On the Origin of Autonomy

A New Look at the Major Transitions in Evolution

Author: Bernd Rosslenbroich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 331904141X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 297

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This volume describes features of autonomy and integrates them into the recent discussion of factors in evolution. In recent years ideas about major transitions in evolution are undergoing a revolutionary change. They include questions about the origin of evolutionary innovation, their genetic and epigenetic background, the role of the phenotype and of changes in ontogenetic pathways. In the present book, it is argued that it is likewise necessary to question the properties of these innovations and what was qualitatively generated during the macroevolutionary transitions. The author states that a recurring central aspect of macroevolutionary innovations is an increase in individual organismal autonomy whereby it is emancipated from the environment with changes in its capacity for flexibility, self-regulation and self-control of behavior. The first chapters define the concept of autonomy and examine its history and its epistemological context. Later chapters demonstrate how changes in autonomy took place during the major evolutionary transitions and investigate the generation of organs and physiological systems. They synthesize material from various disciplines including zoology, comparative physiology, morphology, molecular biology, neurobiology and ethology. It is argued that the concept is also relevant for understanding the relation of the biological evolution of man to his cultural abilities. Finally the relation of autonomy to adaptation, niche construction, phenotypic plasticity and other factors and patterns in evolution is discussed. The text has a clear perspective from the context of systems biology, arguing that the generation of biological autonomy must be interpreted within an integrative systems approach.

What Makes Biology Unique?

Considerations on the Autonomy of a Scientific Discipline

Author: Ernst Mayr,Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology (Emeritus) Museum of Comparative Zoology Ernst Mayr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521700344

Category: Science

Page: 232

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This book, a collection of essays written by the most eminent evolutionary biologist of the twentieth century, explores biology as an autonomous science, offers insights on the history of evolutionary thought, critiques the contributions of philosophy to the science of biology, and comments on several of the major ongoing issues in evolutionary theory. Notably, Mayr explains that Darwin's theory of evolution is actually five separate theories, each with its own history, trajectory and impact. Natural selection is a separate idea from common descent, and from geographic speciation, and so on. A number of the perennial Darwinian controversies may well have been caused by the confounding of the five separate theories into a single composite. Those interested in evolutionary theory, or the philosophy and history of science will find useful ideas in this book, which should appeal to virtually anyone with a broad curiosity about biology.

Ancient Tragedy and the Origins of Modern Science

Author: Michael Davis

Publisher: SIU Press

ISBN: 9780809313907

Category: Philosophy

Page: 178

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Through a close reading of Sophocles’ Ajax, Descartes’ Discourse on Method, and Plato's Meno, Davis argues that ancient tragedy and modern science are alternative responses to the human longing for autonomy or striving to be a god. Tragic heroes assume that through politics they can exert more control over the world than the world will allow. To them the whole world is politics, or polis. Scientists seek to control by mastering nature, which, in essence, means to transform the whole of the world into a Polis. Thus the issues and motivations in modern science were already present in ancient tragedy.

The Invention of Autonomy

A History of Modern Moral Philosophy

Author: Jerome B. Schneewind

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521479387

Category: Philosophy

Page: 624

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Study of the history of moral philosophy which puts Kant's ethics into historical context.

The Autonomy of Community Law

Author: R. Barents

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9041122516

Category: Law

Page: 334

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"This book is the English version of my 'De communautaire rechtsorde' ... which was published by Kluwer, Deventer (the Netherlands) in 2000 ... Where necessary I have updated the text by taking account of developments until the beginning of 2003."--Foreword.

