Naming and Necessity

Author: Saul A. Kripke

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674598461

Category: Philosophy

Page: 172

View: 9501

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If there is such a thing as essential reading in metaphysics or in philosophy of language, this is it. Ever since the publication of its original version, Naming and Necessity has had great and increasing influence. It redirected philosophical attention to neglected questions of natural and metaphysical necessity and to the connections between these and theories of reference, in particular of naming, and of identity. From a critique of the dominant tendency to assimilate names to descriptions and more generally to treat their reference as a function of their Fregean sense, surprisingly deep and widespread consequences may be drawn. The largely discredited distinction between accidental and essential properties, both of individual things (including people) and of kinds of things, is revived. So is a consequent view of science as what seeks out the essences of natural kinds. Traditional objections to such views are dealt with by sharpening distinctions between epistemic and metaphysical necessity; in particular by the startling admission of necessary a posteriori truths. From these, in particular from identity statements using rigid designators whether of things or of kinds, further remarkable consequences are drawn for the natures of things, of people, and of kinds; strong objections follow, for example to identity versions of materialism as a theory of the mind. This seminal work, to which today's thriving essentialist metaphysics largely owes its impetus, is here published with a substantial new Preface by the author.

Name und Notwendigkeit

Author: Saul A. Kripke

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518286562

Category: Name - Analytische Philosophie

Page: 191

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The New Theory of Reference

Kripke, Marcus, and Its Origins

Author: P. Humphreys,J.H. Fetzer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401152500

Category: Philosophy

Page: 290

View: 4518

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On January 20th, 22nd, and 29th, 1970 Saul Kripke delivered three lectures at Princeton University. They produced something of a sensation. In the lectures he argued, amongst other things, that many names in ordinary language referred to objects directly rather than by means of associated descriptions; that causal chains from language user to language user were an important mechanism for preserving reference; that there were necessary a posteriori and contingent a priori truths; that identity relations between rigid designators were necessary; and argued, more tentatively, that materialist identity theories in the philosophy of mind were suspect. Interspersed with this was a consider able amount of material on natural kind terms and essentialism. As a result of these lectures and a related 1971 paper, 'Identity and Necessity' (Kripke [1971]), talk of rigid designators, Hesperus and Phosphorus, meter bars, gold and H 0, and suchlike quickly became commonplace in philosophical circles 2 and when the lectures were published under the title Naming and Necessity in the collection The Semantics of Natural Language (Davidson and Harman l [1972]), that volume became the biggest seller in the Reidel (later Kluwer) list. The cluster of theses surrounding the idea that a relation of direct reference 2 exists between names and their referents is now frequently referred to as 'The 3 New Theory of Reference'.

Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century, Volume 2

The Age of Meaning

Author: Scott Soames

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691123127

Category: Philosophy

Page: 504

View: 1282

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This is a major, wide-ranging history of analytic philosophy since 1900, told by one of the tradition's leading contemporary figures. The first volume takes the story from 1900 to mid-century. The second brings the history up to date. As Scott Soames tells it, the story of analytic philosophy is one of great but uneven progress, with leading thinkers making important advances toward solving the tradition's core problems. Though no broad philosophical position ever achieved lasting dominance, Soames argues that two methodological developments have, over time, remade the philosophical landscape. These are (1) analytic philosophers' hard-won success in understanding, and distinguishing the notions of logical truth, a priori truth, and necessary truth, and (2) gradual acceptance of the idea that philosophical speculation must be grounded in sound prephilosophical thought. Though Soames views this history in a positive light, he also illustrates the difficulties, false starts, and disappointments endured along the way. As he engages with the work of his predecessors and contemporaries--from Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein to Donald Davidson and Saul Kripke--he seeks to highlight their accomplishments while also pinpointing their shortcomings, especially where their perspectives were limited by an incomplete grasp of matters that have now become clear. Soames himself has been at the center of some of the tradition's most important debates, and throughout writes with exceptional ease about its often complex ideas. His gift for clear exposition makes the history as accessible to advanced undergraduates as it will be important to scholars. Despite its centrality to philosophy in the English-speaking world, the analytic tradition in philosophy has had very few synthetic histories. This will be the benchmark against which all future accounts will be measured.

