Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research

Author: A. J. Sutton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated


Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 5200

With meta-analysis methods playing a crucial role in health research in recent years, this important and clearly-written book provides a much-needed survey of the field. Meta-analysis provides a framework for combining the results of several clinical trials and drawing inferences about the effectiveness of medical treatments. The move towards evidence-based health care and practice is underpinned by the use of meta-analysis. This book: * Provides a thorough criticism and an up-to-date survey of meta-analysis methods * Emphasises the practical approach, and illustrates the methods by numerous examples * Describes the use of Bayesian methods in meta-analysis * Includes discussion of appropriate software for each analysis * Includes numerous references to more advanced treatment of specialist topics * Refers to software code used in the examples available on the authors' Web site Practising statisticians, statistically-minded clinicians and health research professionals will benefit greatly from the clear presentation and numerous examples. Medical researchers will grasp the basic principles of meta-analysis, and learn how to apply the various methods.

Research Methods in the Study of Substance Abuse

Author: Jonathan B. VanGeest,Timothy P. Johnson,Sonia A. Alemagno

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331955980X

Category: Social Science

Page: 450

View: 838

This authoritative handbook reviews the most widely-used methods for studying the use and abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs. Its thorough coverage spans the range of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method approaches to documenting and measuring the complex psychological, behavioral, and physical experience of substance misuse and dependence, to ensure valid, useful results. Experts discuss special issues and considerations for conducting ethical research with specialized populations, including youth, inmates, and the LGBT community. Throughout these chapters, contributors demonstrate the multidisciplinary nature of substance abuse research, with emphasis on professional ethics and the critical role of research in developing best practices and effective policy for prevention and treatment. Among the topics covered: · Transdisciplinary research perspective: a theoretical framework for substance abuse research · Longitudinal methods in substance use research · Considerations in blending qualitative and quantitative components in substance abuse research · The use of biological measures in social research on drug misuse · Using surveys to study substance use behavior · Applications of GIS to inform substance abuse research and interventions · Evaluating substance use prevention and treatment programs Research Methods in the Study of Substance Abuse is an essential resource for health services and public health professionals, policymakers, and researchers working and training in the field of addiction. It encourages the rigor and understanding necessary to address widespread social and public health concerns.

Fundamental Issues in Evaluation

Author: Nick L. Smith,Paul R. Brandon

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1593853424

Category: Psychology

Page: 266

View: 7284

Providing state-of-the-art perspectives on what evaluation is, its purpose, and how to ensure it is done well, this book brings together major evaluation researchers from a variety of social and behavioral science disciplines. Each chapter identifies a fundamental issue facing the field today; considers its implications for theory, method, practice, or the profession; and explores one or more approaches to dealing with the issue. Among the topics addressed are the nature of expertise in evaluation, how to build a better evidence base for evaluation theory, promoting cultural competence in evaluation, how to synthesize evaluation research findings, ways to involve stakeholders in decision making, and much more.

The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry

Author: Gerald J. Hahn,Necip Doganaksoy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118211464

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 9838

An insightful guide to the use of statistics for solving key problems in modern-day business and industry This book has been awarded the Technometrics Ziegel Prize for the best book reviewed by the journal in 2010. Technometrics is a journal of statistics for the physical, chemical and engineering sciences, published jointly by the American Society for Quality and the American Statistical Association. Criteria for the award include that the book brings together in one volume a body of material previously only available in scattered research articles and having the potential to significantly improve practice in engineering and science. Highlighting the relevance of statistical methods in everyday applications, The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry bridges the gap between the tools of statistics and their use in today's business world. This one-of-a-kind resource encourages the proactive use of statistics in three well-organized and succinct parts: Setting the Stage provides an introduction to statistics, with a general overview of its uses in business and industry Manufactured Product Applications explains how statistical techniques assist in designing, building, improving, and ensuring the reliability of a wide variety of manufactured products such as appliances, plastic materials, aircraft engines, and locomotives Other Applications describe the role of statistics in pharmaceuticals, finance, and business services, as well as more specialized areas including the food, semiconductor, and communications industries This book is truly unique in that it first describes case studies and key business problems, and then shows how statistics is used to address them, while most literature on the topic does the reverse. This approach provides a comprehensive understanding of common issues and the most effective methods for their treatment. Each chapter concludes with general questions that allow the reader to test their understanding of the presented statistical concepts as well as technical questions that raise more complex issues. An extensive FTP site provides additional material, including solutions to some of the applications. With its accessible style and real-world examples, The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry is a valuable supplement for courses on applied statistics and statistical consulting at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an ideal resource for early-career statisticians and practitioners who would like to learn the value of applying statistics to their everyday work.

