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Author: David E. Sadava,David M. Hillis,H. Craig Heller,May Berenbaum
Publisher: W. H. Freeman
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The Science of Biology
Author: David E. Sadava,David M. Hillis,H. Craig Heller,May Berenbaum
Publisher: Macmillan Higher Education
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This is an authoritative introductory text that presents biological concepts through the research that revealed them. "Life" covers the full range of topics with an integrated experimental focus that flows naturally from the narrative.
Plants and Animals
Author: William K. Purves,Gordon H. Orians,David Sadava,H. Craig Heller
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The text and CD-ROM shows biology not as a collection of facts, but as a dynamic discipline. The student's understanding of biological processes is developed through pedagogy, using narrative, experimental contexts and art within the scholarship.
Author: William Kirkwood Purves
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Biology is a constantly changing scientific field. New discoveries about the living world are being made every day, and more than 1 million new research articles in biology are published each year. Beyond the constant need to update the concepts and facts presented in any science textbook, in recent years ideas about how best to educate the upcoming generation of biologists have undergone dynamic and exciting change. Although we and many of our colleagues had thought about the nature of biological education as individuals, it is only recently that biologists have come together to discuss these issues. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and College Board AP Biology Program not only express concern about how best to instruct undergraduates in biology, but offer concrete suggestions about how to design the introductory biology course—and by extension, our book. We have followed these discussions closely and have been especially impressed with the report “Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education” (visionandchange. org). As participants in the educational enterprise, we have answered the report’s call to action with this textbook and its associated ancillary materials. The “Vision and Change” report proposes five core concepts for biological literacy: 1. Evolution 2. Structure and function 3. Information flow, exchange, and storage 4. Pathways and transformations of energy and matter 5. Systems These five concepts have always been recurring themes in Life, but in this Tenth Edition we have brought them even more “front and center.” “Vision and Change” also advocates that students learn and demonstrate core competencies, including the ability to apply the process of science using quantitative reasoning. Life has always emphasized the experimental nature of biology. This edition responds further to these core competency issues with a new working with data feature and the addition of a statistics primer (Appendix B). The authors’ multiple educational perspectives and areas of expertise, as well as input from many colleagues and students who used previous editions, have informed the approach to this new edition. Enduring Features We remain committed to blending the presentation of core ideas with an emphasis on introducing students to the process of scientific inquiry. Having pioneered the idea of depicting important experiments in unique figures designed to help students understand and appreciate the way scientific investigations work, we continue to develop this approach in the book’s 70 Investigating Life figures. Each of these figures sets the experiment in perspective and relates it to the accompanying text. As in previous editions, these figures employ the structure Hypothesis, Method, Results, and Conclusion. We have added new information focusing on the individuals who performed these experiments so students can appreciate more fully that science is a human and very personal activity. Each Investigating Life figure has a reference to BioPortal (yourBioPortal.com), where discussion and references to follow-up research can be found. A related feature is the Research Tools figures, which depict laboratory and field methods used in biology. These, too, have been expanded to provide more useful context for their importance. Some 15 years ago, Life’s authors and publishers pioneered the use of balloon captions in our figures. We recognized then that many students are visual learners, and this fact is even truer today. Life’s balloon captions bring the crucial explanations of intricate, complex processes directly into the illustration, allowing students to integrate information without repeatedly going back and forth between the figure, its legend, and the text. We continue to refine our chapter organization. Our opening stories have always provide historical, medical, or social context to intrigue students and show how the subject of each chapter relates to the world around them. In the Tenth Edition, the opening stories all end with a question that is revisited throughout the chapter. At the end of each chapter the answer is presented in the light of material the student encountered in the body of the chapter. A chapter outline asks questions to emphasize scientific inquiry, each of which is answered in a major section of the chapter. A Recap summarizes each section’s key concepts and poses questions that help the student review and test their mastery of these concepts. The recap questions are similar in form to the learning objectives used in many introductory biology courses. The Chapter Summaries highlight each chapter’s key figures and defined terms, while restating the major concepts presented in the chapter in a concise and student-friendly manner, with references to specific figures and to the activities and animated tutorials available in BioPortal. At the end of the book, students will find a much-expanded glossary that continues Life’s practice of providing Latin or Greek derivations for many of the defined terms. As students become gradually (and painlessly) more familiar with such root words, the mastery of vocabulary as they continue in their biological