The Nature of Truth

An updated approach to the meaning of truth ascriptions

Author: Maria Jose Frapolli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400744641

Category: Philosophy

Page: 158

View: 8142

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The book offers a characterization of the meaning and role of the notion of truth in natural languages and an explanation of why, in spite of the big amount of proposals about truth, this task has proved to be resistant to the different analyses. The general thesis of the book is that defining truth is perfectly possible and that the average educated philosopher of language has the tools to do it. The book offers an updated treatment of the meaning of truth ascriptions from taking into account the latest views in philosophy of language and linguistics.

Referential Opacity and Modal Logic

Author: Dagfinn Follesdal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135949352

Category: Mathematics

Page: 200

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This landmark dissertation (1961) provides a systematic introduction to systems of modal logic and stands as the first presentation of what have become central ideas in philosophy of language and metaphysics, from the 'new theory of reference' and non-linguistic necessity and essentialism to 'Kripke semantics'.

The Limits of Logical Empiricism

Selected Papers of Arthur Pap

Author: Alfons Keupink,Sanford Shieh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140204299X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 394

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This volume collects some of the most significant papers of Arthur Pap. Pap’s work played an important role in the development of the analytic tradition. This goes beyond the merely historical fact of Pap’s influential views of dispositional and modal concepts. Pap's writings in philosophy of science, modality, and philosophy of mathematics provide insightful alternative perspectives on philosophical problems of current interest.

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Language

Author: Michael Morris

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139459805

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

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In this textbook, Michael Morris offers a critical introduction to the central issues of the philosophy of language. Each chapter focusses on one or two texts which have had a seminal influence on work in the subject, and uses these as a way of approaching both the central topics and the various traditions of dealing with them. Texts include classic writings by Frege, Russell, Kripke, Quine, Davidson, Austin, Grice and Wittgenstein. Theoretical jargon is kept to a minimum and is fully explained whenever it is introduced. The range of topics covered includes sense and reference, definite descriptions, proper names, natural-kind terms, de re and de dicto necessity, propositional attitudes, truth-theoretical approaches to meaning, radical interpretation, indeterminacy of translation, speech acts, intentional theories of meaning, and scepticism about meaning. The book will be invaluable to students and to all readers who are interested in the nature of linguistic meaning.

The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy

Author: John Marenbon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195379489

Category: History

Page: 755

View: 9735

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This Handbook shows the links between medieval and contemporary philosophy. Topic-based essays on all areas of philosophy explore this relationship and introduce the main themes of medieval philosophy. They are preceded by the fullest chronological survey now available of the different traditions: Latin and Greek, Islamic and Jewish.

Logic and Reality in the Philosophy of John Stuart Mill

Author: Geoffrey Scarre

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400925794

Category: Philosophy

Page: 244

View: 7736

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'Nobody reads Mill today,' wrote a reviewer in Time magazine a few years ago. ! One could scarcely praise Mr Melvin Maddocks, who penned that remark, for his awareness of the present state of Mill studies, for of all nineteenth century philosophers who wrote in English, it is 1. S. Mill who remains the most read today. Yet it would not be so far from the truth to say that very few people pay much serious attention nowadays to Mill's writings about logic and metaphysics (as distinct from those on ethical and social issues), despite the fact that Mill put enormous effort into their composition and through them exerted a considerable influen ce on the course of European philosophy for the rest of his century. But the only sections of A System of Logic (1843) and An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy (1865) to which much reference is now made comprise only a small proportion of those very large books, and the prevailing assumption is that Mill's theories about logical and meta physical questions are, with few exceptions, of merely antiquarian in terest. Bertrand Russell once said that Mill's misfortune was to be born at the wrong time (Russell (1951), p. 2). It can certainly appear that Mill chose an inauspicious time to attempt a major work on logic.