Principles of Adult Surgical Critical Care

Author: Niels D. Martin,Lewis J. Kaplan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319333410

Category: Medical

Page: 569

View: 2446

This text provides a high level, comprehensive but concise review of adult surgical critical care. It can be used to review complex topics of critical illness in surgical patients, as a reference tool, or as preparation for a board examination. It is focused on the surgical patient including high yield facts, evidence-based guidelines, and critical care principles. To remain succinct, it concentrates on surgically relevant care. Further, the text is written with an expectation that reader already possesses a basic understanding of critical care pathophysiology and clinical practices such as those acquired during residency. Organized by organ system, each section contains several chapters addressing relevant disorders, monitoring and treatment modalities, and outcomes. Principles of Adult Surgical Critical Care will be of use to intensivists caring for surgical patients regardless of parent training domain. Additionally, this work is intended to be used by surgical critical care fellowship trainees as well as other advanced practice providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants who provide care in ICUs and emergency departments alike.

Meta Analysis in Medicine and Health Policy

Author: Stangl/Berry

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824742052

Category: Epidemiology

Page: 414

View: 3226

A discussion of meta-analysis strategies in medicine and health policy. It builds on sound principles, develops methodologies to solve statistical problems and presents concrete applications used by experienced medical practitioners and health policy-makers. There are numerous open questions.

Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine

Author: Xiao-Hua Zhou,Donna K. McClish,Nancy A. Obuchowski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470317922

Category: Mathematics

Page: 464

View: 2741

An important role of diagnostic medicine research is to estimate and compare the accuracies of diagnostic tests. This book provides a comprehensive account of statistical methods for design and analysis of diagnostic studies, including sample size calculations, estimation of the accuracy of a diagnostic test, comparison of accuracies of competing diagnostic tests, and regression analysis of diagnostic accuracy data. Discussing recently developed methods for correction of verification bias and imperfect reference bias, methods for analysis of clustered diagnostic accuracy data, and meta-analysis methods, Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine explains: * Common measures of diagnostic accuracy and designs for diagnostic accuracy studies * Methods of estimation and hypothesis testing of the accuracy of diagnostic tests * Meta-analysis * Advanced analytic techniques-including methods for comparing correlated ROC curves in multi-reader studies, correcting verification bias, and correcting when an imperfect gold standard is used Thoroughly detailed with numerous applications and end-of-chapter problems as well as a related FTP site providing FORTRAN program listings, data sets, and instructional hints, Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine is a valuable addition to the literature of the field, serving as a much-needed guide for both clinicians and advanced students.

Statistical Issues in Drug Development

Author: Stephen S. Senn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470723579

Category: Medical

Page: 524

View: 9851

Drug development is the process of finding and producing therapeutically useful pharmaceuticals, turning them into safe and effective medicine, and producing reliable information regarding the appropriate dosage and dosing intervals. With regulatory authorities demanding increasingly higher standards in such developments, statistics has become an intrinsic and critical element in the design and conduct of drug development programmes. Statistical Issues in Drug Development presents an essential and thought provoking guide to the statistical issues and controversies involved in drug development. This highly readable second edition has been updated to include: Comprehensive coverage of the design and interpretation of clinical trials. Expanded sections on missing data, equivalence, meta-analysis and dose finding. An examination of both Bayesian and frequentist methods. A new chapter on pharmacogenomics and expanded coverage of pharmaco-epidemiology and pharmaco-economics. Coverage of the ICH guidelines, in particular ICH E9, Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials. It is hoped that the book will stimulate dialogue between statisticians and life scientists working within the pharmaceutical industry. The accessible and wide-ranging coverage make it essential reading for both statisticians and non-statisticians working in the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory bodies and medical research institutes. There is also much to benefit undergraduate and postgraduate students whose courses include a medical statistics component.