or medical studies will be easier. In addition, the popular Tree of Life appendix (Appendix A) presents the phylogenetic tree of life as a reference tool that allows students to place any group of organisms mentioned in the text into the context of the rest of life. The web-based version of Appendix A provides links to photos, keys, species lists, distribution maps, and other information (via the online database at DiscoverLife.org) to help students explore biodiversity in greater detail. New Features The Tenth Edition of Life has a different look and feel from its predecessors. The new color palette and more open design will, we hope, be more accessible to students. And, in keeping with our heightened emphasis on scientific inquiry and quantitative analysis, we have added Working with Data exercises to almost all chapters. In these innovative exercises, we describe the context and approach of a research paper that provides the basis of the analysis. We then ask questions that require students to analyze data, make calculations, and draw conclusions. Answers (or suggested possible answers) to these questions are included in BioPortal and can be made available to students at the instructor’s discretion. Because many of the questions in the Working with Data exercises require the use of basic statistical methods, we have included a Statistics Primer as the book’s Appendix B, describing the concepts and some methods of statistical analysis. We hope that the Working with Data exercises and statistics primer will reinforce students’ skills and their ability to apply quantitative analysis to biology. We have added links to Media Clips in the body of the text, with at least one per chapter. These brief clips are intended to enlighten and entertain. Recognizing the widespread use of “smart phones” by students, the textbook includes instant access (QR) codes that bring the Media Clips, Animated Tutorials, and Interactive Summaries directly to the screen in your hand. If you do not have a smart phone, never fear, we also provide direct web addresses to these features. As educators, we follow current discussions of pedagogy in biological education. The chapter-ending Chapter Reviews now contain multiple levels of questions based on Bloom’s taxonomy: Remembering, Understanding and Applying, and Analyzing and Evaluating. Answers to these questions appear at the end of the book. For a detailed description of the media and supplements available for the Tenth Edition, please turn to “Life’s Media and Supplements” on page xvii. The Ten Parts PART ONE, THE SCIENCE OF LIFE AND ITS CHEMICAL BASIS Chapter 1 introduces the core concepts set forth in the “Vision and Change” report and continues the much-praised approach of focusing on a specific series of experiments that introduces students to biology as an experimentally based and constantly expanding science. Chapter 1 emphasizes the principles of biology that are the foundation for the rest of the book, including the unity of life at the cellular level and how evolution unites the living world. Chapters 2–4 cover the chemical principles and building blocks that underlie life. Chapter 4 also includes a discussion of how life could have evolved from inanimate chemicals. PART TWO, CELLS The nature of cells and their role as the structural and functional basis of life is foundational to biology. These revised chapters include expanded explanations of how experimental manipulations of living systems have been used to discover cause and effect in biology. Students who are intrigued by the question “Where did the first cells come from?” will appreciate the updated discussion of ideas on the origin of cells and organelles, as well as expanded discussion of the evolution of multicellularity and cell interactions. In response to reviewer comments, the discussion of membrane potential has been moved to Chapter 45, where students may find it to be more relevant. PART THREE, CELLS AND ENERGY The biochemistry of life and energy transformations are among the most challenging topics for many students. We have worked to clarify such concepts as enzyme inhibition, allosteric enzymes, and the integration of biochemical systems. Revised presentations of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle now focus, in both text and figures, on key concepts and attempt to limit excessive detail. There are also revised discussions of the ecological roles of alternate pathways of photosynthetic carbon fixation, as well as the roles of accessory pigments and reaction center in photosynthesis. PART FOUR, GENES AND HEREDITY This crucial section of the book is revised to improve clarity, link related concepts, and provide updates from recent research results. Rather than being segregated into separate chapters, material on prokaryotic genetics and molecular medicine are now interwoven into relevant chapters. Chapter 11 on the cell cycle includes a new discussion of how the mechanisms of cell division are altered in cancer cells. Chapter 12 on transmission genetics now includes coverage of this phenomenon in prokaryotes. Chapters 13 and 14 cover gene expression and gene regulation, including new discoveries about the roles of RNA and an expanded discussion of epigenetics. Chapter 15 covers the subject of gene mutations and describes updated applications of medical genetics. PART FIVE, GENOMES This extensive and up-to-date coverage of genomes expands and reinforces the concepts covered in Part Four. The first chapter of Part Five describes how genomes are analyzed and what they tell us about the biology of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, including humans. Methods of DNA sequencing and genome analysis, familiar to many students in a general way, are rapidly improving, and we discuss these advances as well as how bioinformatics is used. This leads to a chapter describing how our knowledge of molecular biology and genetics underpins biotechnology—the application of this knowledge to practical problems and issues such as stem cell research. Part Five closes with a unique sequence of two chapters that explore the interface of developmental processes with molecular biology (Chapter 19) and with evolution (Chapter 20), providing students with a link