States of War

Enlightenment Origins of the Political

Author: David William Bates

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528663

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

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We fear that the growing threat of violent attack has upset the balance between existential concepts of political power, which emphasize security, and traditional notions of constitutional limits meant to protect civil liberties. We worry that constitutional states cannot, during a time of war, terror, and extreme crisis, maintain legality and preserve civil rights and freedoms. David Williams Bates allays these concerns by revisiting the theoretical origins of the modern constitutional state, which, he argues, recognized and made room for tensions among law, war, and the social order. We traditionally associate the Enlightenment with the taming of absolutist sovereign power through the establishment of a legal state based on the rights of individuals. In his critical rereading, Bates shows instead that Enlightenment thinkers conceived of political autonomy in a systematic, theoretical way. Focusing on the nature of foundational violence, war, and existential crises, eighteenth-century thinkers understood law and constitutional order not as constraints on political power but as the logical implication of that primordial force. Returning to the origin stories that informed the beginnings of political community, Bates reclaims the idea of law, warfare, and the social order as intertwining elements subject to complex historical development. Following an analysis of seminal works by seventeenth-century natural-law theorists, Bates reviews the major canonical thinkers of constitutional theory (Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau) from the perspective of existential security and sovereign power. Countering Carl Schmitt's influential notion of the autonomy of the political, Bates demonstrates that Enlightenment thinkers understood the autonomous political sphere as a space of law protecting individuals according to their political status, not as mere members of a historically contingent social order.

The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars

Author: Robert I. Rotberg,Theodore K. Rabb,Robert Gilpin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521379557

Category: History

Page: 352

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Since the development of the modern state system in Europe four centuries ago, there have been ten general wars involving a majority of the major powers and a high level of casualties. Another major war is difficult to conceive of, since it would presumably be the last such conflict, and yet it is not an impossibility. In this volume a distinguished group of political scientists and historians examine the origins of major wars and discuss the problems in preventing a nuclear war.

On the Origin of Species

Author: Charles Darwin

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 1460401530

Category: History

Page: 672

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Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species, in which he writes of his theories of evolution by natural selection, is one of the most important works of scientific study ever published. This unabridged edition also includes a rich selection of primary source material: substantial selections from Darwin's other works (Autobiography, notebooks, letters, Voyage of the Beagle, and The Descent of Man) and selections from Darwin's sources and contemporaries (excerpts from Genesis, Paley, Lamarck, Spencer, Lyell, Malthus, Huxley, and Wallace).

A Taste of God

On Spirituality and Reframing Foundational Theology

Author: Toine Van Den Hoogen

Publisher: LIT Verlag Münster

ISBN: 3643900627

Category: Religion

Page: 187

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In the course of the 20th century, a new worldview has arisen in Western society and culture that is defined in this book as "immanent mysticism." Several major philosophers are sensitive to such a sense of immanent mysticism. The same sensitivity is noticeable in the works of poets, painters, and other artists. It expresses the desire for transforming the way to meaningful living. A Taste of God shows that theological research programs are innovated by insights from aesthetics and studies of spirituality. The book's research indicates that contemporary Western culture requires a reframing of foundational theology. (Series: Nijmegen Studies in Theology - Vol. 3)

Kant and the Fate of Autonomy

Problems in the Appropriation of the Critical Philosophy

Author: Karl Ameriks

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521786140

Category: History

Page: 351

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Ameriks challenges the presumptions that dominate popular approaches to the concept of freedom.

Inventing the Universe

Plato's Timaeus, the Big Bang, and the Problem of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Luc Brisson,F. Walter Meyerstein

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791426913

Category: Philosophy

Page: 193

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A parallel investigation of both Plato's Timaeusand the contemporary standard Big Bang model of the universe shows that any possible scientific knowledge of the universe is ultimately grounded in irreducible and undemonstrable propositions. These are inventions of the human mind. The scientific knowledge of the universe is entirely composed in a series of axioms and rules of inference underlying a formalized system. There is no logical relationship between the sensible perception of a world of becoming and the formalized system of axioms known as a "scientific explanation." The "irrational gap" between perception and explanation can be appraised historically and identified in three stages: Plato's Timaeus furnishes the first example of a scientific theory dealing with a realm of ideality that cannot be derived from immediate sensible perception; the Big Bang model is constituted on the basis of the purely geometrical notion of symmetry; and in the more recent Algorithmic Theory of Information, the analysis of the purely symbolic language expressing physical reality reveals the level of complexity of any given theory formulated in this language. The result is that the probability of the universe actually conforming with simple mathematics is zero. In a formal system, a theorem contains more information than can be found in the set of axioms of this system, and it remains undecidable. In Aristotle' s language, the theorems that can be proved within a theoretical model are already potentially contained in the system of axioms underlying these theorems.

