Methods for Meta-Analysis in Medical Research

Author: A. J. Sutton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 317

View: 3370

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With meta-analysis methods playing a crucial role in health research in recent years, this important and clearly-written book provides a much-needed survey of the field. Meta-analysis provides a framework for combining the results of several clinical trials and drawing inferences about the effectiveness of medical treatments. The move towards evidence-based health care and practice is underpinned by the use of meta-analysis. This book: * Provides a thorough criticism and an up-to-date survey of meta-analysis methods * Emphasises the practical approach, and illustrates the methods by numerous examples * Describes the use of Bayesian methods in meta-analysis * Includes discussion of appropriate software for each analysis * Includes numerous references to more advanced treatment of specialist topics * Refers to software code used in the examples available on the authors' Web site Practising statisticians, statistically-minded clinicians and health research professionals will benefit greatly from the clear presentation and numerous examples. Medical researchers will grasp the basic principles of meta-analysis, and learn how to apply the various methods.

Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine

Author: Xiao-Hua Zhou,Nancy A. Obuchowski,Donna K. McClish

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118626044

Category: Medical

Page: 592

View: 9673

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Praise for the First Edition " . . . the book is a valuable addition to the literature in the field, serving as a much-needed guide for both clinicians and advanced students."—Zentralblatt MATH A new edition of the cutting-edge guide to diagnostic tests in medical research In recent years, a considerable amount of research has focused on evolving methods for designing and analyzing diagnostic accuracy studies. Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine, Second Edition continues to provide a comprehensive approach to the topic, guiding readers through the necessary practices for understanding these studies and generalizing the results to patient populations. Following a basic introduction to measuring test accuracy and study design, the authors successfully define various measures of diagnostic accuracy, describe strategies for designing diagnostic accuracy studies, and present key statistical methods for estimating and comparing test accuracy. Topics new to the Second Edition include: Methods for tests designed to detect and locate lesions Recommendations for covariate-adjustment Methods for estimating and comparing predictive values and sample size calculations Correcting techniques for verification and imperfect standard biases Sample size calculation for multiple reader studies when pilot data are available Updated meta-analysis methods, now incorporating random effects Three case studies thoroughly showcase some of the questions and statistical issues that arise in diagnostic medicine, with all associated data provided in detailed appendices. A related web site features Fortran, SAS®, and R software packages so that readers can conduct their own analyses. Statistical Methods in Diagnostic Medicine, Second Edition is an excellent supplement for biostatistics courses at the graduate level. It also serves as a valuable reference for clinicians and researchers working in the fields of medicine, epidemiology, and biostatistics.

Statistical Meta-Analysis with Applications

Author: Joachim Hartung,Guido Knapp,Bimal K. Sinha

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118210964

Category: Medical

Page: 248

View: 2507

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An accessible introduction to performing meta-analysis across various areas of research The practice of meta-analysis allows researchers to obtain findings from various studies and compile them to verify and form one overall conclusion. Statistical Meta-Analysis with Applications presents the necessary statistical methodologies that allow readers to tackle the four main stages of meta-analysis: problem formulation, data collection, data evaluation, and data analysis and interpretation. Combining the authors' expertise on the topic with a wealth of up-to-date information, this book successfully introduces the essential statistical practices for making thorough and accurate discoveries across a wide array of diverse fields, such as business, public health, biostatistics, and environmental studies. Two main types of statistical analysis serve as the foundation of the methods and techniques: combining tests of effect size and combining estimates of effect size. Additional topics covered include: Meta-analysis regression procedures Multiple-endpoint and multiple-treatment studies The Bayesian approach to meta-analysis Publication bias Vote counting procedures Methods for combining individual tests and combining individual estimates Using meta-analysis to analyze binary and ordinal categorical data Numerous worked-out examples in each chapter provide the reader with a step-by-step understanding of the presented methods. All exercises can be computed using the R and SAS software packages, which are both available via the book's related Web site. Extensive references are also included, outlining additional sources for further study. Requiring only a working knowledge of statistics, Statistical Meta-Analysis with Applications is a valuable supplement for courses in biostatistics, business, public health, and social research at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an excellent reference for applied statisticians working in industry, academia, and government.

