Mathematics and the Physical World

Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486136310

Category: Mathematics

Page: 512

View: 7511

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Stimulating account of development of mathematics from arithmetic, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, to calculus, differential equations, and non-Euclidean geometries. Also describes how math is used in optics, astronomy, and other phenomena.

Are Numbers Real?

The Uncanny Relationships Between Maths and the Physical World

Author: Brian Clegg

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1472139771

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5438

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Have you ever wondered what humans did before numbers existed? How they organized their lives, traded goods, or kept track of their treasures? What would your life be like without them? Numbers began as simple representations of everyday things, but mathematics rapidly took on a life of its own, occupying a parallel virtual world. In Are Numbers Real? Brian Clegg explores the way that maths has become more and more detached from reality, yet despite this is driving the development of modern physics. From devising a new counting system based on goats, through the weird and wonderful mathematics of imaginary numbers and infinity to the debate over whether mathematics has too much influence on the direction of science, this fascinating and accessible book opens the reader's eyes to the hidden reality of the strange yet familiar world of numbers.

Unser mathematisches Universum

Auf der Suche nach dem Wesen der Wirklichkeit

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843710783

Category: Mathematics

Page: 520

View: 5478

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„Max Tegmark, Prophet der Parallelwelten, flirtet mit der Unendlichkeit.“ ULF VON RAUCHHAUPT, FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE SONNTAGSZEITUNG WORUM GEHT ES? Max Tegmark entwickelt eine neue Theorie des Kosmos: Das Universum selbst ist reine Mathematik. In diesem Buch geht es um die physikalische Realität des Kosmos, um den Urknall und die „Zeit davor“ und um die Evolution des Weltalls. Welche Rollen spielen wir dabei – die Wesen, die klug genug sind, das alles verstehen zu wollen? Tegmark findet, dieses Terrain sollte nicht länger den Philosophen überlassen bleiben. Denn die Physiker von heute haben die besseren Antworten auf die ewigen Fragen. WAS IST BESONDERS? „Eine hinreißende Expedition, die jenseits des konventionellen Denkens nach der wahren Bedeutung von Realität sucht.“ BBC „Tegmark behandelt die großen Fragen der Kosmologie und der Teilchenphysik weitaus verständlicher als Stephen Hawking.“ THE TIMES WER LIEST? • Jeder, der das Universum verstehen will • Die Leser von Richard Dawkins und Markus Gabriel

Mathematics and the Divine

A Historical Study

Author: Teun Koetsier,Luc Bergmans

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080457352

Category: Mathematics

Page: 716

View: 7686

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Mathematics and the Divine seem to correspond to diametrically opposed tendencies of the human mind. Does the mathematician not seek what is precisely defined, and do the objects intended by the mystic and the theologian not lie beyond definition? Is mathematics not Man's search for a measure, and isn’t the Divine that which is immeasurable ? The present book shows that the domains of mathematics and the Divine, which may seem so radically separated, have throughout history and across cultures, proved to be intimately related. Religious activities such as the building of temples, the telling of ritual stories or the drawing of enigmatic figures all display distinct mathematical features. Major philosophical systems dealing with the Absolute and theological speculations focussing on our knowledge of the Ultimate have been based on or inspired by mathematics. A series of chapters by an international team of experts highlighting key figures, schools and trains of thought is presented here. Chinese number mysticism, the views of Pythagoras and Plato and their followers, Nicholas of Cusa's theological geometry, Spinozism and intuitionism as a philosophy of mathematics are treated side by side among many other themes in an attempt at creating a global view on the relation of mathematics and Man’s quest for the Absolute in the course of history. · Mathematics and man's quest for the Absolute · A selective history highlighting key figures, schools and trains of thought · An international team of historians presenting specific new findings as well as general overviews · Confronting and uniting otherwise compartmentalized information