Art in the Social Order

The Making of the Modern Conception of Art

Author: Preben Mortensen

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791432778

Category: Art

Page: 213

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Seeks to replace the dominant approaches to the question of the nature of art in contemporary English-speaking (analytic) philosophy with a historicist approach that emphasizes localized, cultural-historical narratives.

African Traditional Medicine: Autonomy and Informed Consent

Author: Peter Ikechukwu Osuji

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319058916

Category: Philosophy

Page: 206

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This book focuses on informed consent in African Traditional Medicine (ATM). ATM forms a large portion of the healthcare systems in Africa. WHO statistics show that as much as 80% of the population in Africa uses traditional medicine for primary health care. With such a large constituency, it follows that ATM and its practices should receive more attention in bioethics. By comparing the ethics of care approach with the ATM approach to Relational Autonomy In Consent (RAIC), the authors argue that the ATM focus on consent based on consensus constitutes a legitimate informed consent. This book is distinctive insofar as it employs the ethics of care as a hermeneutic to interpret ATM. The analysis examines the ethics of care movement in Western bioethics to explore its relational approach to informed consent. Additionally, this is the first known study that discusses healthcare ethics committees in ATM.

Shame and the Origins of Self-esteem

A Jungian Approach

Author: Mario Jacoby

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415105804

Category: Psychology

Page: 144

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Shame is one of our most central feelings and a universal human characteristic. Why do we experience it? For what purpose? How can we cope with excessive feelings of shame? In an elegant exposition informed by many years of helping people to understand feelings of shame, leading Jungian analyst Mario Jacoby provides a timely and comprehensive exploration of the many aspects of shame and shows how it occupies a central place in our emotional experience. Jacoby shows a lack of self-esteem is often at the root of excessive shame. As well as providing practical examples of how therapy can help, Jacoby draws upon a wealth of historical and cultural scholarship to show how important shame is for us in both its individual and social aspects.

The Origin and the Overcoming of Evil and Suffering in the World Religions

Author: P. Koslowski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401597898

Category: Religion

Page: 159

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All religions face the challenge of explaining, in view of God's goodness, the existence of evil and suffering in the world. They must develop theories of the origin and the overcoming of evil and suffering. The explanations in Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism of evil and suffering and their origin, as well as these world religions' theories of how to overcome evil and suffering, differ from one another, but are also similar in many respects. The human person is always considered to be the origin of evil, and also to be the focus of aspirations to be able to overcome it. The conviction that evil and suffering are not original and can be overcome is characteristic of and common to the religions. The explanations of the origin of evil are closely related to the explanations of the continuation and propagation of evil in human persons, in nature, and in our technology and culture that have been developed in the religions - in Christianity, for example, as the doctrine of original sin. Finally, the world religions are concerned with how to cope with suffering and offer guidance for overcoming evil and suffering. Leading scholars of five world religions, Buddhism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism, have created with this volume a first-hand source of information, which enables the reader to gain a better understanding of these religions' central teachings about the origin and the overcoming of evil and suffering.

Origins of the Cold War

An International History

Author: Melvyn P. Leffler,David S. Painter

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415341097

Category: History

Page: 352

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The Cold War dominated the world political arena for forty-five years. Focusing on the international system and on events in all parts of the globe, Melvyn P. Leffler and David S. Painter have brought together a truly international collection of articles that provide a fresh and comprehensive analysis of the origins of the Cold War. Moving beyond earlier controversies, this edited collection focuses on the interaction between geopolitics and threat perception, technology and strategy, ideology and social reconstruction, national economic reform and patterns of international trade, and decolonization and national liberation. The editors also consider how and why the Cold War spread from Europe to Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America and how groups, classes and elites used the Cold War to further their own interests. This second edition includes the newest research from the Communist side of the Cold War and the most recent debates on culture, race and the role of intelligence analysis. Also included is a completely new section dealing with the Cold War crises in Iran, Turkey and Greece and a guide to further reading.