between these two crucial topics and a bridge to Part Six. PART SIX, THE PATTERNS AND PROCESSES OF EVOLUTION Many students come to the introductory biology course with ideas about evolution already firmly in place. One common view, that evolution is only about Darwin, is firmly put to rest at the start of Chapter 21, which not only illustrates the practical value of fully understanding modern evolutionary biology, but briefly and succinctly traces the history of “Darwin’s dangerous idea” through the twentieth century and up to the present syntheses of molecular evolutionary genetics and evolutionary developmental biology—fields of study that uphold and support the principles of evolutionary biology as the basis for comparing and comprehending all other aspects of biology. The remaining sections of Chapter 21 describe the mechanisms of evolution in clear, matter-of-fact terms. Chapter 22 describes phylogenetic trees as a tool not only of classification but also of evolutionary inquiry. The remaining chapters cover speciation and molecular evolution, concluding with an overview of the evolutionary history of life on Earth. PART SEVEN, THE EVOLUTION OF DIVERSITY Continuing the theme of how evolution has shaped our world, Part Seven introduces the latest views on biodiversity and the evolutionary relationships among organisms. The chapters have been revised with the aim of making it easier for students to appreciate the major evolutionary changes that have taken place within the different groups of organisms. These chapters emphasize understanding the big picture of organismal diversity—the tree of life—as opposed to memorizing a taxonomic hierarchy and names. Throughout the book, the tree of life is emphasized as a way of understanding and organizing biological information. PART EIGHT, FLOWERING PLANTS: FORM AND FUNCTION The emphasis of this modern approach to plant form and function is not only on the basic findings that led to the elucidation of mechanisms for plant growth and reproduction, but also on the use of genetics of model organisms. In response to users of earlier editions, material covering recent discoveries in plant molecular biology and signaling has been reorganized and streamlined to make it more accessible to students. There are also expanded and clearer explanations of such topics as water relations, the plant body plan, and gamete formation and double fertilization. PART NINE, ANIMALS: FORM AND FUNCTION This overview of animal physiology begins with a sequence of chapters covering the systems of information—endocrine, immune, and neural. Learning about these information systems provides important groundwork and explains the processes of control and regulation that affect and integrate the individual physiological systems covered in the remaining chapters of the Part. Chapter 45, “Neurons and Nervous Systems,” has been rearranged and contains descriptions of exciting new discoveries about glial cells and their role in the vertebrate nervous system. The organization of several other chapters has been revised to reflect recent findings and to allow the student to more readily identify the most important concepts to be mastered. PART TEN, ECOLOGY Part Ten continues Life’s commitment to presenting the experimental and quantitative aspects of biology, with increased emphasis on how ecologists design and conduct experiments. New exercises provide opportunities for students to see how ecological data are acquired in the laboratory and in the field, how these data are analyzed, and how the results are applied to answer questions. There is also an expanded discussion of aquatic biomes and a more synthetic explanation of how aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric components integrate to influence the distribution and abundance of life on Earth. In addition there is an expanded emphasis on examples of successful strategies proposed by ecologists to mitigate human impacts on the environment; rather than an inventory of ways human activity adversely affects natural systems, this revised Tenth Edition provides more examples of ways that ecological principles can be applied to increase the sustainability of these systems. Exceptional Value Formats We again provide Life both as the full book and as a set of paperback volumes. Thus, instructors who want to use less than the whole book can choose from these split volumes, each of which contains the book’s front matter, appendices, glossary, and index. • Volume I, The Cell and Heredity, includes: Part One, The Science of Life and Its Chemical Basis (Chapters 1–4); Part Two, Cells (Chapters 5–7); Part Three, Cells and Energy (Chapters 8–10); Part Four, Genes and Heredity (Chapters 11–16); and Part Five, Genomes (Chapters 17–20). • Volume II, Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology, includes: Chapter 1, Studying Life; Part Six, The Patterns and Processes of Evolution (Chapters 21–25); Part Seven, The Evolution of Diversity (Chapters 26–33); and Part Ten, Ecology (Chapters 54–59). • Volume III, Plants and Animals, includes: Chapter 1, Studying Life; Part Eight, Flowering Plants: Form and Function (Chapters 34–39); and Part Nine, Animals: Form and Function (Chapters 40–53). Responding to student concerns, there also are two ways to obtain the entire book at a significantly reduced cost. The looseleaf edition of Life is a shrink-wrapped, unbound, three-holepunched version that fits into a three-ring binder. Students take only what they need to class and can easily integrate instructor handouts and other resources. Life was the first comprehensive biology text to offer the entire book as a truly robust eBook, and we offer the Tenth Edition in this flexible, interactive format that gives students a different way to read the text and learn the material. The eBook integrates student media resources (animations, activities, interactive summaries, and quizzes) and offers instructors a powerful way to customize the textbook with their own text, images, web links, and, in BioPortal, quizzes, and other materials. We are proud that our print edition is a greener Life that minimizes environmental impact. Life was the first introductory biology text to be printed on paper earning the Forest Stewardship