Mathematics and the Natural Sciences

The Physical Singularity of Life

Author: Francis Bailly,Giuseppe Longo

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 1908977795

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 4912

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This book identifies the organizing concepts of physical and biological phenomena by an analysis of the foundations of mathematics and physics. Our aim is to propose a dialog between different conceptual universes and thus to provide a unification of phenomena. The role of “order” and symmetries in the foundations of mathematics is linked to the main invariants and principles, among them the geodesic principle (a consequence of symmetries), which govern and confer unity to various physical theories. Moreover, an attempt is made to understand causal structures, a central element of physical intelligibility, in terms of both symmetries and symmetry breakings. A distinction between the principles of (conceptual) construction and of proofs, both in physics and in mathematics, guides most of the work. The importance of mathematical tools is also highlighted to clarify differences in the models for physics and biology that are proposed by continuous and discrete mathematics, such as computational simulations. Since biology is particularly complex and not as well understood at a theoretical level, we propose a “unification by concepts” which in any case should precede mathematization. This constitutes an outline for unification also based on highlighting conceptual differences, complex points of passage and technical irreducibilities of one field to another. Indeed, we suppose here a very common monist point of view, namely the view that living objects are “big bags of molecules”. The main question though is to understand which “theory” can help better understand these bags of molecules. They are, indeed, rather “singular”, from the physical point of view. Technically, we express this singularity through the concept of “extended criticality”, which provides a logical extension of the critical transitions that are known in physics. The presentation is mostly kept at an informal and conceptual level. Contents:Mathematical Concepts and Physical ObjectsIncompleteness and Indetermination in Mathematics and PhysicsSpace and Time from Physics to BiologyInvariances, Symmetries, and Symmetry BreakingsCauses and Symmetries: The Continuum and the Discrete in Mathematical ModelingExtended Criticality: The Physical Singularity of Life PhenomenaRandomness and Determination in the Interplay between the Continuum and the DiscreteConclusion: Unification and Separation of Theories, or the Importance of Negative Results Readership: Graduate students and professionals in the fields of natural sciences, biology, computer science, mathematics, and physics. Keywords:Foundations of Mathematics and of Physics;Epistemology;Theoretical BiologyKey Features:This book is an epistemological reflection carried out by two working scientists, a physicist and a mathematician, who focus on biology. They first address a comparative analysis of the founding principles of their own disciplines. On the grounds of a three-fold blend, they then introduce a unique proposal, which does not passively transfer the paradigms of the first two theoretically well-established disciplines, to suggest a novel theoretical framework for the third discipline

A History of the Circle

Mathematical Reasoning and the Physical Universe

Author: Ernest Zebrowski

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813528984

Category: Mathematics

Page: 215

View: 6541

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Ranging from ancient times to twentieth-century theories of time and space, looks at how exploring the circle has lead to increased knowledge about the physical universe.

From Paradox to Reality

Our Basic Concepts of the Physical World

Author: Fritz Rohrlich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521376051

Category: Science

Page: 227

View: 8303

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Using a clear, non-technical style, Professor Rohrlich discusses the two major theories of twentieth-century physics: relativity and quantum mechanics. Discussed conceptually and philosophically, rather than using mathematics, the philosophical issues raised show how new discoveries forced physicists to accept often strange and unconventional notions. He aims to remove the mystery and misrepresentation that often surround the ideas of modern physics and to show how modern scientists construct theories, so that the reader can appreciate their successes and failures and understand problems that are as yet unresolved.

Eine kleine Geschichte der Unendlichkeit

Author: Brian Clegg

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 364404371X

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 718

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Philosophen und Mathematiker hat das Nachsinnen über das Wesen des Unendlichen buchstäblich den Verstand geraubt – und dennoch ist es ein Konzept, das immer wieder unser Leben bestimmt. In diesem mit Anekdoten und Geschichten gespickten Buch nimmt uns Brian Clegg mit auf eine Reise durch das Grenzland zwischen dem extrem Großen und dem Ultimativen, von Archimedes, der die Zahl der Sandkörner bestimmte, die das Universum füllen würden, bis zu den neuesten Theorien über die physikalische Realität des Unendlichen.

Strict Finitism and the Logic of Mathematical Applications

Author: Feng Ye

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400713475

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 8205

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This book intends to show that radical naturalism (or physicalism), nominalism and strict finitism account for the applications of classical mathematics in current scientific theories. The applied mathematical theories developed in the book include the basics of calculus, metric space theory, complex analysis, Lebesgue integration, Hilbert spaces, and semi-Riemann geometry (sufficient for the applications in classical quantum mechanics and general relativity). The fact that so much applied mathematics can be developed within such a weak, strictly finitistic system, is surprising in itself. It also shows that the applications of those classical theories to the finite physical world can be translated into the applications of strict finitism, which demonstrates the applicability of those classical theories without assuming the literal truth of those theories or the reality of infinity. Both professional researchers and students of philosophy of mathematics will benefit greatly from reading this book.

A Case Against Accident and Self-Organization

Author: Dean L. Overman

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742511675

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 9026

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In this illuminating book, Dean L. Overman uses logical principles and mathematical calculations to answer intriguing questions that have long perplexed biologists and astrophysicists.

Mathematics and the Body

Material Entanglements in the Classroom

Author: Elizabeth de Freitas,Nathalie Sinclair

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139952528

Category: Psychology

Page: N.A

View: 8647

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This book explores alternative ways to consider the relationship between mathematics and the material world. Drawing on the philosophy of Gilles Châtelet and the post-humanist materialism of Karen Barad, the authors present an 'inclusive materialist' approach to studying mathematics education. This approach offers a fresh perspective on human and nonhuman bodies, challenging current assumptions about the role of the senses, language, and ability in teaching and learning mathematics. Each chapter provides empirical examples from the classroom that demonstrate how inclusive materialism can be applied to a wide range of concerns in the field. The authors analyze recent studies on students' gestures, expressions, and drawings in order to establish a link between mathematical activity and mathematical concepts. Mathematics and the Body expands the landscape of research in mathematics education and will be an essential resource for teachers, students, and researchers alike.

