Mathematics and the Physical World

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136310

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 4477

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Stimulating account of development of mathematics from arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, to calculus, differential equations, and non-Euclidean geometries. Also describes how math is used in optics, astronomy, and other phenomena.

Mathematics and the Physical World

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486241041

Category: Mathematics

Page: 482

View: 8578

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"Kline is a first-class teacher and an able writer. . . . This is an enlarging and a brilliant book." ? Scientific American "Dr. Morris Kline has succeeded brilliantly in explaining the nature of much that is basic in math, and how it is used in science." ? San Francisco Chronicle Since the major branches of mathematics grew and expanded in conjunction with science, the most effective way to appreciate and understand mathematics is in terms of the study of nature. Unfortunately, the relationship of mathematics to the study of nature is neglected in dry, technique-oriented textbooks, and it has remained for Professor Morris Kline to describe the simultaneous growth of mathematics and the physical sciences in this remarkable book. In a manner that reflects both erudition and enthusiasm, the author provides a stimulating account of the development of basic mathematics from arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and trigonometry, to calculus, differential equations, and the non-Euclidean geometries. At the same time, Dr. Kline shows how mathematics is used in optics, astronomy, motion under the law of gravitation, acoustics, electromagnetism, and other phenomena. Historical and biographical materials are also included, while mathematical notation has been kept to a minimum. This is an excellent presentation of mathematical ideas from the time of the Greeks to the modern era. It will be of great interest to the mathematically inclined high school and college student, as well as to any reader who wants to understand ? perhaps for the first time ? the true greatness of mathematical achievements.

Are Numbers Real?

The Uncanny Relationship of Mathematics and the Physical World

Author: Brian Clegg

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 146689296X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 7962

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Have you ever wondered what humans did before numbers existed? How they organized their lives, traded goods, or kept track of their treasures? What would your life be like without them? Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real?, Brian Clegg explores the way that math has become more and more detached from reality, and yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity, to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader’s eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar entities that are numbers.

Mathematics

The Loss of Certainty

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195030853

Category: Mathematics

Page: 366

View: 9460

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Refuting the accepted belief that mathematics is exact and infallible, the author examines the development of conflicting concepts of mathematics and their implications for the physical, applied, social, and computer sciences

Mathematics and the physical world

inaugural lecture of the professor of applied mathematics delivered at the College on March 2, 1954

Author: J. G. Oldroyd

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 28

View: 6909

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Mathematics in Western Culture

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195345452

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 8025

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This book gives a remarkably fine account of the influences mathematics has exerted on the development of philosophy, the physical sciences, religion, and the arts in Western life.

The Physical World

An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics

Author: Nicholas Manton,Nicholas Mee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192515659

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 7954

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The Physical World offers a grand vision of the essential unity of physics that will enable the reader to see the world through the eyes of a physicist and understand their thinking. The text follows Einstein's dictum that 'explanations should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler', to give an honest account of how modern physicists understand their subject, including the shortcomings of current theory. The result is an up-to-date and engaging portrait of physics that contains concise derivations of the important results in a style where every step in a derivation is clearly explained, so that anyone with the appropriate mathematical skills will find the text easy to digest. It is over half a century since The Feynman Lectures in Physics were published. A new authoritative account of fundamental physics covering all branches of the subject is now well overdue. The Physical World has been written to satisfy this need. The book concentrates on the conceptual principles of each branch of physics and shows how they fit together to form a coherent whole. Emphasis is placed on the use of variational principles in physics, and in particular the principle of least action, an approach that lies at the heart of modern theoretical physics, but has been neglected in most introductory accounts of the subject.

Mathematics and the Natural Sciences

The Physical Singularity of Life

Author: Francis Bailly,Giuseppe Longo

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1848166931

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 2176

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The book aims at the identification of the organising concepts of some physical and biological phenomena, by means of an analysis of the foundations of mathematics and of physics. This is done in the perspective of unifying phenomena, of bringing different conceptual universes into dialog. The analysis of the role of “order” and of symmetries in the foundations of mathematics is linked to the main invariants and principles, among which the geodesic principle (a consequence of symmetries), which govern and confer unity to the various physical theories. Moreover, we attempt to understand causal structures, a central element of physical intelligibility, in terms of symmetries and their breakings. The importance of the mathematical tool is also highlighted, enabling us to grasp the differences in the models for physics and biology which are proposed by continuous and discrete mathematics, such as computational simulations. A distinction between principles of (conceptual) construction and principles of proofs, both in physics and in mathematics, guides this part of the work.As for biology, being particularly difficult and not as thoroughly examined at a theoretical level, we propose a “unification by concepts”, an attempt which should always precede mathematisation. This constitutes an outline for unification also basing itself upon the highlighting of conceptual differences, of complex points of passage, of technical irreducibilities of one field to another. Indeed, a monist point of view such as ours should not make us blind: we, the living objects, are surely just big bags of molecules or, at least, this is our main metaphysical assumption. The point though is: which theory can help us to better understand these bags of molecules, as they are, indeed, rather “singular”, from the physical point of view. Technically, this singularity is expressed by the notion of “extended criticality”, a notion that logically extends the pointwise critical transitions in physics.

