Linking Integration and Residential Segregation

Author: Gideon Bolt,A. Sule Özüekren,Deborah Phillips

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135702152

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

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Policy-makers tend to view the residential segregation of minority ethnic groups in a negative light as it is seen as an obstacle to their integration. In the literature on neighbourhood effects, the residential concentration of minorities is seen as a major impediment to their social mobility and acculturation, while the literature on residential segregation emphasises the opposite causal direction, by focusing on the effect of integration on levels of (de-)segregation. This volume, however, indicates that the link between integration and segregation is much less straightforward than is often depicted in academic literature and policy discourses. Based on research in a wide variety of western countries, it can be concluded that the process of assimilation into the housing market is highly complex and differs between and within ethnic groups. The integration pathway not only depends on the characteristics of migrants themselves, but also on the reactions of the institutions and the population of the receiving society. Linking Integration and Residential Segregation exposes the link between integration and segregation as a two-way relationship involving the minority ethnic groups and the host society, highlighting the importance of historical and geographical context for social and spatial outcomes. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

Migrant Integration in Times of Economic Crisis

Policy Responses from European and North American Global Cities

Author: Patrick R. Ireland

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319581007

Category: Political Science

Page: 117

View: 7036

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This book examines how the severe economic downturn following the 2007-2008 financial crisis affected the structural integration and quality of life of urban migrants in Europe and North America. It compares the experiences of migrants from Poland, Romania, Serbia, Pakistan, and Ghana in five similar, secondary global cities of Hamburg (Germany), Barcelona (Spain), Chicago (USA), Toronto (Ontario, Canada), and Montréal (Québec, Canada) over the period of 2000-2015. The work uses statistical analysis to gauge changes in residential segregation and structural integration (such as unemployment, poverty, and social assistance rates). It then provides qualitative analyses of individual city neighborhoods where the target migrant groups have settled, exploring each community's unique evolution and the ambivalent impact that local policy responses have had on their quality of life. With this study, researchers, instructors, students, and policymakers with an interest in migration, urban development, and global cities will be far more knowledgeable of both the potential and limits of policy efforts.

Routledge International Handbook of Diversity Studies

Author: Steven Vertovec

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131760069X

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 2722

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In recent years the concept of ‘diversity’ has gained a leading place in academic thought, business practice and public policy worldwide. Although variously used, ‘diversity’ tends to refer to patterns of social difference in terms of certain key categories. Today the foremost categories shaping discourses and policies of diversity include race, ethnicity, religion, gender, disability, sexuality and age; further important notions include class, language, locality, lifestyle and legal status. The Routledge Handbook of Diversity Studies will examine a range of such concepts along with historical and contemporary cases concerning social and political dynamics surrounding them. With contributions by experts spanning Sociology, Anthropology, Political Science, History and Geography, the Handbook will be a key resource for students, social scientists and professionals. It will represent a landmark volume within a field that has become, and will continue to be, one of the most significant global topics of concern throughout the twenty-first century.

Transnational Migration and Childhood

Author: Naomi Tyrrell,Allen White,Caitriona Ni Laoire,Fina Carpena Mendez

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135716714

Category: Social Science

Page: 160

View: 6919

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This book challenges the adult-centric tendencies of migration research and policy which often overlooks children and young people’s own experiences of migration. A wide range of international contributors provide careful analysis of the situations of children in contemporary transnational migratory contexts in the Global North and South. Drawing on studies with migrant children and young people in a variety of situations, Transnational Migration and Childhood makes a unique contribution to furthering our understandings of transnational childhoods. It explores the laws and policies that govern children and young people’s experiences of transnational migration whilst foregrounding their own accounts of migration and transnationalism. The book shifts our attention away from dominant discourses of migrant children as ‘victims’, towards the development of broader conceptualisations of transnational migration and childhood. It incorporates different migratory flows, a variety of sending and receiving contexts, and child-centred perspectives. Transnational Migration and Childhood will be of interest to researchers and policy makers working in the fields of migration, asylum, and childhood at local, national, and transnational scales. This book was originally published as a special issue of the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies.