Philosophy of Scientific Method

Author: John Stuart Mill

Publisher: Cooper Press

ISBN: 1443726818

Category: Philosophy

Page: 516

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J. S. MILLS PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD The Hafner Library of Classics Number Twelve OSKAR PIEST Editor in Chief EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD CURT J. DUCASSE Professor of Philosophy, Brown University CLARENCE H. FAUST Dean of the Humanities and Sciences Stanford University ROBERT M. MACIVER Professor of Political Science, Columbia University ROSCOE POUND University Professor, Emeritus Formerly Dean of the Law School of Harvard University HERBERT W. SCHNEIDER Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University John Stuart Mills Philosophy of Scientific Method Edited with an Introduction by ERNEST NAGEL Professor of Philosophy, Columbia University 1950 HAFNER PUBLISHING COMPANY NEW YORK CONTENTS PAGE EDITORS INTRODUCTION xv NOTE ON THE TEXT xlix SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 A SYSTEM OF LOGIC PREFACE 3 INTRODUCTION 1. Is logic the art and science of reasoning 2 . . . 7 2. Logic is concerned with inferences, not with intuitive truths 4, abridged 8 3. Relation of logic to the other sciences 5 . . . 11 BOOK I OF NAMES AND PROPOSITIONS CHAPTER I. OF THE NECESSITY OF COMMENCING WITH AN ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE 1. Theory of names, why a necessary part of logic . 13 2. First step in the analysis of propositions . . 15 II. OF NAMES 1. Names are names of things, not of our ideas . 16 2. Words which are not names, but parts of names . 17 3. General and singular names 20 4. Concrete and abstract 22 5. Connotative and non-connotative abridged . 24 III. OF THE THINGS DENOTED BY NAMES 1. Necessity of an enumeration of namable things. The categories of Aristotle abridged . . 35 2. Feelings, or states of consciousness 3 . . 35 3. Feelings must be distinguished from their physical antecedents. Perceptions, what 4 . . 374. Volitions and actions, what 5 . . . . 40 5. Substance and attribute 6 40 VI CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 6. Body 7 42 7. Mind 8 48 8. Qualities 9 49 9. Relations 10 52 10. Resemblance 11 55 11. Quantity 12 58 12. All attributes of bodies are grounded on states of consciousness 13 59 13. So also all attributes of mind 14 ... 60 14. Recapitulation 15 61 IV. OF THE IMPORT OF PROPOSITIONS CH. V 1. Doctrine that a proposition is the expression of a relation between two ideas 64 2. that it consists in referring something to, or excluding something from, a class 3, abridged 67 3. What it really is 4 71 4. It asserts or denies a sequence, a co-existence, a simple existence, a causation 5, abridged . 73 5. or a resemblance 6, abridged .... 76 6. Propositions of which the terms are abstract 7 . 78 V. OF PROPOSITIONS MERELY VERBAL CH. VI 1. All essential propositions are identical propositions 2 82 2. Individuals have no essences 3 . . . . 86 3. Real propositions, how distinguished from verbal 4 87 4. Two modes of representing the import of a real proposition 5 88 VI. OF THE NATURE OF CLASSIFICATION AND THE FIVE PREDICABLES CH. VII 1. Classification, how connected with naming . . 90 2. Kinds have a real existence in nature 4, abridged 91 VII. OF DEFINITION CH. VIII 1. A definition, what abridged 96 2. Every name can be defined whose meaning is sus ceptible of analysis 97 3. How distinguished from descriptions 4, abridged 100 CONTENTS Vll CHAPTER PAGE 4. What are called definitions of things are defini tions of names with an implied assumption of the existence of things corresponding to them 5, abridged 102 5. Definitions, though of names only, must be grounded on knowledge of the corresponding things7, abridged 106 BOOK II OF REASONING I. OF INFERENCE, OR REASONING, IN GENERAL 1. Retrospect of the preceding book abridged . . 109 2. Inferences improperly so called abridged . .110 II. OF RATIOCINATION, OR SYLLOGISM 1. Analysis of the syllogism abridged . . . Ill 2. The dictum de omni not the foundation of reason ing, but a mere identical proposition . .112 3. What is the really fundamental axiom of ratiocina tion 116 4. The other form of the axiom 118 III. OF THE FUNCTIONS AND LOGICAL VALUE OF THE SYLLOGISM 1. Is the syllogism a petitio prindpiif . . ...

The Semantics of John Stuart Mill

Author: W.R. de Jong

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400978162

Category: Philosophy

Page: 250

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The original, Dutch version of this book served in 1979 as a doctoral disserta tion in philosophy at the Free University in Amsterdam. In this preface to the - slightly revised - English translation, I wish once again to express my gratitude to my supervisors, Prof. J. van der Hoeven of the Free University and Prof. G. Nuchelmans of the University of Leiden, for their excellent and stimulating support. Professor van der Hoeven was associated with this project from the outset. It was a privilege to benefit from his incisive commentaries, especially in those instances where the objective was to break through to more fundamental insights. I shall not lightly forget his friendly and heartening encouragement. I am equally grateful for my discussions with Professor Nuchelmans. I almost always tried to follow his advice, since it was based upon awesome expertness and erudition. I am happy to have found in the person of Herbert Donald Morton, Th.M., M.A., an able and enthusiastic translator. Drs. Gerben Groenewoud made the translations of a number of the Latin citations. I acknowledge permission from Routledge and Kegan Paul and the University of Toronto Press to quote from The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill. And I thank the Netherlands Organization for the Advancement of Pure Research (Z.W.O.) for fmancing this translation.