The World of Mathematics

Author: James Roy Newman

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486411507

Category: Mathematics

Page: 720

View: 762

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Vol. 2 of a monumental 4-volume set covers mathematics and the physical world, mathematics and social science, and the laws of chance, with non-technical essays by eminent mathematicians, economists, scientists, and others.

The Physical World

An Inspirational Tour of Fundamental Physics

Author: Nicholas Manton,Nicholas Mee

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192515659

Category: Science

Page: 600

View: 5734

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The Physical World offers a grand vision of the essential unity of physics that will enable the reader to see the world through the eyes of a physicist and understand their thinking. The text follows Einstein's dictum that 'explanations should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler', to give an honest account of how modern physicists understand their subject, including the shortcomings of current theory. The result is an up-to-date and engaging portrait of physics that contains concise derivations of the important results in a style where every step in a derivation is clearly explained, so that anyone with the appropriate mathematical skills will find the text easy to digest. It is over half a century since The Feynman Lectures in Physics were published. A new authoritative account of fundamental physics covering all branches of the subject is now well overdue. The Physical World has been written to satisfy this need. The book concentrates on the conceptual principles of each branch of physics and shows how they fit together to form a coherent whole. Emphasis is placed on the use of variational principles in physics, and in particular the principle of least action, an approach that lies at the heart of modern theoretical physics, but has been neglected in most introductory accounts of the subject.

Mathematics and Mind

Author: Alexander George

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195079299

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 8271

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The essays in this volume investigate the conceptual foundations of mathematics illuminating the powers of the mind. Contributors include Alexander George, Michael Dummett, George Boolos, W.W. Tait, Wilfried Sieg, Daniel Isaacson, Charles Parsons, and Michael Hallett.

Solid State and Quantum Theory for Optoelectronics

Author: Michael A. Parker

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420019452

Category: Science

Page: 848

View: 3514

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While applications rapidly change one to the next in our commercialized world, fundamental principles behind those applications remain constant. So if one understands those principles well enough and has ample experience in applying them, he or she will be able to develop a capacity for reaching results via conceptual thinking rather than having to always rely on models to test various conditions. In Solid State and Quantum Theory for Optoelectronics, Michael Parker provides a general conceptual framework for matter that leads to the matter-light interaction explored in the author’s Physics of Optoelectronics (CRC Press). Instead of overburdening readers with the definition–theorem– proof format often expected in mathematics texts, this book instructs readers through the development of conceptual pictures. Employing a proven pedagogic approach, as rigorous as it is intuitive, Professor Parker – Provides several lead-ins to the quantum theory including a brief review of Lagrange and Hamilton’s approach to classical mechanics and the fundamental quantum link with Hilbert space Demonstrates the Schrödinger wave equation from the Feynman path integral Discusses standard topics such as the quantum well, harmonic oscillator, representations, perturbation theory, and spin Expands discussion from the density operator and its applications to quantum computing and teleportation Provides the concepts for ensembles and microstates in detail with emphasis on the derivation of particle population distributions across energy levels Professors Parker includes problems to help readers understand and internalize the material. But just as important, the working-through of these problems will help readers develop the sort of approach that, instead of wholly relying on models, enables them to extrapolate solutions guided by informed intuition developed over the course of formal study and laboratory experiment. It is the kind of conceptual thinking that will allow readers to move with deeper understanding from optical applications to more theoretical topics in physics.

The Physical World of the Greeks

Author: Samuel Sambursky

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400858992

Category: Science

Page: 270

View: 896

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Professor Sambursky presents a lucid and absorbing survey of the scientific ideas of the Greeks, showing how they constructed their world-view. He establishes what the Greeks thought and how much they knew, why they thought as they did, and why they did not learn more. Originally published in 1987. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Introducing Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Michele Friend

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317493796

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 3918

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What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual accessibility and correct representation of the issues. Friend examines the standard theories of mathematics - Platonism, realism, logicism, formalism, constructivism and structuralism - as well as some less standard theories such as psychologism, fictionalism and Meinongian philosophy of mathematics. In each case Friend explains what characterises the position and where the divisions between them lie, including some of the arguments in favour and against each. This book also explores particular questions that occupy present-day philosophers and mathematicians such as the problem of infinity, mathematical intuition and the relationship, if any, between the philosophy of mathematics and the practice of mathematics. Taking in the canonical ideas of Aristotle, Kant, Frege and Whitehead and Russell as well as the challenging and innovative work of recent philosophers like Benacerraf, Hellman, Maddy and Shapiro, Friend provides a balanced and accessible introduction suitable for upper-level undergraduate courses and the non-specialist.