The SAGE Handbook of Housing Studies

Author: David F Clapham,William A V Clark,Kenneth Gibb

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446265949

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 528

View: 3677

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Cross-disciplinary and critical in its approach, The SAGE Handbook of Housing Studies is an elucidating look at the key issues within the field. It covers the study of housing retrospectively, but also analyses the future directions of research and theory, demonstrating how it can contribute to wider debates in the social sciences. A comprehensive introductory chapter is followed by four parts offering complete coverage of the area: Markets: examines the perception of housing markets, how they function in different contexts, and the importance of housing behaviour and neighbourhoods Approaches: looks at how other disciplines - economics, geography, and sociology - have informed the direction of housing studies Context: traces the interactions between housing studies and other aspects of society, providing context to debate housing through issues of space, social, welfare and the environment. Policy: is a multi-disciplinary and comprehensive take on the major policy issues and the causes and possible solutions of housing problems such as regeneration and homelessness. Edited by leading names in the field and including international contributions, the book is a stimulating, wide-ranging read that will be an invaluable resource for academics and researchers in geography, urban studies, sociology, social policy, economics and politics.

Moving toward Integration

The Past and Future of Fair Housing

Author: Richard H. Sander

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674919874

Category: History

Page: 580

View: 587

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Reducing residential segregation is the best way to reduce racial inequality in the United States. African American employment rates, earnings, test scores, even longevity all improve sharply as residential integration increases. Yet far too many participants in our policy and political conversations have come to believe that the battle to integrate America’s cities cannot be won. Richard Sander, Yana Kucheva, and Jonathan Zasloff write that the pessimism surrounding desegregation in housing arises from an inadequate understanding of how segregation has evolved and how policy interventions have already set many metropolitan areas on the path to integration. Scholars have debated for decades whether America’s fair housing laws are effective. Moving toward Integration provides the most definitive account to date of how those laws were shaped and implemented and why they had a much larger impact in some parts of the country than others. It uses fresh evidence and better analytic tools to show when factors like exclusionary zoning and income differences between blacks and whites pose substantial obstacles to broad integration, and when they do not. Through its interdisciplinary approach and use of rich new data sources, Moving toward Integration offers the first comprehensive analysis of American housing segregation. It explains why racial segregation has been resilient even in an increasingly diverse and tolerant society, and it demonstrates how public policy can align with demographic trends to achieve broad housing integration within a generation.

The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America

Author: Richard Rothstein

Publisher: Liveright Publishing

ISBN: 1631492861

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 3871

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"Rothstein has presented what I consider to be the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation." —William Julius Wilson In this groundbreaking history of the modern American metropolis, Richard Rothstein, a leading authority on housing policy, explodes the myth that America’s cities came to be racially divided through de facto segregation—that is, through individual prejudices, income differences, or the actions of private institutions like banks and real estate agencies. Rather, The Color of Law incontrovertibly makes clear that it was de jure segregation—the laws and policy decisions passed by local, state, and federal governments—that actually promoted the discriminatory patterns that continue to this day. Through extraordinary revelations and extensive research that Ta-Nehisi Coates has lauded as "brilliant" (The Atlantic), Rothstein comes to chronicle nothing less than an untold story that begins in the 1920s, showing how this process of de jure segregation began with explicit racial zoning, as millions of African Americans moved in a great historical migration from the south to the north. As Jane Jacobs established in her classic The Death and Life of Great American Cities, it was the deeply flawed urban planning of the 1950s that created many of the impoverished neighborhoods we know. Now, Rothstein expands our understanding of this history, showing how government policies led to the creation of officially segregated public housing and the demolition of previously integrated neighborhoods. While urban areas rapidly deteriorated, the great American suburbanization of the post–World War II years was spurred on by federal subsidies for builders on the condition that no homes be sold to African Americans. Finally, Rothstein shows how police and prosecutors brutally upheld these standards by supporting violent resistance to black families in white neighborhoods. The Fair Housing Act of 1968 prohibited future discrimination but did nothing to reverse residential patterns that had become deeply embedded. Yet recent outbursts of violence in cities like Baltimore, Ferguson, and Minneapolis show us precisely how the legacy of these earlier eras contributes to persistent racial unrest. “The American landscape will never look the same to readers of this important book” (Sherrilyn Ifill, president of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund), as Rothstein’s invaluable examination shows that only by relearning this history can we finally pave the way for the nation to remedy its unconstitutional past.

American Apartheid

Segregation and the Making of the Underclass

Author: Douglas S. Massey,Nancy A. Denton

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674018211

Category: Social Science

Page: 292

View: 5890

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This powerful and disturbing book links persistent poverty among blacks in the United States to the unparalleled degree of deliberate segregation they experience in American cities. "A major contribution to our study of both racism and poverty".--Washington Post Book World.

