Peace Operations and Intrastate Conflict

The Sword Or the Olive Branch?

Author: Thomas R. Mockaitis

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275961732

Category: History

Page: 166

View: 4145

Based upon consideration of United Nation missions to the Congo, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia and examination of counterinsurgency campaigns, Mockaitis develops a new model for intervening in intrastate conflicts and commends the British approach to civil strife as the basis for a new approach to peace operations.

Civil-Military Cooperation in Peace Operations: The Case of Kosovo

Author: Thomas R. Mockaitis,Strategic Studies Institute


ISBN: 9781312329676

Category: Education

Page: 48

View: 4133

The U.S. missions to Bosnia and Kosovo and the current operation in Iraq make it clear that winning wars accomplishes little if we cannot also win the peace. The strategic goals for which the wars are fought can only be achieved if the follow-on mission leaves an occupied territory more stable and democratic than before. Civilmilitary cooperation (CIMIC) is the key to achieving such stability. Although such cooperation has occurred in the past, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization developed its own CIMIC doctrine in response to the humanitarian interventions of the 1990s. Humanitarian intervention requires the intervening military force to provide security and lend its considerable assets to relief operations and rebuilding. CIMIC provides the mechanism for such cooperation and support. Like any concept employed in coalition warfare, CIMIC application varies widely. Examining diverse national approaches to CIMIC in the field reveals best practices and common mistakes.

Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations

A New Model in the Making

Author: Peter Viggo Jakobsen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134176368

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 1869

A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets the requirements of the new era. The overall conclusion is that the Nordics have succeeded in meeting the post-Cold War requirements for success, both individually and collectively, and that a new effective model is in the making. This book makes several important contributions to the literature on peace operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end of the Cold War. Third, it fills a "historical" gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of the celebrated old Nordic Cold War model, explaining how and why it developed and how it functioned. Finally, the analytical framework is a general tool which can be used to evaluate the approaches to peace operations employed by countries around the world. This book will be of great interest to all students of peacekeeping, peace studies, security studies and IR in general.

The United Nations, Intra-State Peacekeeping and Normative Change

Author: Esref Aksu

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719067488

Category: Political Science

Page: 241

View: 2285

"Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the 'historical structural' approach, this study seeks to understand whether, how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's relationship with intra-state conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state 'peacekeeping environments', and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of 'normative basis' revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter, among them, state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development."--BOOK JACKET.

Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace

Author: Ashok Swain,Ramses Amer,Joakim Öjendal

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 1843312875

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 9428

Although globalization creates new wealth and encourages technological innovations, it has also failed to support and promote sustainable human development and thus can be accused of generating anguish and deprivation. This has already resulted in growing civil unrest and, in some cases, contributed to armed conflicts in the developing world. However, peace and conflict research has hitherto somehow overlooked the influence of increasing globalization on the formation and management of such emerging conflicts. This impressive edited volume asks the question: what concrete measures exist which can be effective in addressing the causes of conflict and building peace in an increasingly interdependent world?

NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991-1999

Policies and Doctrines

Author: Henning Frantzen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134270305

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 3236

This new book addresses the key question of how NATO and three of its member states are configuring their policies and military doctrines in order to handle the new strategic environment. This environment is increasingly dominated by 'new wars', more precisely civil wars within states, and peacekeeping as the strategy devised by outside actors for dealing with them. The book seeks to explain how this new strategic environment has been interpreted and how the new conflicts and peacekeeping have been fitted into 'defence' and 'war' - key concepts in the field of security studies.

Evaluating Peacekeeping Missions

A Typology of Success and Failure in International Interventions

Author: Sarah-Myriam Martin- Brûlé

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317268628

Category: Political Science

Page: 154

View: 1564

This book offers a new perspective on peace missions in intra-state wars, based on comparative field research. In theoretical terms, this book proposes a new definition of peace operation success based on two crucial elements: the (re)establishment of order and the accomplishment of the mandate. The work presents a new typology for assessing peace operations as failures, partial failures, partial successes, or successes. This focus on ‘blurry’ outcomes provides a clearer theoretical framework to understand what constitutes successful peace operations. It explains the different outcomes of peace operations (based on the type of success/failure) by outlining the effect(s) of the combination of the key ingredients-strategy and the type of interveners. Empirically, this book tests the saliency of the theoretical framework by examining the peace operations which took place in Somalia, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This book refutes the classification of these three cases as the ‘worst’ context for ‘transitional politics’, and demonstrates that peace operations may succeed, partially of totally, in challenging contexts, and that the diverse outcomes are better explained by the type of intervener and the strategy employed than by the type of context. This work shows that, for a peace operation in an intra-state war, the adoption of a deterrence strategy works best for re-establishing order while the involvement of a great power facilitates the accomplishment of the mandate. This book will be of much interest to students of peacekeeping, conflict resolution, civil wars, security studies and IR in general.

The United Nations and Global Security

Author: R. Price,M. Zacher

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 140398090X

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 7118

Many have proclaimed the fundamentals of global security were altered by the September 11 terrorist attacks. Do these changes undercut or enhance the role of the United Nations? What do events like the role of the UN in the crisis over Iraq tell us? Here top scholars examine the role of the UN in preventing international and civil violence, arms control, deterring and reversing aggression, and addressing humanitarian crises. The chapters are concise while providing depth of understanding of the issues, positions and problems facing the United Nations and its member states in grappling with increased opportunities and threats. Their lively presentations of the drama of UN debates establish the contributions and shortcomings of global multilateralism in an era of U.S. hegemony and unilateralism.

