Climate Change and Rocky Mountain Ecosystems

Author: Jessica E. Halofsky,David L. Peterson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319569287

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 1331

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This book is the result of a team of approximately 100 scientists and resource managers who worked together for two years to understand the effects of climatic variability and change on water resources, fisheries, forest vegetation, non-forest vegetation, wildlife, recreation, cultural resources and ecosystem services. Adaptation options, both strategic and tactical, were developed for each resource area. This information is now being applied in the northern rocky Mountains to ensure long-term sustainability in resource conditions. The volume chapters provide a technical assessment of the effects of climatic variability and change on natural and cultural resources, based on best available science, including new analyses obtained through modeling and synthesis of existing data. Each chapter also contains a summary of adaptation strategies (general) and tactics (on-the-ground actions) that have been developed by science-management teams.

Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador

Author: Jörg Bendix,Erwin Beck,Achim Bräuning,Franz Makeschin,Reinhard Mosandl,Stefan Scheu,Wolfgang Wilcke

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642381375

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 967

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An interdisciplinary research unit consisting of 30 teams in the natural, economic and social sciences analyzed biodiversity and ecosystem services of a mountain rainforest ecosystem in the hotspot of the tropical Andes, with special reference to past, current and future environmental changes. The group assessed ecosystem services using data from ecological field and scenario-driven model experiments, and with the help of comparative field surveys of the natural forest and its anthropogenic replacement system for agriculture. The book offers insights into the impacts of environmental change on various service categories mentioned in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005): cultural, regulating, supporting and provisioning ecosystem services. Examples focus on biodiversity of plants and animals including trophic networks, and abiotic/biotic parameters such as soils, regional climate, water, nutrient and sediment cycles. The types of threats considered include land use and climate changes, as well as atmospheric fertilization. In terms of regulating and provisioning services, the emphasis is primarily on water regulation and supply as well as climate regulation and carbon sequestration. With regard to provisioning services, the synthesis of the book provides science-based recommendations for a sustainable land use portfolio including several options such as forestry, pasture management and the practices of indigenous peoples. In closing, the authors show how they integrated the local society by pursuing capacity building in compliance with the CBD-ABS (Convention on Biological Diversity - Access and Benefit Sharing), in the form of education and knowledge transfer for application.

Climate Change Impacts on High-Altitude Ecosystems

Author: Münir Öztürk,Khalid Rehman Hakeem,I. Faridah-Hanum,Recep Efe

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319128590

Category: Nature

Page: 696

View: 5184

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This book covers studies on the systematics of plant taxa and will include general vegetational aspects and ecological characteristics of plant life at altitudes above 1000 m. from different parts of the world. This volume also addresses how upcoming climate change scenarios will impact high altitude plant life. It presents case studies from the most important mountainous areas like the Himalayas, Caucasus and South America covering the countries like Malaysia, Sri Lanka, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Kirghizia, Georgia, Russia,Turkey, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Americas. The book will serve as an invaluable resource source undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers.

Impact of Global Changes on Mountains

Responses and Adaptation

Author: Velma I. Grover,Axel Borsdorf,Jürgen Breuste,Prakash Chandra Tiwari,Flavia Witkowski Frangetto

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482208911

Category: Nature

Page: 528

View: 2629

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Mountain regions encompass nearly 24 percent of the total land surface of the earth and are home to approximately 12 percent of the world’s population. Their ecosystems play a critical role in sustaining human life both in the highlands and the lowlands. During recent years, resource use in high mountain areas has changed mainly in response to the globalization of the economy and increased world population. As a result, mountain regions are undergoing rapid environmental change, exploitation, and depletion of natural resources leading to ecological imbalances and economic unsustainability. Moreover, the changing climatic conditions have stressed mountain ecosystems through higher mean annual temperatures and the melting of glaciers and snow. Altered precipitation patterns have also had an impact. This book addresses these critical issues and looks at ways to stop the downward spiral of resource degradation, rural poverty, and food and livelihood insecurity in mountain regions. The book also discusses new and comprehensive approaches to mountain development that are needed to identify sustainable resource development practices, how to strengthen local institutions and knowledge systems, and how to increase the resilience between mountain environments and their inhabitants.

Climate Change Adaptation Strategies – An Upstream-downstream Perspective

Author: Nadine Salzmann,Christian Huggel,Samuel U. Nussbaumer,Gina Ziervogel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319407732

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 2500

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Climate change and the related adverse impacts are among the greatest challenges facing humankind during the coming decades. Even with a significant reduction of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, it will be inevitable for societies to adapt to new climatic conditions and associated impacts and risks. This book offers insights to first experiences of developing and implementing adaptation measures, with a particular focus on mountain environments and the adjacent downstream areas. It provides a comprehensive ‘state-of-the-art’ of climate change adaptation in these areas through the collection and evaluation of knowledge from several local and regional case studies and by offering new expertise and insights at the global level. As such, the book is an important source for scientists, practitioners and decision makers alike, who are working in the field of climate change adaptation and towards sustainable development in the sense of the Paris Agreement and the Agenda 2030.