Council label, the “gold standard in green paper,” and it continues to be manufactured from wood harvested from sustainable forests. Many People to Thank One of the wisest pieces of advice ever given to a textbook author is to “be passionate about your subject, but don’t put your ego on the page.” Considering all the people who looked over our shoulders throughout the process of creating this book, this advice could not be more apt. We are indebted to the many people who help to make this book what it is. First and foremost among these are our colleagues, biologists from over 100 institutions. Before we set pen to paper, we solicited the advice of users of Life’s Ninth Edition, as well as users of other books. These reviewers gave detailed suggestions for improvements. Other colleagues acted as reviewers when the book was almost completed, pointing out inaccuracies or lack of clarity. All of these biologists are listed in the reviewer credits, along with the dozens who reviewed all of the revised assessment resources. Once we began writing, we had the superb advice of a team of experienced, knowledgeable, and patient biologists working as development and line editors. Laura Green of Sinauer Associates headed the team and coordinated her own fine work with that of Jane Murfett, Norma Roche, and Liz Pierson to produce a polished and professional text. We are especially indebted to Laura for her work on the important Investigating Life and new Working with Data elements. For the tenth time in ten editions, Carol Wigg oversaw the editorial process. Her positive influence pervades the entire book. Artist Elizabeth Morales again translated our crude sketches into beautiful new illustrations. We hope you agree that our art program remains superbly clear and elegant. Johannah Walkowicz effectively coordinated the hundreds of reviews described above. David McIntyre, photo editor extraordinaire, researched and provided us with new photographs, including many of his own, to enrich the book’s content and visual statement. Joanne Delphia is responsible for the crisp new design and layout that make this edition of Life not just clear and readable but beautiful as well. Christopher Small headed Sinauer’s production team and contributed in innumerable ways to bringing Life to its final form. Jason Dirks coordinated the creation of our array of media and instructor resources, with Mary Tyler, Mitch Walkowicz, and Carolyn Wetzel serving as editors for our expanded assessment supplements. W. H. Freeman continues to bring Life to a wider audience. Associate Director of Marketing Debbie Clare, the regional specialists, regional managers, and experienced sales force are effective ambassadors and skillful transmitters of the features and unique strengths of our book. We depend on their expertise and energy to keep us in touch with how Life is perceived by its users. Thanks also to the Freeman media group for eBook and BioPortal production. Finally, we thank our friend Andy Sinauer. Like ours, his name is on the cover of the book, and he truly cares deeply about what goes into it. DAVID SADAVA DAVID HILLIS CRAIG HELLER MAY BERENBAUM DAVID SADAVA is the Pritzker Family Foundation Professor of Biology, Emeritus at the Keck Science Center of Claremont McKenna, Pitzer, and Scripps, three of The Claremont Colleges. In addition, he is Adjunct Professor of Cancer Cell Biology at the City of Hope Medical Center in Duarte, California. Twice winner of the Huntoon Award for superior teaching, Dr. Sadava has taught courses on introductory biology, biotechnology, biochemistry, cell biology, molecular biology, plant biology, and cancer biology. In addition to Life: The Science of Biology and Principles of Life, he is the author or coauthor of books on cell biology and on plants, genes, and crop biotechnology. His research has resulted in many papers coauthored with his students, on topics ranging from plant biochemistry to pharmacology of narcotic analgesics to human genetic diseases. For the past 15 years, he has investigated multidrug resistance in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells with a view to understanding and overcoming this clinical challenge. At the City of Hope, his current work focuses on new anti-cancer agents from plants. He is the featured lecturer in “Understanding Genetics: DNA, Genes and their Real-World Applications,“ a video course for The Great Courses series. DAVID M. HILLIS is the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor in Integrative Biology and the Director of the Dean’s Scholars Program at the University of Texas at Austin, where he also has directed the School of Biological Sciences and the Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Dr. Hillis has taught courses in introductory biology, genetics, evolution, systematics, and biodiversity. He has been elected to the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, awarded a John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur fellowship, and has served as President of the Society for the Study of Evolution and of the Society of Systematic Biologists. He served on the National Research Council committee that wrote the report BIO 2010: Transforming Undergraduate Biology Education for Research Biologists. His research interests span much of evolutionary biology, including experimental studies of viral evolution, empirical studies of natural molecular evolution, applications of phylogenetics, analyses of biodiversity, and evolutionary modeling. He is particularly interested in teaching and research about the practical applications of evolutionary biology. H. CRAIG HELLER is the Lorry I. Lokey/Business Wire Professor in Biological Sciences and Human Biology at Stanford University. He has taught in the core biology courses at Stanford since 1972 and served as Director of the Program in Human Biology, Chairman of the Biological Sciences Department, and Associate Dean of Research. Dr. Heller is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and a recipient of the Walter J. Gores Award for excellence in teaching and the Kenneth Cuthberson Award for Exceptional Service to Stanford University. His research is on the neurobiology of sleep and circadian rhythms, mammalian hibernation, the