Statistical Meta-Analysis with Applications

Author: Joachim Hartung,Guido Knapp,Bimal K. Sinha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210964

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 5882

An accessible introduction to performing meta-analysis acrossvarious areas of research The practice of meta-analysis allows researchers to obtainfindings from various studies and compile them to verify and formone overall conclusion. Statistical Meta-Analysis with Applicationspresents the necessary statistical methodologies that allow readersto tackle the four main stages of meta-analysis: problemformulation, data collection, data evaluation, and data analysisand interpretation. Combining the authors' expertise on the topicwith a wealth of up-to-date information, this book successfullyintroduces the essential statistical practices for making thoroughand accurate discoveries across a wide array of diverse fields,such as business, public health, biostatistics, and environmentalstudies. Two main types of statistical analysis serve as the foundationof the methods and techniques: combining tests of effect size andcombining estimates of effect size. Additional topics coveredinclude: Meta-analysis regression procedures Multiple-endpoint and multiple-treatment studies The Bayesian approach to meta-analysis Publication bias Vote counting procedures Methods for combining individual tests and combining individualestimates Using meta-analysis to analyze binary and ordinal categoricaldata Numerous worked-out examples in each chapter provide the readerwith a step-by-step understanding of the presented methods. Allexercises can be computed using the R and SAS software packages,which are both available via the book's related Web site. Extensivereferences are also included, outlining additional sources forfurther study. Requiring only a working knowledge of statistics, StatisticalMeta-Analysis with Applications is a valuable supplement forcourses in biostatistics, business, public health, and socialresearch at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is alsoan excellent reference for applied statisticians working inindustry, academia, and government.

Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Trials

Author: Anne Whitehead

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471983705

Category: Mathematics

Page: 336

View: 5749

Over the last twenty years there has been a dramatic upsurge in theapplication of meta-analysis to medical research. This has mainlybeen due to greater emphasis on evidence-based medicine and theneed for reliable summaries of the vast and expanding volume ofclinical research. At the same time there have been great stridesin the development and refinement of the associated statisticalmethodology. This book describes the planning, conduct andreporting of a meta-analysis as applied to a series of randomizedcontrolled clinical trials. * The various approaches are presented within a general unifiedframework. * Meta-analysis techniques are described in detail, from theirtheoretical development through to practical implementation. * Each topic discussed is supported by detailed workedexamples. * A comparison of fixed and random effects approaches is included,as well as a discussion of Bayesian methods and cumulativemeta-analysis. * Fully documented programs using standard statistical proceduresin SAS are available on the Web. Ideally suited for practising statisticians andstatistically-minded medical professionals, the book will also beof use to graduate students of medical statistics. The book is aself-contained and comprehensive account of the subject and anessential purchase for anyone involved in clinical trials.

Epidemiological Research Methods

Author: Don McNeil

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471961963

Category: Mathematics

Page: 305

View: 788

The concepts of epidemiology, the science that uses statistical methods to investigate associations between risk factors and disease outcomes in human populations, are developed using examples involving real data from published studies. The relevant statistical methods are developed systematically to provide an integrated approach to observational and experimental studies. After covering basic measurement, study design, and study credibility issues, the author continues with basic statistical methods and techniques for adjusting risk estimates for confounders. Statistical models including logistic regression and the proportional hazards model for survival analysis are explained in detail in the following chapters, concluding with an explanation of the general methods for determining the sample size and power requirements for an epidemiological study. Taking advantage of the power, accessibility and user-friendliness of modern computer packages, the author uses a variety of interesting data sets and graphical displays to illustrate the methods. Epidemiological Research Methods will be of interest to students and research workers who need to learn and appreciate modern approaches to the subject. Without unnecessary emphasis on mathematics or theory, the book will enable the reader to gain a greater level of understanding of the underlying methods than is normally provided in books on epidemiology.