Cycle of Segregation

Social Processes and Residential Stratification

Author: Maria Krysan,Kyle Crowder

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448693

Category: Social Science

Page: 335

View: 8520

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The Fair Housing Act of 1968 outlawed housing discrimination by race and provided an important tool for dismantling legal segregation. But almost fifty years later, residential segregation remains virtually unchanged in many metropolitan areas, particularly where large groups of racial and ethnic minorities live. Why does segregation persist at such high rates and what makes it so difficult to combat? In Cycle of Segregation, sociologists Maria Krysan and Kyle Crowder examine how everyday social processes shape residential stratification. Past neighborhood experiences, social networks, and daily activities all affect the mobility patterns of different racial groups in ways that have cemented segregation as a self-perpetuating cycle in the twenty-first century. Through original analyses of national-level surveys and in-depth interviews with residents of Chicago, Krysan and Crowder find that residential stratification is reinforced through the biases and blind spots that individuals exhibit in their searches for housing. People rely heavily on information from friends, family, and coworkers when choosing where to live. Because these social networks tend to be racially homogenous, people are likely to receive information primarily from members of their own racial group and move to neighborhoods that are also dominated by their group. Similarly, home-seekers who report wanting to stay close to family members can end up in segregated destinations because their relatives live in those neighborhoods. The authors suggest that even absent of family ties, people gravitate toward neighborhoods that are familiar to them through their past experiences, including where they have previously lived, and where they work, shop, and spend time. Because historical segregation has shaped so many of these experiences, even these seemingly race-neutral decisions help reinforce the cycle of residential stratification. As a result, segregation has declined much more slowly than many social scientists have expected. To overcome this cycle, Krysan and Crowder advocate multi-level policy solutions that pair inclusionary zoning and affordable housing with education and public relations campaigns that emphasize neighborhood diversity and high-opportunity areas. They argue that together, such programs can expand the number of destinations available to low-income residents and help offset the negative images many people hold about certain neighborhoods or help introduce them to places they had never considered. Cycle of Segregation demonstrates why a nuanced understanding of everyday social processes is critical for interrupting entrenched patterns of residential segregation.

Madrid

A European Capital Embracing Integration

Author: Stephano Bertozzi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Madrid (Spain)

Page: 50

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Over the last decade, integration has attracted considerable attention from policymakers and academics. This paper highlights the importance of migrants as the primary stakeholders in the complex process of integration and stresses the need for investment in inclusion and education policies to help migrants to settle and the host society to accept newcomers. More specifically, it analyzes the data collected from face-to-face interviews conducted in November 2009 with migrants and integration practitioners in Madrid and assesses the outcome of the integration schemes put in place by the Spanish government and regional and local authorities over the last six years.--Publisher's description.

Residential Segregation Patterns of Latinos in the United States, 1990–2000

Author: Michael E Martin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135864519

Category: Political Science

Page: 142

View: 8831

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Historically, residential segregation of Latinos has generally been seen as a result of immigration and the process of self-segregation into ethnic enclaves. The only theoretical exception to ethnic enclave Latino segregation has been the structural inequality related to Latinos that have a high degree of African ancestry. This study of the 331 metropolitan area in the United States between 1990 and 2000 shows that Latinos are facing structural inequalities outside of the degree of African ancestry. The results of the author's research suggest that Latino segregation is due to the mobility of Latinos and structural barriers in wealth creation due to limited housing equity and limited occupational mobility. In addition, Latino suburbanization appears to be a segregation force rather than an integration force. This study also shows that Mexicans, Puerto Ricans and Cubans have different experiences with residential segregation. Residential segregation of Cubans does not appear to be a problem in the U.S. Puerto Ricans continue to be the most segregated Latino sub-group and inequality is a large factor in Puerto Rican segregation. A more in-depth analysis reveals that the Puerto Rican experience is bifurcated between the older highly segregated enclaves where inequality is a large problem and new enclaves where inequality and segregation are not an issue. The Mexican residential segregation experience reflects that immigration and mobility are important factors but previous theorists have underestimated the barriers Mexicans face in obtaining generational wealth and moving from the ethnic enclave into the American mainstream.

Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development, Second Edition

The Kansas City Experience, 1900–2010

Author: Kevin Fox Gotham

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 1438449445

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 3095

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Updated second edition examining how the real estate industry and federal housing policy have facilitated the development of racial residential segregation. Traditional explanations of metropolitan development and urban racial segregation have emphasized the role of consumer demand and market dynamics. In the first edition of Race, Real Estate, and Uneven Development Kevin Fox Gotham reexamined the assumptions behind these explanations and offered a provocative new thesis. Using the Kansas City metropolitan area as a case study, Gotham provided both quantitative and qualitative documentation of the role of the real estate industry and the Federal Housing Administration, demonstrating how these institutions have promulgated racial residential segregation and uneven development. Gotham challenged contemporary explanations while providing fresh insights into the racialization of metropolitan space, the interlocking dimensions of class and race in metropolitan development, and the importance of analyzing housing as a system of social stratification. In this second edition, he includes new material that explains the racially unequal impact of the subprime real estate crisis that began in late 2007, and explains why racial disparities in housing and lending remain despite the passage of fair housing laws and antidiscrimination statutes. Praise for the First Edition “This work challenges the notion that demographic change and residential patterns are ‘natural’ or products of free market choices … [it] contributes greatly to our understanding of how real estate interests shaped the hyper-segregation of American cities, and how government agencies[,] including school districts, worked in tandem to further demark the separate and unequal worlds in metropolitan life.” — H-Net Reviews (H-Education) “A hallmark of this book is its fine-grained analysis of just how specific activities of realtors, the FHA program, and members of the local school board contributed to the residential segregation of blacks in twentieth century urban America. A process Gotham labels the ‘racialization of urban space’—the social construction of urban neighborhoods that links race, place, behavior, culture, and economic factors—has led white residents, realtors, businessmen, bankers, land developers, and school board members to act in ways that restricted housing for blacks to specific neighborhoods in Kansas City, as well as in other cities.” — Philip Olson, University of Missouri–Kansas City “This is a book which is greatly needed in the field. Gotham integrates, using historical data, the involvement of the real estate industry and the collusion of the federal government in the manufacturing of racially biased housing practices. His work advances the struggle for civil rights by showing that solving the problem of racism is not as simple as banning legal discrimination, but rather needs to address the institutional practices at all levels of the real estate industry.” — Talmadge Wright, author of Out of Place: Homeless Mobilizations, Subcities, and Contested Landscapes

Hate Thy Neighbor

Move-In Violence and the Persistence of Racial Segregation in American Housing

Author: Jeannine Bell

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814770916

Category: Law

Page: 256

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Despite increasing racial tolerance and national diversity, neighborhood segregation remains a very real problem in cities across America. Scholars, government officials, and the general public have long attempted to understand why segregation persists despite efforts to combat it, traditionally focusing on the issue of “white flight,” or the idea that white residents will move to other areas if their neighborhood becomes integrated. In Hate Thy Neighbor, Jeannine Bell expands upon these understandings by investigating a little-examined but surprisingly prevalent problem of “move-in violence:” the anti-integration violence directed by white residents at minorities who move into their neighborhoods. Apprehensive about their new neighbors and worried about declining property values, these residents resort to extra-legal violence and intimidation tactics, often using vandalism and verbal harassment to combat what they view as a violation of their territory. Hate Thy Neighbor is the first work to seriously examine the role violence plays in maintaining housing segregation, illustrating how intimidation and fear are employed to force minorities back into separate neighborhoods and prevent meaningful integration. Drawing on evidence that includes in-depth interviews with ordinary citizens and analysis of Fair Housing Act cases, Bell provides a moving examination of how neighborhood racial violence is enabled today and how it harms not only the victims, but entire communities. By finally shedding light on this disturbing phenomenon, Hate Thy Neighbor not only enhances our understanding of how prevalent segregation and this type of hate-crime remain, but also offers insightful analysis of a complex mix of remedies that can work to address this difficult problem.

Segregation

The Rising Costs for America

Author: James H. Carr,Nandinee K. Kutty

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135889783

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

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Segregation: The Rising Costs for America documents how discriminatory practices in the housing markets through most of the past century, and that continue today, have produced extreme levels of residential segregation that result in significant disparities in access to good jobs, quality education, homeownership attainment and asset accumulation between minority and non-minority households. The book also demonstrates how problems facing minority communities are increasingly important to the nation’s long-term economic vitality and global competitiveness as a whole. Solutions to the challenges facing the nation in creating a more equitable society are not beyond our ability to design or implement, and it is in the interest of all Americans to support programs aimed at creating a more just society. The book is uniquely valuable to students in the social sciences and public policy, as well as to policy makers, and city planners.