regulation of body temperature, the physiology of human performance, and the neurobiology of learning. He has done research on a huge variety of animals and physiological problems, including from sleeping kangaroo rats, diving seals, hibernating bears, photoperiodic hamsters, and exercising athletes. Dr. Heller has extended his enthusiasm for promoting active learning via the development of a two-year curriculum in human biology for the middle grades, through the production of Virtual Labs—interactive computer-based modules to teach physiology. MAY BERENBAUM is the Swanlund Professor and Head of the Department of Entomology at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. She has taught courses in introductory animal biology, entomology, insect ecology, and chemical ecology and has received teaching awards at the regional and national levels from the Entomological Society of America. A fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society, she served as President of the American Institute for Biological Sciences in 2009 and currently serves on the Board of Directors of AAAS. Her research addresses insect–plant coevolution and ranges from molecular mechanisms of detoxification to impacts of herbivory on community structure. Concerned with the practical application of ecological and evolutionary principles, she has examined impacts of genetic engineering, global climate change, and invasive species on natural and agricultural ecosystems. In recognition of her work, she received the 2011 Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement. Devoted to fostering science literacy, she has published numerous articles and five books on insects for the general public. The Authors DAVID HILLIS MAY BERENBAUM CRAIG HELLER DAVID SADAVA
Life the Science of Biology,
Author: Sinauer Associates, Inc
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As active scientists working in a wide variety of both basic and applied biology, we are fortunate to be part o f a field that i s not only fasci nating but also changes rapidly. It is apparent not just in the time span since we started our careers-we see i t every day when we open a newspaper or a scientific journal. As educators of both introductOLY and advanced-level students, we desire to convey our excitement about biology's dynamic nature. This new edition of Life looks, and is, qui te differen t from i ts predecessors. In planning the Eight h Edition, we focused on three fundamental goals. The first was to m a i n tain and enhance what has worked well in the past-an emphasis o n not just wha t we know but how we came to know it; the incorporation of exciting new discoveries; an a rt progran1 distinguished by i ts beauty and clari ty; plus a unifying theme. As should be the case i n any biology textbook, that theme is evolution by n a tural selection, a 150- year-old idea that more than ever ties together the livi n g world. We have been greatly helped i n this endeavor by the addition of a new author, David Hillis. His knowledge and insights have been invaluable in developing our chapters on evolution, p hylogeny, and diversity, and they permeate the rest of the book as well. Our second goal h a s been to make Life more pedagogicaUy accessible. From the bold new design to the inclusion of numerous learning aids throughout each chapter (see New Pedagogical Features), we have worked to make our writi ng consistently easy to follow as well as engaging. Third, between editions we asked seven distin guished ecologists- aU of whom teach in troductOLY biology-to provide detailed critiques of the Ecology unit. As a result of their extensive suggestions, Part Nine, Ecology, has a fresh organization (see The Nine Parts). And one of the seven, May Berenbaum, has agreed to join the Life author team for the Ninth Edition. The other six stalwarts are thanked in the "Reviewers o f the Eighth Edi tion" section. Enduring Features As stated above, we are commjtted to a blendin g of a presentation of the core ideas o f biology with a n emphasis on i ntroducing our readers to the process of scientific inquily. Having p ioneered the idea of depicting semi n a l experiments in specially designed figures, we continue to develop this here, with 96 EXPERIMENT figures (28 percent more than in the Seventh Edition). Each follows the structure: Hypothesis, Method, Result, and Conclusion. Many now include " Further Research," which asks students to conceive a n experimen t tha t explores a related question. A rela ted feature is the RESEARCH METHOD figures, depicting many labora tOlY and field methods used to do this research. All the Experimen t and Research Method figures are listed i n the endpapers at the back of the book. Another much-praised feature-which we pioneered ten years ago in Life'S Fifth Edition-is the BALLOON CAPTIONS used in our figures. We know that many students are visual learners. The ba lloon captions brin g explana tions of i ntrica te, complex processes directly into the i llustration, allowing the reader to i n tegrate the information without repeatedly going back and forth between the figure and its legend. Life is the only introductory biology book for science majors that begins each chapter with a story. These OPENING STORIES, most of which are new to this edition, are meant to intrigue students while helping them see how the chapter's biological subject relates to the world around them. New Pedagogical Features There are several new elements in the Eighth Edition chapters. Each has been deSigned as a study tool to ajd the student in mastering the material. In the opening page spread, IN THIS CHAPTER previews the chapter's content, and the CHAPTER OUTLINE gives the major section headings, all numbered and all framed as questions to emphasize the inquilY basis of science. Each m a i n section o f a c h ap ter now ends with a RECAP. This key element briefly summarizes the important concepts in the section, then provides two or three questions to stimulate immediate review. Each question includes reference to pertinent text or a figure or both. The CHAPTER SUMMARY boldfaces key terms i ntroduced and defined in the chapter. We have kept the highlighted references to key figures and to the Web tutorials and activities