Mathematics for the Nonmathematician

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486316130

Category: Mathematics

Page: 672

View: 1804

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Erudite and entertaining overview follows development of mathematics from ancient Greeks to present. Topics include logic and mathematics, the fundamental concept, differential calculus, probability theory, much more. Exercises and problems.

Topics in Physical Mathematics

Author: Kishore Marathe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781848829398

Category: Mathematics

Page: 442

View: 3913

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As many readers will know, the 20th century was a time when the fields of mathematics and the sciences were seen as two separate entities. Caused by the rapid growth of the physical sciences and an increasing abstraction in mathematical research, each party, physicists and mathematicians alike, suffered a misconception; not only of the opposition’s theoretical underpinning, but of how the two subjects could be intertwined and effectively utilized. One sub-discipline that played a part in the union of the two subjects is Theoretical Physics. Breaking it down further came the fundamental theories, Relativity and Quantum theory, and later on Yang-Mills theory. Other areas to emerge in this area are those derived from the works of Donaldson, Chern-Simons, Floer-Fukaya, and Seiberg-Witten. Aimed at a wide audience, Physical Topics in Mathematics demonstrates how various physical theories have played a crucial role in the developments of Mathematics and in particular, Geometric Topology. Issues are studied in great detail, and the book steadfastly covers the background of both Mathematics and Theoretical Physics in an effort to bring the reader to a deeper understanding of their interaction. Whilst the world of Theoretical Physics and Mathematics is boundless; it is not the intention of this book to cover its enormity. Instead, it seeks to lead the reader through the world of Physical Mathematics; leaving them with a choice of which realm they wish to visit next.

Mathematics, Ideas and the Physical Real

Author: Albert Lautman

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441146547

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 9232

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Albert Lautman (1908-1944) was a French philosopher of mathematics whose work played a crucial role in the history of contemporary French philosophy. His ideas have had an enormous influence on key contemporary thinkers including Gilles Deleuze and Alain Badiou, for whom he is a major touchstone in the development of their own engagements with mathematics. Mathematics, Ideas and the Physical Real presents the first English translation of Lautman's published works between 1933 and his death in 1944. Rather than being preoccupied with the relation of mathematics to logic or with the problems of foundation, which have dominated philosophical reflection on mathematics, Lautman undertakes to develop an understanding of the broader structure of mathematics and its evolution. The two powerful ideas that are constants throughout his work, and which have dominated subsequent developments in mathematics, are the concept of mathematical structure and the idea of the essential unity underlying the apparent multiplicity of mathematical disciplines. This collection of his major writings offers readers a much-needed insight into his influence on the development of mathematics and philosophy.

How Math Explains the World

A Guide to the Power of Numbers, from Car Repair to Modern Physics

Author: James D. Stein, Jr.

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0061828688

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 7328

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In How Math Explains the World, mathematician Stein reveals how seemingly arcane mathematical investigations and discoveries have led to bigger, more world-shaking insights into the nature of our world. In the four main sections of the book, Stein tells the stories of the mathematical thinkers who discerned some of the most fundamental aspects of our universe. From their successes and failures, delusions, and even duels, the trajectories of their innovations—and their impact on society—are traced in this fascinating narrative. Quantum mechanics, space-time, chaos theory and the workings of complex systems, and the impossibility of a "perfect" democracy are all here. Stein's book is both mind-bending and practical, as he explains the best way for a salesman to plan a trip, examines why any thought you could have is imbedded in the number p , and—perhaps most importantly—answers one of the modern world's toughest questions: why the garage can never get your car repaired on time. Friendly, entertaining, and fun, How Math Explains the World is the first book by one of California's most popular math teachers, a veteran of both "math for poets" and Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies. And it's perfect for any reader wanting to know how math makes both science and the world tick.