City of Segregation

100 Years of Struggle for Housing in Los Angeles

Author: Andrea Gibbons

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1786632721

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 8141

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A majestic one-hundred-year study of segregation in Los Angeles City of Segregation documents one hundred years of struggle against the enforced separation of racial groups through property markets, constructions of community, and the growth of neoliberalism. This movement history covers the decades of work to end legal support for segregation in 1948; the 1960s Civil Rights movement and CORE’s efforts to integrate LA’s white suburbs; and the 2006 victory preserving 10,000 downtown residential hotel units from gentrification enfolded within ongoing resistance to the criminalization and displacement of the homeless. Andrea Gibbons reveals the shape and nature of the racist ideology that must be fought, in Los Angeles and across the United States, if we hope to found just cities.

America Becoming

Racial Trends and Their Consequences

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309172486

Category: Social Science

Page: 524

View: 1184

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The 20th Century has been marked by enormous change in terms of how we define race. In large part, we have thrown out the antiquated notions of the 1800s, giving way to a more realistic, sociocultural view of the world. The United States is, perhaps more than any other industrialized country, distinguished by the size and diversity of its racial and ethnic minority populations. Current trends promise that these features will endure. Fifty years from now, there will most likely be no single majority group in the United States. How will we fare as a nation when race-based issues such as immigration, job opportunities, and affirmative action are already so contentious today? In America Becoming, leading scholars and commentators explore past and current trends among African Americans, Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans in the context of a white majority. This volume presents the most up-to-date findings and analysis on racial and social dynamics, with recommendations for ongoing research. It examines compelling issues in the field of race relations, including: Race and ethnicity in criminal justice. Demographic and social trends for Hispanics, Asian Americans, and Native Americans. Trends in minority-owned businesses. Wealth, welfare, and racial stratification. Residential segregation and the meaning of "neighborhood." Disparities in educational test scores among races and ethnicities. Health and development for minority children, adolescents, and adults. Race and ethnicity in the labor market, including the role of minorities in America's military. Immigration and the dynamics of race and ethnicity. The changing meaning of race. Changing racial attitudes. This collection of papers, compiled and edited by distinguished leaders in the behavioral and social sciences, represents the most current literature in the field. Volume 1 covers demographic trends, immigration, racial attitudes, and the geography of opportunity. Volume 2 deals with the criminal justice system, the labor market, welfare, and health trends, Both books will be of great interest to educators, scholars, researchers, students, social scientists, and policymakers.

Ethnicity and Integration

Author: John Stillwell,Maarten van Ham

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048191031

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 861

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The theme of this volume is ethnicity and the implications for integration of our increasingly ethnically diversified population. New research findings from a range of census, survey and administrative data sources are presented, and case studies are included.

Choosing Homes, Choosing Schools

Author: Annette Lareau,Kimberly Goyette

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448200

Category: Social Science

Page: 352

View: 9986

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A series of policy shifts over the past decade promises to change how Americans decide where to send their children to school. In theory, the boom in standardized test scores and charter schools will allow parents to evaluate their assigned neighborhood school, or move in search of a better option. But what kind of data do parents actually use while choosing schools? Are there differences among suburban and urban families? How do parents’ choices influence school and residential segregation in America? Choosing Homes, Choosing Schools presents a breakthrough analysis of the new era of school choice, and what it portends for American neighborhoods. The distinguished contributors to Choosing Homes, Choosing Schools investigate the complex relationship between education, neighborhood social networks, and larger patterns of inequality. Paul Jargowsky reviews recent trends in segregation by race and class. His analysis shows that segregation between blacks and whites has declined since 1970, but remains extremely high. Moreover, white families with children are less likely than childless whites to live in neighborhoods with more minority residents. In her chapter, Annette Lareau draws on interviews with parents in three suburban neighborhoods to analyze school-choice decisions. Surprisingly, she finds that middle- and upper-class parents do not rely on active research, such as school tours or test scores. Instead, most simply trust advice from friends and other people in their network. Their decision-making process was largely informal and passive. Eliot Weinginer complements this research when he draws from his data on urban parents. He finds that these families worry endlessly about the selection of a school, and that parents of all backgrounds actively consider alternatives, including charter schools. Middle- and upper-class parents relied more on federally mandated report cards, district websites, and online forums, while working-class parents use network contacts to gain information on school quality. Little previous research has explored what role school concerns play in the preferences of white and minority parents for particular neighborhoods. Featuring innovative work from more than a dozen scholars, Choosing Homes, Choosing Schools adroitly addresses this gap and provides a firmer understanding of how Americans choose where to live and send their children to school.