Life After Life Imprisonment

Author: Catherine Appleton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199582718

Category: Law

Page: 252

View: 2090

DOWNLOAD NOW »
One of the most contentious and sensitive topics in criminal justice, Life after Life Imprisonment looks at the release and resettlement of life-sentenced offenders in England and Wales - where there are very few prisoners in the system for whom 'life' means life. By providing an in-depth analysis of the post-prison experiences of 138 discretionary life-sentenced offenders, all of whom were released during the mid-1990s, this book looks at the reality facing Lifers as they are released at some time during their sentences, usually on very long licences, to be closely monitored and supervised by probation officers. Using accessible and comprehensive data, it examines key legal developments within the criminal justice system for discretionary life-sentenced offenders, explores the frontline experiences of the probation officers charged with supervising life-sentenced offenders, and analyses the 'stories' or life narratives of a group of individuals who have committed some of the most serious crimes. It also examines the process of recall for life-sentenced prisoners and explores key factors associated with failure in the community. Of interest to legal scholars and criminologists, as well as practitioners in the field, Catherine Appleton's book offers a major insight into how societies respond to serious crime and identifies important elements of successful reintegration for released life-sentenced offenders.

Life After Life Imprisonment

Author: Catherine Appleton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199582718

Category: Law

Page: 252

View: 7597

DOWNLOAD NOW »
One of the most contentious and sensitive topics in criminal justice, Life after Life Imprisonment looks at the release and resettlement of life-sentenced offenders in England and Wales - where there are very few prisoners in the system for whom 'life' means life. By providing an in-depth analysis of the post-prison experiences of 138 discretionary life-sentenced offenders, all of whom were released during the mid-1990s, this book looks at the reality facing Lifers as they are released at some time during their sentences, usually on very long licences, to be closely monitored and supervised by probation officers. Using accessible and comprehensive data, it examines key legal developments within the criminal justice system for discretionary life-sentenced offenders, explores the frontline experiences of the probation officers charged with supervising life-sentenced offenders, and analyses the 'stories' or life narratives of a group of individuals who have committed some of the most serious crimes. It also examines the process of recall for life-sentenced prisoners and explores key factors associated with failure in the community. Of interest to legal scholars and criminologists, as well as practitioners in the field, Catherine Appleton's book offers a major insight into how societies respond to serious crime and identifies important elements of successful reintegration for released life-sentenced offenders.

Crime and Markets

Essays in Anti-criminology

Author: Vincenzo Ruggiero

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199248117

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4668

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Whereas conventional analysis of criminal behaviour highlights social disadvantage, unemployment or lack of resources, this text develops the argument that abundance of opportunities and resources may lead to specific forms of criminality.

Where next for criminal justice?

Author: Faulkner, David,Burnett, Ros

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447306163

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6852

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Successive governments have promised to reform criminal justice in England and Wales and to make it more efficient and more effective in preventing and reducing crime. And yet there is still a feeling that not enough has been achieved and more has to be done - a feeling that the English riots in August 2011 painfully revived. Where Next for Criminal Justice? offers a principled framework for the development of policy, legislation and practice, and argues with examples for an approach to criminal justice which acknowledges the limitations on what governments and reforms of criminal justice can achieve on their own, and where the focus is on promoting procedural justice and legitimacy; fostering human decency and civility; and enabling prevention, restoration and desistance from crime.

Getting Out

Early Release in England and Wales, 1960 - 1995

Author: Thomas Guiney

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198803683

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 7721

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Getting Out: Early Release in England and Wales, 1960-1995 explores the evolution of early release in England and Wales between 1960-1995. In recent years crime has become a highly contested political issue with implications for the humanity, fairness and effectiveness of the criminal justice system. This book turns current crime debate on its head and examines the circumstances in which politicians and policy-makers have found it desirable to reduce the custodial element of a prison sentence and encourage the rehabilitation of offenders in the community. Drawing upon a period of detailed archival research this book considers three critical moments of reform which have helped to shape the historical evolution of this secretive and little understood area of public policy. It argues that early release has always been bound up with prevailing societal justifications for punishment and the appropriate use of imprisonment within our liberal democratic system. It draws attention to the uneasy constitutional balance of power between the judiciary and the executive, and reflects upon the administrative task of governing large captive populations where the hopes and expectations of inmates do not always align with the interests of prison authorities or the community at large. Getting Out: Early Release in England and Wales, 1960-1995 This book challenges widespread assumptions about policy change and shows how the historical evolution of parole in England and Wales was shaped, to a significant degree, by the legacy of past political choices and the fluid balance of power within government.