Clinical Trials

A Methodologic Perspective

Author: Steven Piantadosi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118959213

Category: Mathematics

Page: 896

View: 9245

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Presents elements of clinical trial methods that are essential in planning, designing, conducting, analyzing, and interpreting clinical trials with the goal of improving the evidence derived from these important studies This Third Edition builds on the text’s reputation as a straightforward, detailed, and authoritative presentation of quantitative methods for clinical trials. Readers will encounter the principles of design for various types of clinical trials, and are then skillfully guided through the complete process of planning the experiment, assembling a study cohort, assessing data, and reporting results. Throughout the process, the author alerts readers to problems that may arise during the course of the trial and provides common sense solutions. All stages of therapeutic development are discussed in detail, and the methods are not restricted to a single clinical application area. The authors bases current revisions and updates on his own experience, classroom instruction, and feedback from teachers and medical and statistical professionals involved in clinical trials. The Third Edition greatly expands its coverage, ranging from statistical principles to new and provocative topics, including alternative medicine and ethics, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs. At the same time, it offers more pragmatic advice for issues such as selecting outcomes, sample size, analysis, reporting, and handling allegations of misconduct. Readers familiar with the First and Second Editions will discover revamped exercise sets; an updated and extensive reference section; new material on endpoints and the developmental pipeline, among others; and revisions of numerous sections. In addition, this book: • Features accessible and broad coverage of statistical design methods—the crucial building blocks of clinical trials and medical research -- now complete with new chapters on overall development, middle development, comparative studies, and adaptive designs • Teaches readers to design clinical trials that produce valid qualitative results backed by rigorous statistical methods • Contains an introduction and summary in each chapter to reinforce key points • Includes discussion questions to stimulate critical thinking and help readers understand how they can apply their newfound knowledge • Provides extensive references to direct readers to the most recent literature, and there are numerous new or revised exercises throughout the book Clinical Trials: A Methodologic Perspective, Third Edition is a textbook accessible to advanced undergraduate students in the quantitative sciences, graduate students in public health and the life sciences, physicians training in clinical research methods, and biostatisticians and epidemiologists. Steven Piantadosi, MD, PhD, is the Phase One Foundation Distinguished Chair and Director of the Samuel Oschin Cancer Institute, and Professor of Medicine at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. Dr. Piantadosi is one of the world’s leading experts in the design and analysis of clinical trials for cancer research. He has taught clinical trials methods extensively in formal courses and short venues. He has advised numerous academic programs and collaborations nationally regarding clinical trial design and conduct, and has served on external advisory boards for the National Institutes of Health and other prominent cancer programs and centers. The author of more than 260 peer-reviewed scientific articles, Dr. Piantadosi has published extensively on research results, clinical applications, and trial methodology. While his papers have contributed to many areas of oncology, he has also collaborated on diverse studies outside oncology including lung disease and degenerative neurological disease.

Statistical Advances in the Biomedical Sciences

Clinical Trials, Epidemiology, Survival Analysis, and Bioinformatics

Author: Atanu Biswas,Sujay Datta,Jason P. Fine,Mark R. Segal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470181195