that support a topic in the chapter. Another new element, BIOBITs, is not strictly a learning ajd, but offers in triguing (occasionally amusing) supplemental information. BioBits, like the opening stories, are intended to help students apprecia te the i nterface between biology and other aspects of Life. Redesigned WEB ICONS a lert the reader to the tutoria ls and activities on Life'S companion website (wwvv.thelifewire.com). Each of these study and review resources, many of which are new for the Eighth Edition, has b e e n crea ted specifically for Life. A full List, by chapter, is found in the front endpapers of the book. The Nine Parts We have reorganized the book into nine parts. Part One sets the stage for the e n tire book, with the opening chapter on biology as an exciting science, startin g with a student project, and how evolution unites the living world. This is followed by chapters on the basic chemical building blocks tha t underlie life. We have tried to tie this material together by relating it to theories on the origin of viii PREFACE life, with new discoveries of water in our solar system as an impetus. In Part Two, CeJJs and Energy, we present an integrated view of the structure and biochemical functions of cells. The ctiscussions of biochemistly are often challenging for students; thus we have reworked both the text and illustrations for greater clarity. These discussions are presented in the context of the latest discoveries on the origin of life and evolution of cells. Part Three, Heredity and the Genome, begins wi th continuity at the cellular level, and then outlines the principles of genetics and the identification of DNA as the genetic material. New examples, such as the genetics of coat color in dogs, enJjven these chapters. This is followed by chapters on gene expression and on the prokmyotic and eukatyotic genomes. Many new discoveries have been made in this new field of genomics, ranging from tracking down the bird flu virus to the genomes of wild cats, such as the cheetah. Part Four, Molecular Biology: The Genome in Action, reinforces the basic principles of classical and molecular genetics by applying them to such diverse topics as cell signaling, biotechnology, and medicine. We use many new experiments and examples from applied biology to illustrate these concepts. These include the latest information on the human genome and the emerging field of systems biology. The chapter on natural defenses now includes a discussion of allergy. Part Five, The Patterns and Processes of Evolution, has been updated in several important ways. We have emphasized the importance of evolutionary biology as a basis for comparing and understanding all aspects of biology, and have described numerous practical appJjcations of evolutionary biology that will be famiJjar and relevant to the evelyday Jjves of most students. Recent experimental studies of evolution are described and explai. ned, to help students understand that evolution is an ongoing, observable process. The chapters on phylogenetics and molecular evolution have been completely rewritten to reflect recent advances in those fields. Other changes reflect our growing knowledge of the histOlY of li.fe on Earth and the mechanisms of evolution that have given rise to all of biodiversity. Part Six, The Evolution of Diversity, reflects the latest views on phylogeny. It continues to emphasize groups LUlited by evolutionmy history over classically defined taxa. Thjs emphasis is now supported by an appendix on the Tree of Life that clearly maps out and describes all groups discussed in the text, so that students can quickly look up unfamiliar names and see how they fit into the larger context of life. We now discuss aspects of phylogeny that are still under study or debate (among major groups of eukaryotes, plants, and animals, for instance). In Part Seven, Flowering P lants: Form and Function, we report on several exciting new discoveries. These include the receptors for auxin, gibberellins, and bras sino steroids as well as great progress on the f10rigen problem. We have updated our treatment of signal trmlsduction pathways and of circadiml rhythms in plmlts. The already strong treatment of envirOlU1lental challenges to plants has been augmented by new Experiment figures on plant defenses against herbivores, one confinrung that lcoti.ne does help tobacco plants resist certain insects. Part Eight, Animals: Form and Function, is about how animals work. Although we give major attention to human physiology, we embed it in a background of comparative animal physiology. Our focus is systems physiology but we also introduce the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. For example, our explanations of nervous system phenomena-whether they be action potentials, sensation, learning, or sleep-are discussed in terms of the properties of ion channels. The actions of hormones are explained in terms of the molecular mechanisms. Maximum athletic performance is explained in terms of the underlying cellular energy systems. Throughout Part Eight we try to help the student make the connections across all levels of biology, from molecular to behavioral, and to see the relevance of physiology to issues of health and ctisease. Of central importance in each chapter is mechmlisms of control and regulation. Part Nine, Ecology, begins with a new chapter that describes the scope of ecological research and discusses recen t advances in our understanding of the broad patterns in the ctistribution of life on Earth. The next chapter, also new, combines Behavior and Behavioral Ecology. It shows how the decisions that orgaIsms make during their lives influence both their survival and reproductive success, and also the dynamics of populations and the structure of ecological communities. The chapter on Population Ecology has new material that explains how ecologists are able to mark and follow individual organisms in the wild to determine their survival and reproductive success. Following a chapter on Community Ecology, another new chapter, Ecosystems and Global Ecology, shows how ecologists are expanding the scope of their studies to encompass the functioning of the global ecosystem. TIs discussion leads naturally to the final chapter