Global Change and Mountain Regions

An Overview of Current Knowledge

Author: Uli M. Huber,Harald K.M. Bugmann,Mel A. Reasoner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140203508X

Category: Science

Page: 652

View: 6388

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This book gives an overview of the state of research in fields pertaining to the detection, understanding and prediction of global change impacts in mountain regions. More than sixty contributions from paleoclimatology, cryospheric research, hydrology, ecology, and development studies are compiled in this volume, each with an outlook on future research directions. The book will interest meteorologists, geologists, botanists and climatologists.

Building Resilience to Climate Change

Ecosystem-based Adaptation and Lessons from the Field

Author: Angela Andrade Pérez,Bernal Herrera Fernández,Roberto Cazzolla Gatti

Publisher: IUCN

ISBN: 2831712904

Category: Nature

Page: 164

View: 5262

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With climate change now a certainty, the question is how much change there will be and what can be done about it. One of the answers is through adaptation. Many of the lessons that are being learned in adaptation are from success stories from the field. This publication contains eleven case studies covering different ecosystems and regions around the world. Its aim is to summarize some current applications of the Ecosystem-Based Adaptation concept and its tools used around the world, and also draw lessons from experiences in conservation adaptation.

Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands

Author: Chandrakasan Sivaperuman,A. Velmurugan,Awnindra Kumar Singh,I. Jaisankar

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128130652

Category: Science

Page: 805

View: 1285

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Biodiversity and Climate Change Adaptation in Tropical Islands provides comprehensive information on climate change, biodiversity, possible impacts, adaptation measures and policy challenges to help users rehabilitate and preserve the natural resources of tropical islands. While biodiversity and climate change of tropical islands has previously received less attention, it is ironically one of the most vulnerable regions in this regard. The core content of the work derives largely from the ideas and research output from various reputed scientists and experts who have recorded climate change impacts on aquatic and coastal life in tropical regions. Contributors have direct working experience with the tribes in some of the tropical islands. All of their expertise and information is compiled and presented in the work, including coverage related to climate change. This work highlights the ever-growing need to develop and apply strategies that optimize the use of natural resources, both on land and in water and judicious use of biodiversity. It functions as a critical resource on tropical island biodiversity for researchers, academicians, practitioners and policy makers in a variety of related disciplines. Covers a huge range of biodiversity documentation, conservation measures and strategies that can be applied to various sectors, from forests to agriculture Brings together expertise from researchers in the area who have direct experience in the regions described Contains a wealth of field research related to biodiversity conservation and its applications from a variety of tropical islands

Structure and Function of Mountain Ecosystems in Japan

Biodiversity and Vulnerability to Climate Change

Author: Gaku Kudo

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 443155954X

Category: Science

Page: 173

View: 9609

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The purpose of this book is to summarize new insights on the structure and function of mountain ecosystems and to present evidence and perspectives on the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This volume describes overall features of high-mountain ecosystems in Japan, which are characterized by clear seasonality and snow-thawing dynamics. Individual chapters cover a variety of unique topics, namely, vegetation dynamics along elevations, the physiological function of alpine plants, the structure of flowering phenology, plant–pollinator interactions, the geographical pattern of coniferous forests, terrestrial–aquatic linkage in carbon dynamics, and the community structure of bacteria in mountain lake systems. High-mountain ecosystems are characterized by unique flora and fauna, including many endemic and rare species. On the other hand, the systems are extremely vulnerable to environmental change. The biodiversity is maintained by the existence of spatiotemporally heterogeneous habitats along environmental gradients, such as elevation and snowmelt time. Understanding the structure and function of mountain ecosystems is crucial for the conservation of mountain biodiversity and the prediction of the climate change impacts.The diverse studies and integrated synthesis presented in this book provide readers with a holistic view of mountain ecosystems. It is a recommended read for anyone interested in mountain ecosystems and alpine plants, including undergraduate and graduate students studying ecology, field workers involved in conservational activity in mountains, policymakers planning ecosystem management of protected areas, and researchers of general ecology. In particular, this book will be of interest to ecologists of countries who are not familiar with Japanese mountain ecosystems, which are characterized by humid summers, cold winters, and the snowiest climate in the world.