Category: Mathematics

Page: 640

View: 2107

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The Most Comprehensive and Cutting-Edge Guide to Statistical Applications in Biomedical Research With the increasing use of biotechnology in medical research and the sophisticated advances in computing, it has become essential for practitioners in the biomedical sciences to be fully educated on the role statistics plays in ensuring the accurate analysis of research findings. Statistical Advances in the Biomedical Sciences explores the growing value of statistical knowledge in the management and comprehension of medical research and, more specifically, provides an accessible introduction to the contemporary methodologies used to understand complex problems in the four major areas of modern-day biomedical science: clinical trials, epidemiology, survival analysis, and bioinformatics. Composed of contributions from eminent researchers in the field, this volume discusses the application of statistical techniques to various aspects of modern medical research and illustrates how these methods ultimately prove to be an indispensable part of proper data collection and analysis. A structural uniformity is maintained across all chapters, each beginning with an introduction that discusses general concepts and the biomedical problem under focus and is followed by specific details on the associated methods, algorithms, and applications. In addition, each chapter provides a summary of the main ideas and offers a concluding remarks section that presents novel ideas, approaches, and challenges for future research. Complete with detailed references and insight on the future directions of biomedical research, Statistical Advances in the Biomedical Sciences provides vital statistical guidance to practitioners in the biomedical sciences while also introducing statisticians to new, multidisciplinary frontiers of application. This text is an excellent reference for graduate- and PhD-level courses in various areas of biostatistics and the medical sciences and also serves as a valuable tool for medical researchers, statisticians, public health professionals, and biostatisticians.

Meta Analysis

A Guide to Calibrating and Combining Statistical Evidence

Author: Elena Kulinskaya,Stephan Morgenthaler,Robert G. Staudte

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470985526

Category: Mathematics

Page: 282

View: 5224

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Meta Analysis: A Guide to Calibrating and Combining Statistical Evidence acts as a source of basic methods for scientists wanting to combine evidence from different experiments. The authors aim to promote a deeper understanding of the notion of statistical evidence. The book is comprised of two parts – The Handbook, and The Theory. The Handbook is a guide for combining and interpreting experimental evidence to solve standard statistical problems. This section allows someone with a rudimentary knowledge in general statistics to apply the methods. The Theory provides the motivation, theory and results of simulation experiments to justify the methodology. This is a coherent introduction to the statistical concepts required to understand the authors’ thesis that evidence in a test statistic can often be calibrated when transformed to the right scale.

Biostatistics

A Methodology For the Health Sciences

Author: Gerald van Belle,Lloyd D. Fisher,Patrick J. Heagerty,Thomas Lumley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471602353

Category: Medical

Page: 896

View: 1550

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A respected introduction to biostatistics, thoroughly updated and revised The first edition of Biostatistics: A Methodology for the Health Sciences has served professionals and students alike as a leading resource for learning how to apply statistical methods to the biomedical sciences. This substantially revised Second Edition brings the book into the twenty-first century for today’s aspiring and practicing medical scientist. This versatile reference provides a wide-ranging look at basic and advanced biostatistical concepts and methods in a format calibrated to individual interests and levels of proficiency. Written with an eye toward the use of computer applications, the book examines the design of medical studies, descriptive statistics, and introductory ideas of probability theory and statistical inference; explores more advanced statistical methods; and illustrates important current uses of biostatistics. New to this edition are discussions of Longitudinal data analysis Randomized clinical trials Bayesian statistics GEE The bootstrap method Enhanced by a companion Web site providing data sets, selected problems and solutions, and examples from such current topics as HIV/AIDS, this is a thoroughly current, comprehensive introduction to the field.

Systematic Reviews in Health Care

Meta-Analysis in Context

Author: Matthias Egger,George Davey-Smith,Douglas Altman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111870004X

Category: Medical

Page: 512

View: 5806

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The second edition of this best-selling book has been thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the significant changes and advances made in systematic reviewing. New features include discussion on the rationale, meta-analyses of prognostic and diagnostic studies and software, and the use of systematic reviews in practice.

Statistical Issues in Drug Development

Author: Stephen S. Senn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470723579

Category: Medical

Page: 524

View: 5364

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Drug development is the process of finding and producing therapeutically useful pharmaceuticals, turning them into safe and effective medicine, and producing reliable information regarding the appropriate dosage and dosing intervals. With regulatory authorities demanding increasingly higher standards in such developments, statistics has become an intrinsic and critical element in the design and conduct of drug development programmes. Statistical Issues in Drug Development presents an essential and thought provoking guide to the statistical issues and controversies involved in drug development. This highly readable second edition has been updated to include: Comprehensive coverage of the design and interpretation of clinical trials. Expanded sections on missing data, equivalence, meta-analysis and dose finding. An examination of both Bayesian and frequentist methods. A new chapter on pharmacogenomics and expanded coverage of pharmaco-epidemiology and pharmaco-economics. Coverage of the ICH guidelines, in particular ICH E9, Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials. It is hoped that the book will stimulate dialogue between statisticians and life scientists working within the pharmaceutical industry. The accessible and wide-ranging coverage make it essential reading for both statisticians and non-statisticians working in the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory bodies and medical research institutes. There is also much to benefit undergraduate and postgraduate students whose courses include a medical statistics component.