Criminology and Social Theory

Author: David Garland,Richard Sparks

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198299424

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 656

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this unique collection, a distinguished group of social theorists reflect upon the ways in which crime and its control feature in the political and cultural landscapes of contemporary societies. The book brings together for the first time some of today's most powerful social analysts in a discussion of the meaning of crime and punishment in late-modern society. The result is a stimulating and provocative volume that will be of equal interest to specialist criminologists and those working in the fields of social and cultural studies.

Beyond the Banality of Evil

Criminology and Genocide

Author: Augustine Brannigan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199674626

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 9002

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Offering the author's reflections on how to interpret genocide as a crime, this book endeavours to understand how the theories of criminal motivation might shed light on these stunning events and make them comprehensible, including a new and compelling account of the dynamics of the 1994 Rwanda genocide.

Justice, Mercy, and Caprice

Clemency and the Death Penalty in Ireland

Author: Ian O'Donnell

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192519441

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 9650

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Justice, Mercy, and Caprice is a work of criminal justice history that speaks to the gradual emergence of a more humane Irish state. It is a close examination of the decision to grant clemency to men and women sentenced to death between the end of the civil war in 1923 and the abolition of capital punishment in 1990. Frequently, the decision to deflect the law from its course was an attempt to introduce a measure of justice to a system where the mandatory death sentence for murder caused predictable unfairness and undue harshness. In some instances the decision to spare a life sprang from merciful motivations. In others it was capricious, depending on factors that should have had no place in the government's decision-making calculus. The custodial careers of those whose lives were spared repay scrutiny. Women tended to serve relatively short periods in prison but were often transferred to a religious institution where their confinement continued, occasionally for life. Men, by contrast, served longer in prison but were discharged directly to the community. Political offenders were either executed hastily or, when the threat of capital punishment had passed, incarcerated for extravagant periods. This book addresses issues that are of continuing relevance for countries that employ capital punishment. It will appeal to scholars with an interest in criminal justice history, executive discretion, and death penalty studies, as well as being a useful resource for students of penology.

Prisoners, Solitude, and Time

Author: Ian O'Donnell

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199684489

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 816

DOWNLOAD NOW »
While the deleterious effects of penal isolation are well known, little systematic attention has been given to the factors associated with surviving, and even triumphing over, prolonged exposure to solitary confinement. Through a re-examination of the roles of silence and separation in penal policy, and by contrasting the prisoner experience with that of individuals who have sought out institutional solitariness (for example as members of certain religiousorders), and others who have found themselves held in solitary confinement although they committed no crime (such as hostages and some political prisoners), Prisoners, Solitude, and Time seeks to assess theimpact of long-term isolation and the rationality of such treatment. In doing so, it aims to stimulate interest in a somewhat neglected aspect of the prisoner's psychological world, including how to prepare them for the harshness of solitary confinement, as well as risk assessments for potential suicides and other issues.

Bouncers

Violence and Governance in the Night-time Economy

Author: Dick Hobbs

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199252244

Category: Law

Page: 323

View: 7647

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In recent years, the expansion of night-time leisure has emerged as a key indicator of post-industrial urban prosperity, attracting investment, creating employment, and re-generating the built environment. These leisure economies are youth-dominated, focusing upon the sale and consumption of alcohol. Unprecedented numbers of young people now flock to town centres that are crammed with bars, pubs, and clubs, and the resulting violent disorder has over run police resources that remain geared to the drinking patterns and alcohol cultures of previous generations. Post-industrial re-structuring has spawned an increasingly complex mass of night-time leisure options through which numerous licit and illicit commercial opportunities flow. Yet, regardless of the fashionable and romantic notions of many contemporary urban theorists, it is alcohol, mass intoxication, and profit rather than 'cultural regeneration,' which lies at the heart of this rapidly expanding dimension of post-industrial urbanism. Private security in the bulky form of bouncers fills the void left by the public police. These men (only 7% are women), whose activities are barely regulated by the State, are dominated by a powerful subculture rooted in routine violence and intimidation. Using ethnography, participant observation, and extensive interviews with all the main players, this controversial book charts the emergence of the bouncer as one of the most graphic symbols in the iconography of post-industrial Britain.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Implications for Justice Policy

Author: John F. MacLeod,Peter Grove,David Farrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199697248

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 2179

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Policing World Society

Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation

Author: Mathieu Deflem

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199274710

Category: Law

Page: 301

View: 6688

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Deflem analyzes the history of international police cooperation from the middle of the 19th century until World War II. The text is a detailed exploration of international cooperation strategies involving police institutions from the United States and Germany as well as other European countries.