in the book, Conservation Biology, which describes how ecologists and conservation biologists work to reduce the rate at which species are becoming extinct as a result of human activities. Full Books, Paperbacks, or Loose-Leaf We again provide Life both as the full book and as a cluster of paperbacks. Thus, instructors who want to use less than the whole book, or who want their students to have more portable UltS, CaI. choose from these split volumes: Volume 1, The Cell and Heredity, includes: Part One, The Science and Building Blocks of Life (Chapters 1-3); Part Two, Cells and Energy (Chapters 4-8); PartThree, Heredity and the Genome (Chapters 9-14); and Part Four, Molecular Biology: The Genome in Action (Chapters 15-20). Volume II, Evolution, Diversity, and Ecology, includes: Chapter 1, Studying Life; Part Five, The Patterns and P rocesses of Evolution (Chapters 21-25); Part Six, The Evolution of Diversity (Chapters 26-33); and Part Nine, Ecology (Chapters 52-57). Volume III, P lants and Animals, includes: Chapter 1, Studying Life; Part Seven, Flowering P lants: Form and Function (Chapters 34-39); and Part Eight, Animals: Form and Function (Chapters 40-51). Note that each volume also includes the book's front matter, Appendixes, Glossary, and Index. Life is also available in a loose-leaf version. T his shrink-wrapped, unbound, 3-hole punched version is designed to fit into a 3-ring binder. Students take only what they need to class and can easily integrate any instructor handouts or other resources. Media and Supplements for the Eighth Edition The media and supplements for Life, Eighth Edition have been assembled with two main goals in mind: (1) to provide students with a collection of tools that helps them effectively master the vast amOlmt of new information that is being presented to them in the introductory biology course; and (2) to provide instructors with the richest possible collection of resources to aid in teaching the course-preparing, presenting the lecture, providing course materials online, and assessing student comprehension. All of the Life media and supplemental resources have been developed specifically for this textbook. T his gives the student the greatest degree of consistency when studying across different media. For example, the animated tutorials and activities found on the Companion Website were built using textbook art, so that the manner in which structures are illustrated, the colors used to identify objects, and the terms and abbreviations used are all consistent. The rich collection of visual resources in the Instructor's Media Library provides instructors with a wide range of options for enhancing lectures, course websites, and assignments. Highlights include: layered art PowerPoint® presentations that break down complex figures into detailed, step-by-step presentations; a collection of approximately 200 video segments that can help capture the attention and imagination of students; and the new set of PowerPoint ® slides of textbook art with editable labels and leaders that allow easy customization of the figures. For a detailed descriptio
Life the Science of Biology
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Help students think and engage like scientists! BIOLOGY: THE DYNAMIC SCIENCE, Second Edition, provides students with a deep understanding of the core concepts in Biology, building a strong foundation for additional study. In a fresh presentation, the authors explain complex ideas clearly and describe how biologists collect and interpret evidence to test hypotheses about the living world. Russell, Hertz, and McMillan spark students’ curiosity about living systems instead of burying it under a mountain of disconnected facts. They engage students with what scientists know about the living world, how they know it, and what they still need to learn. By conveying the author’s passion for biological research, the text helps students cultivate the mental habits of scientists. The accompanying Aplia for Biology interactively guides students through the thought processes and procedures that scientists use in their research and helps them apply and synthesize specific content from the text. Overall, students learn how to think like scientists and engage in the scientific process themselves. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Author: Peter Russell,Paul Hertz,Beverly McMillan
Publisher: Cengage Learning
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This is the first book on "phylogenetic supertrees", a recent, but controversial development for inferring evolutionary trees. Rather than analyze the combined primary character data directly, supertree construction proceeds by combining the tree topologies derived from those data. This difference in strategy has allowed for the exciting possibility of larger, more complete phylogenies than are otherwise currently possible, with the potential to revolutionize evolutionarily-based research. This book provides a comprehensive look at supertrees, ranging from the methods used to build supertrees to the significance of supertrees to bioinformatic and biological research. Reviews of many the major supertree methods are provided and four new techniques, including a Bayesian implementation of supertrees, are described for the first time. The far-reaching impact of supertrees on biological research is highlighted both in general terms and through specific examples from diverse clades such as flowering plants, even-toed ungulates, and primates. The book also critically examines the many outstanding challenges and problem areas for this relatively new field, showing the way for supertree construction in the age of genomics. Interdisciplinary contributions from the majority of the leading authorities on supertree construction in all areas of the bioinformatic community (biology, computer sciences, and mathematics) will ensure that this book is a valuable reference with wide appeal to anyone interested in phylogenetic inference.
Combining Information to Reveal the Tree of Life
Author: Olaf R.P. Bininda-Emonds
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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An account of European knowledge of the natural world, c.1500-1700.