Research Methods in the Study of Substance Abuse

Author: Jonathan B. VanGeest,Timothy P. Johnson,Sonia A. Alemagno

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331955980X

Category: Social Science

Page: 450

View: 2490

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This authoritative handbook reviews the most widely-used methods for studying the use and abuse of alcohol and illegal drugs. Its thorough coverage spans the range of quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method approaches to documenting and measuring the complex psychological, behavioral, and physical experience of substance misuse and dependence, to ensure valid, useful results. Experts discuss special issues and considerations for conducting ethical research with specialized populations, including youth, inmates, and the LGBT community. Throughout these chapters, contributors demonstrate the multidisciplinary nature of substance abuse research, with emphasis on professional ethics and the critical role of research in developing best practices and effective policy for prevention and treatment. Among the topics covered: · Transdisciplinary research perspective: a theoretical framework for substance abuse research · Longitudinal methods in substance use research · Considerations in blending qualitative and quantitative components in substance abuse research · The use of biological measures in social research on drug misuse · Using surveys to study substance use behavior · Applications of GIS to inform substance abuse research and interventions · Evaluating substance use prevention and treatment programs Research Methods in the Study of Substance Abuse is an essential resource for health services and public health professionals, policymakers, and researchers working and training in the field of addiction. It encourages the rigor and understanding necessary to address widespread social and public health concerns.

Analytical Sociology

Actions and Networks

Author: Gianluca Manzo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118762738

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 2538

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Demonstrates the power of the theoretical framework of analytical sociology in explaining a large array of social phenomena Analytical Sociology: Actions and Networks presents the most advanced theoretical discussion of analytical sociology, along with a unique set of examples on mechanism- based sociology. Leading scholars apply the theoretical principles of analytical sociology to understand how puzzling social and historical phenomena including crime, lynching, witch-hunts, tax behaviours, Web-based social movement and communication, restaurant reputation, job search and careers, social network homophily and instability, cooperation and trust are brought about by complex, multi-layered social mechanisms. The analyses presented in this book rely on a wide range of methods which include qualitative observations, advanced statistical techniques, complex network tools, refined simulation methods and creative experimental protocols. This book ultimately demonstrates that sociology, like any other science, is at its best when it dissects the mechanisms at work by means of rigorous model building and testing. Analytical Sociology: • Provides the most complete and up-to-date theoretical treatment of analytical sociology. • Looks at a wide range of complex social phenomena within a single and unitary theoretical framework. • Explores a variety of advanced methods to build and test theoretical models. • Examines how both computational modelling and experiments can be used to study the complex relation between norms, networks and social actions. • Brings together research from leading global experts in the field in order to present a unique set of examples on mechanism-based sociology. Advanced graduate students and researchers working in sociology, methodology of social sciences, statistics, social networks analysis and computer simulation will benefit from this book.

Fundamental Issues in Evaluation

Author: Nick L. Smith,Paul R. Brandon

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1593853424

Category: Psychology

Page: 266

View: 1885

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Providing state-of-the-art perspectives on what evaluation is, its purpose, and how to ensure it is done well, this book brings together major evaluation researchers from a variety of social and behavioral science disciplines. Each chapter identifies a fundamental issue facing the field today; considers its implications for theory, method, practice, or the profession; and explores one or more approaches to dealing with the issue. Among the topics addressed are the nature of expertise in evaluation, how to build a better evidence base for evaluation theory, promoting cultural competence in evaluation, how to synthesize evaluation research findings, ways to involve stakeholders in decision making, and much more.

