issues of land-based and marine hazards which cause the most severe economic losses, deaths and environmental degradation in many parts of the world. The book also includes specific recommendations addressed to the IDNDR Secretariat, national governments and scientific experts to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of disaster management. Thus, Land-Based and Marine Hazards: Scientific and Management Issues forms an excellent reference for scientists, engineers, policy-makers and the insurance industry.

Submarine Groundwater

Author: Igor S. Zektser,Lorne G. Everett,Roald G. Dzhamalov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420005257

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 466

View: 6833

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Sustainable management of water resources is quickly increasing in importance on a global scale. An important piece of the puzzle is the characterization of marine water and determining its importance to geochemical budgets. To do this, submarine groundwater discharges must be carefully studied. Comprehensively exploring the subject, Submarine Groundwater presents quantitative data relating groundwater contribution to the water/salt balance of regional and global bodies of water. The authors examine different data-supported methods for studying submarine groundwater flow and discharge through case studies contributed by leading international scientists. They discuss the maintenance of optimal water, salt, temperature and hydrobiological regimes of inland seas and large lakes. The book covers subsurface water exchange between the land and sea as well as groundwater discharge to the seas. It also provides a review of experimental methods and numerical modeling that can be used for the evaluation of specific discharge data and the effect of groundwater on the salt balance of seas and oceans. Defining the field of marine hydrogeology as a science that studies submarine groundwater, its properties, circulation, and distribution, Submarine Groundwater delineates the role of quantitative assessment of subsurface water exchange between land and sea in predicting its changes under the influence of natural factors and human activity. It provides a framework for assessing different methods and making the best choice for various situations.

General Hydrogeology

Author: E. V. Pinneker,D. E. Howard,J. C. Harvey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521154833

Category: Science

Page: 152

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This 1983 volume is concerned with the features of and the laws governing the occurrence of water in the interior of the Earth. Special attention is paid to the origin of the water in the interior of the Earth, its movements and its changes of state.

Nuclear Geophysics

Applications in Hydrology, Hydrogeology, Engineering Geology, Agriculture and Environmental Science

Author: V.I. Ferronsky

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331912451X

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 736

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The fundamentals of methods in nuclear geophysics and their practical applications in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental science are discussed in this book. The methods and apparatus based on absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for determination of density and soil moisture in natural conditions are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. The theoretical fundamentals and installations of the penetration logging techniques where gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging in combination with static penetration form common complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration without boring holes are described. The developed constructions and practical use penetration logging installations for applications on land and marine shelves are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. The physical fundamentals for the use of the natural stable and radioactive isotopes for study of the global hydrological cycle are provided. The experimental data, origin and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes in the oceans, atmospheric moisture, surface and underground waters are presented in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. The sources and conditions of the radioactive contamination of the natural waters are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13. This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics methods in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. Lecturers, students, and postgraduates in these subjects will also find it useful.

Hillslope Hydrology and Stability

Author: Ning Lu,Jonathan W. Godt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139619853

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6599

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Landslides are caused by a failure of the mechanical balance within hillslopes. This balance is governed by two coupled physical processes: hydrological or subsurface flow and stress. The stabilizing strength of hillslope materials depends on effective stress, which is diminished by rainfall. This book presents a cutting-edge quantitative approach to understanding hydro-mechanical processes across variably saturated hillslope environments and to the study and prediction of rainfall-induced landslides. Topics covered include historic synthesis of hillslope geomorphology and hydrology, total and effective stress distributions, critical reviews of shear strength of hillslope materials and different bases for stability analysis. Exercises and homework problems are provided for students to engage with the theory in practice. This is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in hydrology, geomorphology, engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and geomechanics and for professionals in the fields of civil and environmental engineering and natural hazard analysis.

Karst Hydrogeology and Geomorphology

Author: Derek Ford,Paul D. Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118684990

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 2756

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Originally published in 1989, Karst Geomorphology and Hydrology became the leading textbook on karst studies. This new textbook has been substantially revised and updated. The first half of the book is a systematic presentation of the dissolution kinetics, chemical equilibria and physical flow laws relating to karst environments. It includes details of the many environmental factors that complicate their chemical evolution, with a critique of measurement of karst erosion rates. The second half of the book looks at the classification system for cave systems and the influence of climate and climatic change on karst development. The book ends with chapters on karst water resource management and a look at the important issues of environmental management, including environmental impact assessment, environmental rehabilitation, tourism impacts and conservation values. Practical application of karst studies are explained throughout the text. "This new edition strengthens the book's position as the essential reference in the field. Karst geoscientists will not dare to stray beyond arm's reach of this volume. It is certain to remain the professional standard for many decades." Journal of Cave and Karst Studies, August 2007