Author: David C. Lindberg,Roy Porter,Katharine Park,Lorraine Daston,Mary Jo Nye,Cambridge University Press,Theodore M. Porter,Dorothy Ross
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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In all six of its volumes The Broadview Anthology of British Literature presents British literature in a truly distinctive light. Fully grounded in sound literary and historical scholarship, the anthology takes a fresh approach to many canonical authors, and includes a wide selection of work by lesser-known writers. The anthology also provides wide-ranging coverage of the worldwide connections of British literature, and it pays attention throughout to issues of race, gender, class, and sexual orientation. It includes comprehensive introductions to each period, providing in each case an overview of the historical and cultural as well as the literary background. It features accessible and engaging headnotes for all authors, extensive explanatory annotations, and an unparalleled number of illustrations and contextual materials. Innovative, authoritative and comprehensive, The Broadview Anthology of British Literature has established itself as a leader in the field. The full anthology comprises six bound volumes, together with an extensive website component; the latter has been edited, annotated, and designed according to the same high standards as the bound book component of the anthology, and is accessible by using the passcode obtained with the purchase of one or more of the bound volumes. For the second edition of this volume a considerable number of changes have been made. Henry Fielding’s Tragedy of Tragedies has been added, as has a new section of material from eighteenth-century periodicals. A new Contexts section entitled “Transatlantic Currents” includes writings by such figures as Paine, Franklin, and Price, as well as material on the slave trade. The Contexts sections on “Town and Country” and on “Mind and God, Faith and Science” have also been expanded; a variety of writings on the Royal Society and other scientific matters have been added to the latter. Additional chapters from Equiano’s Interesting Narrative have been added, and there are new selections by Samuel Johnson (including his “Letter to Lord Chesterfield” and facsimile pages from the Dictionary). Book 3 from Gulliver’s Travels has been added; that work now appears in its entirety. There are also additional selections by Pope, Pepys, and Astell. The Castle of Otranto and The Witlings have been moved from the bound book to the website component of the anthology. (Both are available as volumes in the Broadview Editions series, and may be added at a very modest additional cost in a shrink-wrapped combination package.)
Author: Joseph Black,Leonard Conolly,Kate Flint,Isobel Grundy,Don LePan,Roy Liuzza,Jerome McGann,Anne Lake Prescott,Barry Qualls,Claire Waters
Publisher: Broadview Press
Category: Literary Collections
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Author: Joseph Needham
Publisher: CUP Archive
Category: Chemical embryology
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This volume examines progress in the fields of life and earth sciences. It opens with a historical overview and goes on to describe the evolution of PPST authority and the evolution of PPST into a growing arsenal of interwoven diagnostic principles, tools, and techniques.
Author: Andreas Mandelis,Peter Hess
Publisher: SPIE Press
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David Quammen's book, The Song of the Dodo, is a brilliant, stirring work, breathtaking in its scope, far-reaching in its message -- a crucial book in precarious times, which radically alters the way in which we understand the natural world and our place in that world. It's also a book full of entertainment and wonders. In The Song of the Dodo, we follow Quammen's keen intellect through the ideas, theories, and experiments of prominent naturalists of the last two centuries. We trail after him as he travels the world, tracking the subject of island biogeography, which encompasses nothing less than the study of the origin and extinction of all species. Why is this island idea so important? Because islands are where species most commonly go extinct -- and because, as Quammen points out, we live in an age when all of Earth's landscapes are being chopped into island-like fragments by human activity. Through his eyes, we glimpse the nature of evolution and extinction, and in so doing come to understand the monumental diversity of our planet, and the importance of preserving its wild landscapes, animals, and plants. We also meet some fascinating human characters. By the book's end we are wiser, and more deeply concerned, but Quammen leaves us with a message of excitement and hope.
Island Biogeography in an Age of Extinctions
Author: David Quammen
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
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Amphibian species around the world are unusually vulnerable to a variety of threats, by no means all of which are properly understood. Volume 11 in this major series will be published in parts devoted to the causes of amphibian decline and to conservation measures in regions of the world; this Part 3 is concerned with Western Europe (Britain, Ireland, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, Spain and Portugal). Experts from each country contribute a chapter describing the ecological background and the conservation status of affected species, with an emphasis on native species. As well as infectious diseases and parasites (also covered in a general chapter), threats take the form of introduced and invasive species, pollution, destruction and alteration of habitat, and climate change. These are discussed as they affect each species. All these countries have monitoring schemes and conservation programmes, whose origins and activities are described. Recommendations for action are also made. Edited by leading scholars in the field, Volume 11, when complete, will therefore provide a definitive survey of the amphibian predicament and a stimulus to further research with the objective of arresting the global decline of an entire class of animal.
Status of Conservation and Decline of Amphibians: Eastern Hemisphere: Western Europe
Author: Harold Heatwole,John W. Wilkinson
Publisher: Pelagic Publishing
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The classification of brain tumors is up-dated using magnetic resonance spectroscopy technology. The role of cellular immortality in brain tumors is reviewed. Tumor to tumor metastases are a common occurrence; for example, , brain metastasis from breast cancer, lung cancer, and renal cancer is discussed. Genetic profiling and treatment (including neurosurgery) of such brain cancers are explained. Breast cancer patients treated with certain drugs (e.g., capecitabine and lapatinib can develop CNS tumors. Role of brain tumor suppressor genes (e.g., NRP/B gene) is pointed out. Biomarkers used to diagnose brain malignancies are explained in detail. A number of imaging modalities used for diagnosing and assessing the effectiveness of treatments of brain tumors are presented. The imaging methods discussed include MRI, PET, CT, MRSi, and SPECT. Also, is discussed the impact of PET using radiolabeled amino acids on brain tumors.
Author: M.A. Hayat
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media