Network Meta-Analysis for Decision-Making

Author: Sofia Dias,A. E. Ades,Nicky J. Welton,Jeroen P. Jansen,Alexander J. Sutton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118647505

Category: Mathematics

Page: 488

View: 4177

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A practical guide to network meta-analysis with examples and code In the evaluation of healthcare, rigorous methods of quantitative assessment are necessary to establish which interventions are effective and cost-effective. Often a single study will not provide the answers and it is desirable to synthesise evidence from multiple sources, usually randomised controlled trials. This book takes an approach to evidence synthesis that is specifically intended for decision making when there are two or more treatment alternatives being evaluated, and assumes that the purpose of every synthesis is to answer the question “for this pre-identified population of patients, which treatment is ‘best’?” A comprehensive, coherent framework for network meta-analysis (mixed treatment comparisons) is adopted and estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in the freely available software WinBUGS. Each chapter contains worked examples, exercises, solutions and code that may be adapted by readers to apply to their own analyses. This book can be used as an introduction to evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis, its key properties and policy implications. Examples and advanced methods are also presented for the more experienced reader. Methods used throughout this book can be applied consistently: model critique and checking for evidence consistency are emphasised. Methods are based on technical support documents produced for NICE Decision Support Unit, which support the NICE Methods of Technology Appraisal. Code presented is also the basis for the code used by the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Comparisons. Includes extensive carefully worked examples, with thorough explanations of how to set out data for use in WinBUGS and how to interpret the output. Network Meta-Analysis for Decision Making will be of interest to decision makers, medical statisticians, health economists, and anyone involved in Health Technology Assessment including the pharmaceutical industry.

Principles of Adult Surgical Critical Care

Author: Niels D. Martin,Lewis J. Kaplan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319333410

Category: Medical

Page: 569

View: 2364

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This text provides a high level, comprehensive but concise review of adult surgical critical care. It can be used to review complex topics of critical illness in surgical patients, as a reference tool, or as preparation for a board examination. It is focused on the surgical patient including high yield facts, evidence-based guidelines, and critical care principles. To remain succinct, it concentrates on surgically relevant care. Further, the text is written with an expectation that reader already possesses a basic understanding of critical care pathophysiology and clinical practices such as those acquired during residency. Organized by organ system, each section contains several chapters addressing relevant disorders, monitoring and treatment modalities, and outcomes. Principles of Adult Surgical Critical Care will be of use to intensivists caring for surgical patients regardless of parent training domain. Additionally, this work is intended to be used by surgical critical care fellowship trainees as well as other advanced practice providers such as nurse practitioners and physician assistants who provide care in ICUs and emergency departments alike.

Mixed Models

Theory and Applications with R

Author: Eugene Demidenko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118091574

Category: Mathematics

Page: 717

View: 1627

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Mixed modeling is one of the most promising and exciting areas of statistical analysis, enabling the analysis of nontraditional, clustered data that may come in the form of shapes or images. This book provides in-depth mathematical coverage of mixed models' statistical properties and numerical algorithms, as well as applications such as the analysis of tumor regrowth, shape, and image. The new edition includes significant updating, over 300 exercises, stimulating chapter projects and model simulations, inclusion of R subroutines, and a revised text format. The target audience continues to be graduate students and researchers. An author-maintained web site is available with solutions to exercises and a compendium of relevant data sets.

The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry

Author: Gerald J. Hahn,Necip Doganaksoy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118211464