Statistical Rules of Thumb

Author: Gerald van Belle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210360

Category: Mathematics

Page: 304

View: 5169

Praise for the First Edition: "For a beginner [this book] is a treasure trove; for anexperienced person it can provide new ideas on how better to pursuethe subject of applied statistics." —Journal of Quality Technology Sensibly organized for quick reference, Statistical Rules ofThumb, Second Edition compiles simple rules that arewidely applicable, robust, and elegant, and each captures keystatistical concepts. This unique guide to the use of statisticsfor designing, conducting, and analyzing research studiesillustrates real-world statistical applications through examplesfrom fields such as public health and environmental studies. Alongwith an insightful discussion of the reasoning behind everytechnique, this easy-to-use handbook also conveys the variouspossibilities statisticians must think of when designing andconducting a study or analyzing its data. Each chapter presents clearly defined rules related toinference, covariation, experimental design, consultation, and datarepresentation, and each rule is organized and discussed under fivesuccinct headings: introduction; statement and illustration of therule; the derivation of the rule; a concluding discussion; andexploration of the concept's extensions. The author also introducesnew rules of thumb for topics such as sample size for ratioanalysis, absolute and relative risk, ANCOVA cautions, anddichotomization of continuous variables. Additional features of theSecond Edition include: Additional rules on Bayesian topics New chapters on observational studies and Evidence-BasedMedicine (EBM) Additional emphasis on variation and causation Updated material with new references, examples, and sources A related Web site provides a rich learning environment andcontains additional rules, presentations by the author, and amessage board where readers can share their own strategies anddiscoveries. Statistical Rules of Thumb, SecondEdition is an ideal supplementary book for courses inexperimental design and survey research methods at theupper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as anindispensable reference for statisticians, researchers,consultants, and scientists who would like to develop anunderstanding of the statistical foundations of their researchefforts. A related website provides additionalrules, author presentations and more.

Introduction to Meta-Analysis

Author: Michael Borenstein,Larry V. Hedges,Julian P. T. Higgins,Hannah R. Rothstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964377

Category: Medical

Page: 450

View: 872

This book provides a clear and thorough introduction to meta-analysis, the process of synthesizing data from a series of separate studies. Meta-analysis has become a critically important tool in fields as diverse as medicine, pharmacology, epidemiology, education, psychology, business, and ecology. Introduction to Meta-Analysis: Outlines the role of meta-analysis in the research process Shows how to compute effects sizes and treatment effects Explains the fixed-effect and random-effects models for synthesizing data Demonstrates how to assess and interpret variation in effect size across studies Clarifies concepts using text and figures, followed by formulas and examples Explains how to avoid common mistakes in meta-analysis Discusses controversies in meta-analysis Features a web site with additional material and exercises A superb combination of lucid prose and informative graphics, written by four of the world’s leading experts on all aspects of meta-analysis. Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, and Rothstein provide a refreshing departure from cookbook approaches with their clear explanations of the what and why of meta-analysis. The book is ideal as a course textbook or for self-study. My students, who used pre-publication versions of some of the chapters, raved about the clarity of the explanations and examples. David Rindskopf, Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology, City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, & Editor of the Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. The approach taken by Introduction to Meta-analysis is intended to be primarily conceptual, and it is amazingly successful at achieving that goal. The reader can comfortably skip the formulas and still understand their application and underlying motivation. For the more statistically sophisticated reader, the relevant formulas and worked examples provide a superb practical guide to performing a meta-analysis. The book provides an eclectic mix of examples from education, social science, biomedical studies, and even ecology. For anyone considering leading a course in meta-analysis, or pursuing self-directed study, Introduction to Meta-analysis would be a clear first choice. Jesse A. Berlin, ScD Introduction to Meta-Analysis is an excellent resource for novices and experts alike. The book provides a clear and comprehensive presentation of all basic and most advanced approaches to meta-analysis. This book will be referenced for decades. Michael A. McDaniel, Professor of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Virginia Commonwealth University

Clinical Trials

A Methodologic Perspective

Author: Steven Piantadosi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118959205