Routledge Handbook of Ecosystem Services

Author: Marion Potschin,Roy Haines-Young,Robert Fish,R. Kerry Turner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317687035

Category: Nature

Page: 630

View: 2129

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The idea that nature provides services to people is one of the most powerful concepts to have emerged over the last two decades. It is shaping our understanding of the role that biodiverse ecosystems play in the environment and their benefits for humankind. As a result, there is a growing interest in operational and methodological issues surrounding ecosystem services amongst environmental managers, and many institutions are now developing teaching programmes to equip the next generation with the skills needed to apply the concepts more effectively. This handbook provides a comprehensive reference text on ecosystem services, integrating natural and social science (including economics). Collectively the chapters, written by the world's leading authorities, demonstrate the importance of biodiversity for people, policy and practice. They also show how the value of ecosystems to society can be expressed in monetary and non-monetary terms, so that the environment can be better taken into account in decision making. The significance of the ecosystem service paradigm is that it helps us redefine and better communicate the relationships between people and nature. It is shown how these are essential to resolving challenges such as sustainable development and poverty reduction, and the creation of a green economy in developing and developed world contexts.

The High-Mountain Cryosphere

Author: Christian Huggel,Mark Carey,John J. Clague,Andreas Kääb

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107065844

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 2815

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Provides a definitive overview of the global drivers of high-mountain cryosphere change and their implications for people across high-mountain regions.

Climate Change, Glacier Response, and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya

Contributions Toward Future Earth Initiatives

Author: RB Singh,Udo Schickhoff,Suraj Mal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319289772

Category: Science

Page: 399

View: 1609

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This book provides information essential for anyone interested in climate and environmental change of the Himalayan region, including land and resource managers, environmental planners, conservationists, environmentalists, geographers, climatologists, ecologists, and students. The book is unique in its coverage of the current understanding of the science of climate change in the Himalayan mountain system and of the major impacts on physical systems and ecosystems. The book gives an overview of the physical science basis of climate change and explains drivers and processes of glacier and vegetation dynamics. The book covers relevant aspects of accelerated climate change observed in the Himalayan mountain system, and highlights the regional differentiation of climatic changes and associated environmental modifications. The focus is on climate variability and change, and how physical systems and ecosystems respond to climate change impacts. Consequences include impacts on physical systems such as glacier shrinkage, glacial lake outburst floods, altered hydrological characteristics, permafrost warming and thawing, and mass movements on slopes. Climate change is also a powerful stressor on ecosystems and induces range shifts of plant and animal species and alterations in terms of phenology, biomass, plant cover, plant group dominance and species composition. Thus, ecosystem structure and functioning will be strongly affected. The book has an introductory chapter followed by a section on climate change, a section on impacts on glaciers and hydrology, and a section on vegetation dynamics. Each section has several chapters presenting key concepts, major drivers and key processes of environmental change in the Himalayan region from different perspectives. Climate change impacts in the Himalaya have not been studied in much detail, and respective findings were not presented so far in a comprehensive overview. This book summarizes the current knowledge of interactions between climate change and the dynamics of glaciers, hydrology, and vegetation.

Payments for Environmental Services, Forest Conservation and Climate Change

Livelihoods in the Redd?

Author: Luca Tacconi,Sango Mahanty,Helen Suich

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849806012

Category: Nature

Page: 288

View: 4857

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This resourceful book draws on several case studies to derive implications for the design of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) schemes that are very relevant to current climate change negotiations and the implementation of Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD) schemes at the national level. With its focus on livelihoods, the book also provides important lessons that are relevant to the design of PES schemes focusing on environmental services other than carbon conservation. Drawing practical lessons for the design of activities aimed at reducing deforestation and forest degradation while benefiting rural people, this book will appeal to academics, practitioners and students involved in the fields of environment and natural resource management, forestry and development studies. This insightful study is accessible also to non-experts in presenting the key issues faced in avoiding deforestation and benefiting livelihoods.

Mountain Ecosystems

Studies in Treeline Ecology

Author: Gabriele Broll,Beate Keplin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540273653

Category: Science

Page: 354

View: 9738

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This volume focuses on interaction between vegetation, relief, climate, soil and fauna in the treeline ecotone, and the effects of climate change and land use in North America and Europe.

Management of Mountain Watersheds

Author: Josef Krecek,Martin Haigh,Thomas Hofer,Eero Kubin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400724764

Category: Science

Page: 269

View: 3992

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The book aims to address the interdisciplinary targets of watershed management in mountain regions based on the current knowledge of the subject. The focus of the book is particularly on monitoring, research, and modelling the interactions between the climate, water cycle, and aquatic ecosystem. The issues of watershed management in mountain regions in different parts of Europe, Africa, America and Asia have been the central theme of the book, which is basically divided into five sections: Institutional aspects in control of mountain regions; Stream-flow processes in mountain catchments; Water chemistry and biota in mountain streams and lakes; Effects of forest practices and climate change on hydrological phenomena; and Soil conservation and control of floods and landslides. The contributions have been peer-reviewed and the interdisciplinary team of authors includes experts from the specialised areas of geography, hydrology, chemistry, biology, forestry, ecology, economy and sociology. The practical applications and management strategies mentioned in the book, deal with the integrated resource management approach, based on the compromise between the development, conservation/ protection of the nature. Finally, the socio-economic and cultural aspects, and ecosystem prevalent in a mountain catchment are discussed in detail.