The Land-Sea Interactions

Author: Patrick Prouzet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1848217021

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5584

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This book presents a systemic view of the diversity of pressures and impacts produced by climate change and human actions. Erosion of biodiversity by changing ocean chemistry, the intensification of global change raises the problem of the adaptation of living resources. Land uses induce ecological imbalances leading to asphyxiation true coastal ecosystems. More than a billion tons of solid waste must be assimilated by the marine environment and food webs. Radioactive discharges emitted into the atmosphere or into the aquatic environment, raise the question of their future. Sea and Ocean series offers a transversal approach of the ocean system that leads to governance, sustainable resource management and adaptation of societies.

The Hydrogeology of Moab-Spanish Valley, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, with Emphasis on Maps for Water-resource Management and Land-use Planning

Author: Mike Lowe,Janae Wallace,Stephan M. Kirby,Charles E. Bishop

Publisher: Utah Geological Survey

ISBN: 1557917647

Category: Groundwater

Page: 123

View: 5397

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The purpose of this study is to provide tools for water-resource management and land-use planning; to accomplish this purpose we (1) characterize the relationship of geology to ground-water conditions in the Glen Canyon and the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifers, (2) classify the groundwater quality of the Glen Canyon (east of the valley only) and valley-fill aquifers to formally identify and document the beneficial use of ground-water resources, and (3) apply a ground-water flow model using a mass balance approach to determine the potential impact of projected increased numbers of septic-tank systems on water quality in the valley-fill aquifer and thereby recommend appropriate septic-system density requirements to limit water-quality degradation

Hydrological Modelling in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

Author: Howard Wheater,Soroosh Sorooshian,K. D. Sharma

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468081

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9041

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Arid and semi-arid regions are defined as areas where water is at its most scarce. The hydrological regime in these areas is extreme and highly variable, and they face great pressures to deliver and manage freshwater resources. However, there is no guidance on the decision support tools that are needed to underpin flood and water resource management in arid areas. UNESCO initiated the Global network for Water and Development Information for arid lands (GWADI), and arranged a workshop of the world's leading experts to discuss these issues. This book presents chapters from contributors to the workshop, and includes case studies from the world's major arid regions to demonstrate model applications, and web links to tutorials and state of the art modelling software. This volume is a valuable reference for researchers and engineers working on the water resources of arid and semi-arid regions.

History of Hydrogeology

Author: Nicholas Howden,John Mather

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203071344

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 7559

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Lessons can be learnt from the past; from time to time it is useful for practitioners to look back over the historical developments of their science. Hydrogeology has developed from humble beginnings into the broad church of investigatory procedures which collectively form the modern-day hydrogeologist’s tool box. Hydrogeology remains a branch of the over-arching science of geology and today provides analysis of the sub-surface part of the water cycle within a holistic approach to problem solving. The History of Hydrogeology, is a first attempt to bring the story of the evolution of the science of hydrogeology together from a country- or region-specific viewpoint. It does not cover history to the present day, nor does it deal with all countries involved in groundwater studies, but rather takes the story for specific key countries up and until about the period 1975 to 1980. This is when hydrogeology was still evolving and developing, and in some areas doing so quite rapidly. The book has been written not only for practitioners of hydrogeology and hydrology but also for teachers and students to see the context of the evolution of the science around the globe. The History of Hydrogeology will also be of interest to science historians and all those interested in the role that individuals, institutes and nations have played over the years in defining modern day studies of groundwater.

Arid Lands Water Evaluation and Management

Author: Robert Maliva,Thomas Missimer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 364229104X

Category: Science

Page: 1076

View: 7461

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A large part of the global population lives in arid lands which have low rainfall and often lack the water required for sustainable population and economic growth. This book presents a comprehensive description of the hydrogeology and hydrologic processes at work in arid lands. It describes the techniques that can be used to assess and manage the water resources of these areas with an emphasis on groundwater resources, including recent advances in hydrologic evaluation and the differences between how aquifer systems behave in arid lands versus more humid areas. Water management techniques are described and summarized to show how a more comprehensive approach to water management is required in these areas, including the need to be aware of cultural sensitivities and conditions unique to many arid regions. The integration of existing resources with the addition of new water sources, such as desalination of brackish water and seawater, along with reusing treated wastewater, will be required to meet future water supply needs. Also, changing climatic conditions will force water management systems to be more robust so that future water supply demands can be met as droughts become more intense and rainfall events become more intense. A range of water management techniques are described and discussed in order to illustrate the methods for integrating these measures within the context of arid lands conditions.