Category: Mathematics

Page: 920

View: 1649

Presents elements of clinical trial methods that are essential in planning, designing, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting clinical trials with the goal of improving the evidence derived from these important studies This Third Edition builds on the text’s reputation as a straightforward, detailed, and authoritative presentation of quantitative methods for clinical trials. Readers will encounter the principles of design for various types of clinical trials, and are then skillfully guided through the complete process of planning the experiment, assembling a study cohort, assessing data, and reporting results. Throughout the process, the author alerts readers to problems that may arise during the course of the trial and provides common sense solutions. All stages of therapeutic development are discussed in detail, and the methods are not restricted to a single clinical application area. The authors bases current revisions and updates on his own experience, classroom instruction, and feedback from teachers and medical and statistical professionals involved in clinical trials. The Third Edition greatly expands its coverage, ranging from statistical principles to new and provocative topics, including alternative medicine and ethics, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs. At the same time, it offers more pragmatic advice for issues such as selecting outcomes, sample size, analysis, reporting, and handling allegations of misconduct. Readers familiar with the First and Second Editions will discover revamped exercise sets; an updated and extensive reference section; new material on endpoints and the developmental pipeline, among others; and revisions of numerous sections. In addition, this book: • Features accessible and broad coverage of statistical design methods—the crucial building blocks of clinical trials and medical research -- now complete with new chapters on overall development, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs • Teaches readers to design clinical trials that produce valid qualitative results backed by rigorous statistical methods • Contains an introduction and summary in each chapter to reinforce key points • Includes discussion questions to stimulate critical thinking and help readers understand how they can apply their newfound knowledge • Provides extensive references to direct readers to the most recent literature, and there are numerous new or revised exercises throughout the book Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective, Third Edition is a textbook accessible to advanced undergraduate students in the quantitative sciences, graduate students in public health and the life sciences, physicians training in clinical research methods, and biostatisticians and epidemiologists. This book is accompanied by downloadable files available below under the DOWNLOADS tab. These files include: MATHEMATICA program – A set of downloadable files that tracks the chapters, containing code pertaining to each. SAS PROGRAMS and DATA FILES used in the book. The following software programs, included in the downloadables, were developed by the author, Steven Piantadosi, M.D., Ph.D: RANDOMIZATION – This program generates treatment assignments for a clinical trial using blocked stratified randomization. CRM – Implements the continual reassessment methods for dose finding clinical trials. OPTIMAL – Calculates two-stage optimal phase II designs using the Simon method. POWER – This is a power and sample size program for clinical trials. Executables for installing these programs can also be found at Steven Piantadosi, MD, PhD, is the Phase One Foundation Distinguished Chair and Director of the Samuel Oschin Cancer Institute, and Professor of Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. Dr. Piantadosi is one of the world’s leading experts in the design and analysis of clinical trials for cancer research. He has taught clinical trials methods extensively in formal courses and short venues. He has advised numerous academic programs and collaborations nationally regarding clinical trial design and conduct, and has served on external advisory boards for the National Institutes of Health and other prominent cancer programs and centers. The author of more than 260 peer-reviewed scientific articles, Dr. Piantadosi has published extensively on research results, clinical applications, and trial methodology. While his papers have contributed to many areas of oncology, he has also collaborated on diverse studies outside oncology including lung disease and degenerative neurological disease.

Bayesian statistical modelling

Author: Peter Congdon

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: 9780471496007

Category: Mathematics

Page: 531

View: 5317

Bayesian methods draw upon previous research findings and combine them with sample data to analyse problems and modify existing hypotheses. The calculations are often extremely complex, with many only now possible due to recent advances in computing technology. Bayesian methods have as a result gained wider acceptance, and are applied in many scientific disciplines, including applied statistics, public health research, medical science, the social sciences and economics. Bayesian Statistical Modelling presents an accessible overview of modelling applications from a Bayesian perspective. * Provides an integrated presentation of theory, examples and computer algorithms * Examines model fitting in practice using Bayesian principles * Features a comprehensive range of methodologies and modelling techniques * Covers recent innovations in bayesian modelling, including Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods * Includes extensive applications to health and social sciences * Features a comprehensive collection of nearly 200 worked examples * Data examples and computer code in WinBUGS are available via ftp Whilst providing a general overview of Bayesian modelling, the author places emphasis on the principles of prior selection, model identification and interpretation of findings, in a range of modelling innovations, focussing on their implementation with real data, with advice as to appropriate computing choices and strategies. Researchers in applied statistics, medical science, public health and the social sciences will benefit greatly from the examples and applications featured. The book will also appeal to graduate students of applied statistics, data analysis and Bayesian methods, and will provide a good reference source for both researchers and students.