Ecosystem Services of Headwater Catchments

Author: Josef Křeček,Martin Haigh,Thomas Hofer,Eero Kubin,Catrin Promper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319579460

Category: Science

Page: 323

View: 355

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This book addresses the evaluation of environmental impacts and services identified in headwaters of different eco-zones around the world. It presents 24 papers selected from contributions to recent meetings of the European Forestry Commission Working Party on the Management of Mountain Watersheds, which is coordinated by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Through its biennial sessions and inter-session activities, the Working Party focuses on the continuous exchange of knowledge and experience between professionals in Europe and other regions of the world confronted with similar issues. The contributions have been updated and peer-reviewed, and the interdisciplinary team of authors includes experts from the fields of geography, hydrology, chemistry, biology, forestry, ecology and socio-economics. The participatory management of headwater catchments in Europe, Africa, America and Asia was the central theme of the articles, which were divided into four sessions: (1) Headwater Environment and Natural Resources, (2) Enhancing Environmental Services in Headwaters, (3) Environmental Services in the Changing World, and (4) New Challenges for Environmental Education and Active Citizenship. The practical applications shown in the book address the multi-resource concept. The book offers a unique and valuable resource for environmentalists, engineers, watershed planners and policymakers alike.

Climate Change and Biodiversity

Author: Thomas E. Lovejoy

Publisher: The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI)

ISBN: 9788179930847

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 418

View: 4956

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climate changes have had dramatic repercussions, including large numbers of extinctions and extensive shifts in species ranges

Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity

Author: Carina Hoorn,Allison Perrigo,Alexandre Antonelli

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111915989X

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 1082

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Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity: A comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis for students and researchers Mountains are topographically complex formations that play a fundamental role in regional and continental-scale climates. They are also cradles to all major river systems and home to unique, and often highly biodiverse and threatened, ecosystems. But how do all these processes tie together to form the patterns of diversity we see today? Written by leading researchers in the fields of geology, biology, climate, and geography, this book explores the relationship between mountain building and climate change, and how these processes shape biodiversity through time and space. In the first two sections, you will learn about the processes, theory, and methods connecting mountain building and biodiversity In the third section, you will read compelling examples from around the world exploring the links between mountains, climate and biodiversity Throughout the 31 peer-reviewed chapters, a non-technical style and synthetic illustrations make this book accessible to a wide audience A comprehensive glossary summarises the main concepts and terminology Readership: Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity is intended for students and researchers in geosciences, biology and geography. It is specifically compiled for those who are interested in historical biogeography, biodiversity and conservation.

Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions

Southeastern Europe

Author: Georgi Zhelezov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319201107

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 1646

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This second edition of the book Sustainable Development of Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe integrates the scientific results and expertise of the researchers from the countries in Southeastern Europe. The book consists of updated information for the topics observed in first edition and several new chapters with analysis of some problems in the mountain regions of four new for the edition countries in Southeastern European space. The general themes in the book are related to Global problems and mountain regions; Nature resources and landuse in mountain regions; Social, economic and regional problems of mountain regions; Nature protection, conservation and monitoring and Networks and strategies for mountain regions. The key topics for discussion are: Natural recourses and land use in mountain regions. Sustainable social and economic development of the mountain regions. Natural disasters and risk prevention. Spatial modeling and planning. Nature protection, monitoring and conservation. Politics and sustainable practices for development of mountain regions. Transborder and regional cooperation. Mountain regions in Southeastern Europe are characterized by unique landscape and biological diversity and great economic potential. They have function as a living space and provide different groups of ecosystem and landscape services. In social and economic aspects these regions are one of the poorest in Southeastern European countries with unused potential. Human, ecological and economic problems arising in various mountain regions have the same basic characteristics irrespective of the country. Some mountain regions are subject to specific for the conditions of the mountain and country policy for planning, development and mountain population promotion. The general goal is development of whole economy and the efficient management of natural resources and prevention of natural and tec hnological disasters. The mountain regions are one of the most threatened landscape systems in Southeastern Europe. Understanding the importance of the mountain regions and conservation of the natural heritage require scientific and institutional cooperation at all levels.