Why Is There Philosophy of Mathematics At All?

Author: Ian Hacking

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107729823

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 4713

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This truly philosophical book takes us back to fundamentals - the sheer experience of proof, and the enigmatic relation of mathematics to nature. It asks unexpected questions, such as 'what makes mathematics mathematics?', 'where did proof come from and how did it evolve?', and 'how did the distinction between pure and applied mathematics come into being?' In a wide-ranging discussion that is both immersed in the past and unusually attuned to the competing philosophical ideas of contemporary mathematicians, it shows that proof and other forms of mathematical exploration continue to be living, evolving practices - responsive to new technologies, yet embedded in permanent (and astonishing) facts about human beings. It distinguishes several distinct types of application of mathematics, and shows how each leads to a different philosophical conundrum. Here is a remarkable body of new philosophical thinking about proofs, applications, and other mathematical activities.

Philosophical Troubles

Collected Papers

Author: Saul A. Kripke

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 0199730156

Category: Philosophy

Page: 388

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"Includes a selection of published and unpublished papers"--Introd.

Kripke

Names, Necessity, and Identity

Author: Christopher Hughes

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780198241072

Category: Philosophy

Page: 247

View: 7838

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Saul Kripke, in a series of classic writings of the 1960s and 1970s, changed the face of metaphysics and philosophy of language. Christopher Hughes offers a careful exposition and critical analysis of Kripke's central ideas about names, necessity, and identity. He clears up some common misunderstandings of Kripke's views on rigid designation, causality and reference, the necessary and the contingent, the a posteriori and the a priori. Through his engagement with Kripke's ideas Hughes makes a significant contribution to ongoing debates on, inter alia, the semantics of natural kind terms, the nature of natural kinds, the essentiality of origin and constitution, the relative merits of 'identitarian' and counterpart-theoretic accounts of modality, and the identity or otherwise of mental types and tokens with physical types and tokens. No specialist knowledge in either the philosophy of language or metaphysics is presupposed; Hughes's book will be valuable for anyone working onthe ideas which Kripke made famous in the philosophy world.

Individuals, Essence and Identity

Themes of Analytic Metaphysics

Author: Andrea Clemente Bottani,Massimiliano Carrara

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402005480

Category: Philosophy

Page: 500

View: 3435

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The book's aim is to give a working representation of what metaphysics is today. The historical contributions reveal the roots of metaphysical themes and how today's methods are linked to their Aristotelian and Leibnizian past. The volume also touches on the relationships between ontological and linguistic analysis, the questions of realism and ontological commitment, the nature of abstract objects, the existential meaning of particular quantification, the primitiveness of identity, the question of epistemic versus ontological vagueness, the necessity of origin, the nature of natural necessity, the possibility of intermittent existence, the notion of a temporal part and its place in an account of persistence, the question of identity and change across time and possible worlds, and many more. Readership: A toolbox for any researcher in metaphysics and an essential source for any PhD student with ontological interests.

Thomas Kuhn's 'Linguistic Turn' and the Legacy of Logical Empiricism

Incommensurability, Rationality and the Search for Truth

Author: Dr Stefano Gattei

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409485854

Category: Philosophy

Page: 292

View: 9332

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Presenting a critical history of the philosophy of science in the twentieth century, focusing on the transition from logical positivism in its first half to the "new philosophy of science" in its second, Stefano Gattei examines the influence of several key figures, but the main focus of the book are Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper. Kuhn as the central figure of the new philosophy of science, and Popper as a key philosopher of the time who stands outside both traditions. Gattei makes two important claims about the development of the philosophy of science in the twentieth century; that Kuhn is much closer to positivism than many have supposed, failing to solve the crisis of neopostivism, and that Popper, in responding to the deeper crisis of foundationalism that spans the whole of the Western philosophical tradition, ultimately shows what is untenable in Kuhn's view. Gattei has written a very detailed and fine grained, yet accessible discussion making exceptionally interesting use of archive materials.