Category: Mathematics

Page: 368

View: 1827

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An insightful guide to the use of statistics for solving key problems in modern-day business and industry This book has been awarded the Technometrics Ziegel Prize for the best book reviewed by the journal in 2010. Technometrics is a journal of statistics for the physical, chemical and engineering sciences, published jointly by the American Society for Quality and the American Statistical Association. Criteria for the award include that the book brings together in one volume a body of material previously only available in scattered research articles and having the potential to significantly improve practice in engineering and science. Highlighting the relevance of statistical methods in everyday applications, The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry bridges the gap between the tools of statistics and their use in today's business world. This one-of-a-kind resource encourages the proactive use of statistics in three well-organized and succinct parts: Setting the Stage provides an introduction to statistics, with a general overview of its uses in business and industry Manufactured Product Applications explains how statistical techniques assist in designing, building, improving, and ensuring the reliability of a wide variety of manufactured products such as appliances, plastic materials, aircraft engines, and locomotives Other Applications describe the role of statistics in pharmaceuticals, finance, and business services, as well as more specialized areas including the food, semiconductor, and communications industries This book is truly unique in that it first describes case studies and key business problems, and then shows how statistics is used to address them, while most literature on the topic does the reverse. This approach provides a comprehensive understanding of common issues and the most effective methods for their treatment. Each chapter concludes with general questions that allow the reader to test their understanding of the presented statistical concepts as well as technical questions that raise more complex issues. An extensive FTP site provides additional material, including solutions to some of the applications. With its accessible style and real-world examples, The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry is a valuable supplement for courses on applied statistics and statistical consulting at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It is also an ideal resource for early-career statisticians and practitioners who would like to learn the value of applying statistics to their everyday work.

Meta Analysis in Medicine and Health Policy

Author: Stangl/Berry

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0824742052

Category: Epidemiology

Page: 414

View: 2070

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A discussion of meta-analysis strategies in medicine and health policy. It builds on sound principles, develops methodologies to solve statistical problems and presents concrete applications used by experienced medical practitioners and health policy-makers. There are numerous open questions.

Sample Size Determination and Power

Author: Thomas P. Ryan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118439228

Category: Medical

Page: 404

View: 5817

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A comprehensive approach to sample size determination and power with applications for a variety of fields Sample Size Determination and Power features a modern introduction to the applicability of sample size determination and provides a variety of discussions on broad topics including epidemiology, microarrays, survival analysis and reliability, design of experiments, regression, and confidence intervals. The book distinctively merges applications from numerous fields such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, and engineering in order to provide a complete introduction to the general statistical use of sample size determination. Advanced topics including multivariate analysis, clinical trials, and quality improvement are addressed, and in addition, the book provides considerable guidance on available software for sample size determination. Written by a well-known author who has extensively class-tested the material, Sample Size Determination and Power: Highlights the applicability of sample size determination and provides extensive literature coverage Presents a modern, general approach to relevant software to guide sample size determination including CATD (computer-aided trial design) Addresses the use of sample size determination in grant proposals and provides up-to-date references for grant investigators An appealing reference book for scientific researchers in a variety of fields, such as statistics, biostatistics, the health sciences, mathematics, ecology, and geology, who use sampling and estimation methods in their work, Sample Size Determination and Power is also an ideal supplementary text for upper-level undergraduate and graduate-level courses in statistical sampling.

Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis

Prevention, Assessment and Adjustments

Author: Hannah R. Rothstein,Alexander J. Sutton,Michael Borenstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047087015X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

View: 8666

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Publication bias is the tendency to decide to publish a study based on the results of the study, rather than on the basis of its theoretical or methodological quality. It can arise from selective publication of favorable results, or of statistically significant results. This threatens the validity of conclusions drawn from reviews of published scientific research. Meta-analysis is now used in numerous scientific disciplines, summarizing quantitative evidence from multiple studies. If the literature being synthesised has been affected by publication bias, this in turn biases the meta-analytic results, potentially producing overstated conclusions. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis examines the different types of publication bias, and presents the methods for estimating and reducing publication bias, or eliminating it altogether. Written by leading experts, adopting a practical and multidisciplinary approach. Provides comprehensive coverage of the topic including: Different types of publication bias, Mechanisms that may induce them, Empirical evidence for their existence, Statistical methods to address them, Ways in which they can be avoided. Features worked examples and common data sets throughout. Explains and compares all available software used for analysing and reducing publication bias. Accompanied by a website featuring software, data sets and further material. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis adopts an inter-disciplinary approach and will make an excellent reference volume for any researchers and graduate students who conduct systematic reviews or meta-analyses. University and medical libraries, as well as pharmaceutical companies and government regulatory agencies, will also find this invaluable.