Prisons and Their Moral Performance

A Study of Values, Quality, and Prison Life

Author: Alison Liebling

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 549

View: 9523

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book constitutes a critical case study of the modern search for public sector reform. It includes a detailed account of a study aimed at developing a meaningful way of evaluating difficult-to-measure moral dimensions of the quality of prisons. Penal practices, values, and sensibilities have undergone important transformations over the period 1990-2003. Part of this transformation included a serious flirtation with a liberal penal project that went wrong. A significant factor in this unfortunate turn of events was a lack of clarity, by those working in and managing prisons, about important terms such as 'justice', 'liberal', and 'care', and how they might apply to daily penal life. Official measures of the prison seem to lack relevance to many who live and work in prison and to their critics. The author proposes that a truer test of the quality of prison life is what staff and prisoners have to say about those aspects of prison life that 'matter most': relationships, fairness, order, and the quality of their treatment. The book attempts a detailed analysis and measurement of these dimensions in five prisons. It finds significant differences between establishments in these areas of prison life, and some departures from the official vision of the prison supported by the performance framework. The information revolution has generated unprecedented levels of knowledge about individual prisons, as well as providing a management reach into establishments from adistance, and a capacity for 'chronic revision', that was unimaginable fifty years ago. Another major transformation - the modernisation project - brought with it a new, but flawed, 'craft' of performance monitoring and measurement aimed at solving some of the problems of prison management. This book explores the arrival and the impact of this concept of performance and the links apparently forged between managerialism and moral values.

Traces of Terror

Counter-Terrorism Law, Policing, and Race

Author: Victoria Sentas

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780199674633

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

View: 9232

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Presents an innovative new argument that counter-terrorism law and policing produce a 'common sense' knowledge about Muslims and targeted ethnic minorities which, in turn, establishes contemporary practices, understandings and norms which mark these groups as 'of interest' to law enforcement and other organisations.

Punish and Expel

Border Control, Nationalism, and the New Purpose of the Prison

Author: Emma Kaufman

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198712602

Category:

Page: 272

View: 522

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In 2006, after a scandal that gripped the country, the British government began to transform its prison system. Under pressure to find and expel foreigners, Her Majesty's Prison Service began concentrating non-citizens in prisons with 'embedded' border agents. Today, prison officers refer anyone suspected of being foreign to immigration authorities and prisoners facing deportation are detained in special prisons devoted to confining non-citizens. Those who cannot be deported linger, sometimes for years, indefinitely detained behind prison walls. The British approach to foreign nationals reflects a broader trend in punishment. Over the past decade, penal institutions across England, the United States, and Western Europe have become key sites for border control. Offering the first comprehensive account of the imprisonment of non-citizens in the United Kingdom, Punish and Expel: Border Control, Nationalism, and the New Purpose of the Prison draws on extensive empirical data, based on fieldwork in five men's prisons, to explore the relationship between punishment and citizenship. Using first-hand testimonies from hundreds of prisoners, prison officers, and high-level policy makers, it describes how prisons create a national identity and goes inside citizenship classes and 'all-foreign' prisons, documenting the treatment of non-citizens by other prisoners and staff. Passionately argued and meticulously researched, Punish and Expel links prisons to the history of British colonialism and the contemporary politics of race, whilst challenging the reader to rethink their approach to prisons, and to the people held inside them.

Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment

Author: Senior Research Fellow Institute of Stephen Farrall,Stephen Farrall,Richard Sparks,Shadd Maruna,Mike Hough,Professor of Social Policy Mike Hough

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136859594

Category: Law

Page: 288

View: 9990

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Escape Routes: Contemporary Perspectives on Life After Punishment addresses the reasons why people stop offending, and the processes by which they are rehabilitated or resettled back into the community. Engaging with, and building upon, renewed criminological interest in this area, Escape Routes nevertheless broadens and enlivens the current debate. First, its scope goes beyond a narrowly-defined notion of crime and includes, for example, essays on religious redemption, the lives of ex-war criminals, and the relationship between ethnicity and desistance from crime. Second, contributors to this volume draw upon a number of areas of contemporary research, including urban studies, philosophy, history, religious studies, and ethics, as well as criminology. Examining new theoretical work in the study of desistance and exploring the experiences of a number of groups whose experiences of life after punishment do not usually attract much attention, Escape Routes provides new insights about the processes associated with reform, resettlement and forgiveness. Intended to drive our understanding of life after punishment forward, its rich array of theoretical and substantive papers will be of considerable interest to criminologists, lawyers, and sociologists.

The Culture of Control

Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society

Author: David Garland

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226283845

Category: Law

Page: 307

View: 2831

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The United States and the United Kingdom have both become nations of stringent social control, from rapidly growing prison populations to ever increasing surveillance, curtailment of civil liberties, and restriction of the underclass. The Culture of control charts the evolution of this approach to law and order--politically, legally, and in terms of the average citizen's view of criminal "others" and their civil liberties.

When Children Kill Children

Penal Populism and Political Culture

Author: David A. Green

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191629766

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 4900

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This title examines the role of political culture and penal populism in the response to the emotive subject of child-on-child homicide. Green explores the reasons underlying the vastly differing responses of the English and Norwegian criminal justice systems to the cases of James Bulger and Silje Redergard respectively. Whereas James Bulger's killers were subject to extreme press and public hostility, and held in secure detention for nine months before being tried in an adversarial court, and served eight years in custody, a Redergard's killers were shielded from public antagonism and carefully reintegrated into the local community. This book argues that English adversarial political culture creates far more incentives to politicize high-profile crimes than Norwegian consensus political culture. Drawing on a wealth of empirical research, Green suggests that the tendency for politicians to justify punitive responses to crime by invoking harsh political attitudes is based upon a flawed understanding of public opinion. In a compelling study, Green proposes a more deliberative response to crime is possible by making English culture less adversarial and by making informed public judgment more assessable.

Speaking Truths to Power

Policy Ethnography and Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Author: Jarrett Blaustein

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198723295

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 7927

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Speaking Truths to Power: Policy Ethnography and Police Reform in Bosnia and Herzegovina presents a rigorous institutional-level analysis of the effects of globalisation on local policing, drawing on data generated from two ethnographic case studies conducted in 2011 in the transitional, post-conflict society of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Through a study of the structures, mentalities and practices, it situates the phenomenon of 'glocal policing' in relation to the converging development and security discourses following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and raises important questions about the purpose and value of criminological engagement with transitional policing. The idea of 'speaking truths to power' (as opposed to a single 'truth') is illustrated by the author's 2011 fieldwork, covering active police capacity building projects implemented by international organisations. Both studies indicate that global inequalities affect police reform projects, but also that nodal opportunities do exist for seemingly disempowered stakeholders, specifically international development workers and rank-and-file police officers, to exercise reflexivity and use their available power resources to mitigate structural harms, thus rendering their work responsive to the needs of policy recipients. This mediatory role is then analysed through the conceptual lens of 'policy translation', providing an innovative framework for interpreting how policy meaning and content are altered as a result of their transmission between contexts. Through detailed and persuasive investigation, Speaking Truths to Power argues that it is time for criminology to move beyond the established broad structural critiques of transnational policing power. As the author demonstrates, an institutional perspective employing ethnographic methods can ensure that the revealed criticisms adequately reflect the diverse interests, experiences and understandings of the research participants.

Sexed Work

Gender, Race and Resistance in a Brooklyn Drug Market

Author: Lisa Maher

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198299311

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 5976

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Based on three years of ethnographic work in New York City, this book provides the first detailed account of the economic lives of women drug users. Set in a neighborhood plagued with AIDS, Sexed Work reveals the economic lives of a group of women who se options have been severely circumscribed, not only by drug use, but also by poverty, racism, violence, and enduring marginality. This rich, nuanced and theoretically sophisticated study of 'crime as work' will be compelling reading for all those interested in the way in which women deal with the intersection of gender, race, and work.