Mathematics and the Real World

The Remarkable Role of Evolution in the Making of Mathematics

Author: Zvi Artstein

Publisher: Prometheus Books

ISBN: 1616145463

Category: Mathematics

Page: 426

View: 4142

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In this accessible and illuminating study of how the science of mathematics developed, a veteran math researcher and educator looks at the ways in which our evolutionary makeup is both a help and a hindrance to the study of math. Artstein chronicles the discovery of important mathematical connections between mathematics and the real world from ancient times to the present. The author then describes some of the contemporary applications of mathematics—in probability theory, in the study of human behavior, and in combination with computers, which give mathematics unprecedented power. The author concludes with an insightful discussion of why mathematics, for most people, is so frustrating. He argues that the rigorous logical structure of math goes against the grain of our predisposed ways of thinking as shaped by evolution, presumably because the talent needed to cope with logical mathematics gave the human race as a whole no evolutionary advantage. With this in mind, he offers ways to overcome these innate impediments in the teaching of math.

Calculating the Cosmos

How Mathematics Unveils the Universe

Author: Ian Stewart

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465096115

Category: Mathematics

Page: 360

View: 2866

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A prize-winning popular science writer uses mathematical modeling to explain the cosmos. In Calculating the Cosmos, Ian Stewart presents an exhilarating guide to the cosmos, from our solar system to the entire universe. He describes the architecture of space and time, dark matter and dark energy, how galaxies form, why stars implode, how everything began, and how it's all going to end. He considers parallel universes, the fine-tuning of the cosmos for life, what forms extraterrestrial life might take, and the likelihood of life on Earth being snuffed out by an asteroid. Beginning with the Babylonian integration of mathematics into the study of astronomy and cosmology, Stewart traces the evolution of our understanding of the cosmos: How Kepler's laws of planetary motion led Newton to formulate his theory of gravity. How, two centuries later, tiny irregularities in the motion of Mars inspired Einstein to devise his general theory of relativity. How, eighty years ago, the discovery that the universe is expanding led to the development of the Big Bang theory of its origins. How single-point origin and expansion led cosmologists to theorize new components of the universe, such as inflation, dark matter, and dark energy. But does inflation explain the structure of today's universe? Does dark matter actually exist? Could a scientific revolution that will challenge the long-held scientific orthodoxy and once again transform our understanding of the universe be on the way? In an exciting and engaging style, Calculating the Cosmos is a mathematical quest through the intricate realms of astronomy and cosmology.

Is God a Mathematician?

Author: Mario Livio

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781416594437

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 5654

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Bestselling author and astrophysicist Mario Livio examines the lives and theories of history’s greatest mathematicians to ask how—if mathematics is an abstract construction of the human mind—it can so perfectly explain the physical world. Nobel Laureate Eugene Wigner once wondered about “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics” in the formulation of the laws of nature. Is God a Mathematician? investigates why mathematics is as powerful as it is. From ancient times to the present, scientists and philosophers have marveled at how such a seemingly abstract discipline could so perfectly explain the natural world. More than that—mathematics has often made predictions, for example, about subatomic particles or cosmic phenomena that were unknown at the time, but later were proven to be true. Is mathematics ultimately invented or discovered? If, as Einstein insisted, mathematics is “a product of human thought that is independent of experience,” how can it so accurately describe and even predict the world around us? Physicist and author Mario Livio brilliantly explores mathematical ideas from Pythagoras to the present day as he shows us how intriguing questions and ingenious answers have led to ever deeper insights into our world. This fascinating book will interest anyone curious about the human mind, the scientific world, and the relationship between them.

Our Mathematical Universe

My Quest for the Ultimate Nature of Reality

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 038535049X

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3317

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Max Tegmark leads us on an astonishing journey through past, present and future, and through the physics, astronomy and mathematics that are the foundation of his work, most particularly his hypothesis that our physical reality is a mathematical structure and his theory of the ultimate multiverse. In a dazzling combination of both popular and groundbreaking science, he not only helps us grasp his often mind-boggling theories, but he also shares with us some of the often surprising triumphs and disappointments that have shaped his life as a scientist. Fascinating from first to last—this is a book that has already prompted the attention and admiration of some of the most prominent scientists and mathematicians.

Wittgenstein, Mathematics and World

Author: Bob Clark

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319639919

Category: Mathematics

Page: 215

View: 5960

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This book uses Ludwig Wittgenstein’s philosophical methodology to solve a problem that has perplexed thinkers for thousands of years: 'how come (abstract) mathematics applies so wonderfully well to the (concrete, physical) world?' The book is distinctive in several ways. First, it gives the reader a route into understanding important features of Wittgenstein’s writings and lectures by using his methodology to tackle this long-standing and seemingly intractable philosophical problem. More than this, though, it offers an outline of important (sometimes little-known) aspects of the development of mathematical thought through the ages, and an engagement of Wittgenstein’s philosophy with this and with contemporary philosophy of mathematics on its own terms. A clear overview of all this in the context of Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics is interesting in its own right; it is also just what is needed to solve the problem of mathematics and world.