Peace Operations and Organized Crime

Enemies Or Allies?

Author: James Cockayne,Adam Lupel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136643125

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 9045

Peace operations are increasingly on the front line in the international community’s fight against organized crime; this book explores how, in some cases, peace operations and organized crime are clear enemies, while in others, they may become tacit allies. The threat posed by organized crime to international and human security has become a matter of considerable strategic concern for national and international decision-makers, so it is somewhat surprising how little thought has been devoted to addressing the complex relationship between organized crime and peace operations. This volume addresses this gap, questioning the emerging orthodoxy that portrays organized crime as an external threat to the liberal peace championed by western and allied states and delivered through peace operations. Based upon a series of case studies it concludes that organized crime is both a potential enemy and a potential ally of peace operations, and it argues for the need to distinguish between strategies to contain organized crime and strategies to transform the political economies in which it flourishes. The editors argue for the development of intelligent, transnational, and transitional law enforcement that can make the most of organized crime as a potential ally for transforming political economies, while at the same time containing the threat it presents as an enemy to building effective and responsible states. The book will be of great interest to students of peacebuilding, peace and conflict studies, organised crime, Security Studies and IR in general.

United Nations Disarmament Process in Intra-State Conflict

Author: Stephen M. Hill

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780333947166

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 4730

Stephen Hill analyzes the factors that affected the success or failure of the UN disarmament processes during intra-state peacekeeping missions conducted between 1991 and 1999. He examines seven case studies including Cambodia, Mozambique, the former Yugoslavia, Somalia, El Salvador, and the last two operations in Angola. The text utilizes developing approaches to conflict resolution in order to create an analytical framework through which to assess the UN's attempts at disarmament.

UN Peace Operations and Asian Security

Author: Mely Cabellero-Anthony,Amitav Acharya

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134194293

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 2418

This is an unparallelled analysis of the state of the United Nations peace operations and their impact on Asian security.This new volume examines new strategies being adopted by the UN; including doctrinal shifts in peace operation, and assesses the division of labour between the UN, regional organisation and non-governmental organisations/actors. Based on selected papers from mostly Asian scholars, the book offers regional perspectives from South, Southeast and Northeast Asia on the changing nature of UN Peace operations and analyses some of the core issues that are of critical relevance to regional security in Asia. In addition it reveals interesting new insights on the new players in the area of peace operations – i.e. China and Japan and considers their projected roles as defined by their respective security concepts. It also delves into issues of possible areas of concern caused by the new activism of these regional powers in peace operations. Finally, the book also revisits the significant lessons learnt from the UN experience in Cambodia and East Timor and examines their impact on future directions of peace operations. This book was previously published as a special issue of the leading journal International Peacekeeping.

Reader's Guide to Military History

Author: Charles Messenger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135959773

Category: Reference

Page: 986

View: 7682

This book contains some 600 entries on a range of topics from ancient Chinese warfare to late 20th-century intervention operations. Designed for a wide variety of users, it encompasses general reviews of aspects of military organization and science, as well as specific wars and conflicts. The book examines naval and air warfare, as well as significant individuals, including commanders, theorists, and war leaders. Each entry includes a listing of additional publications on the topic, accompanied by an article discussing these publications with reference to their particular emphases, strengths, and limitations.

Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security

The African Union-United Nations Partnership in Darfur

Author: Linnéa Gelot

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136285784

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 9541

At the turn of the century the regional-global security partnership became a key element of peace and security policy-making. This book investigates the impact of the joint effort made by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) to keep the peace and protect civilians in Darfur. This book focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the field of conflict management between the global centre and the African regional level. It moves beyond the dominant framework on regional-global security partnerships, which mainly considers one-sided legal and political factors. Instead, new perspectives on the relationships are presented through the lens of international legitimacy. The book argues that the AU and the UN Security Council fight for legitimacy to ensure their positions of authority and to improve the chances of success of their activities. It demonstrates in regard to the case of Darfur why and how legitimacy matters for states, international organisations, and also for global actors and local populations. Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security will be of interest to students and scholars of International Relations, African Security and Global Governance.

Determinants of Success in UN Peacekeeping Operations

Author: Jacques L. Koko,Essoh J. M. C. Essis

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761858652

Category: Political Science

Page: 114

View: 5396

This book examines 46 UN peacekeeping operations, initiated from 1956 through 2006, to identify the most significant factors that could help to explain the success or lack of success of such operations.

Counterinsurgency in Crisis

Britain and the Challenges of Modern Warfare

Author: David H. Ucko,Robert Egnell

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231535414

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 1823

Long considered the masters of counterinsurgency, the British military encountered significant problems in Iraq and Afghanistan when confronted with insurgent violence. In their effort to apply the principles and doctrines of past campaigns, they failed to prevent Basra and Helmand from descending into lawlessness, criminality, and violence. By juxtaposing the deterioration of these situations against Britain's celebrated legacy of counterinsurgency, this investigation identifies both the contributions and limitations of traditional tactics in such settings, exposing a disconcerting gap between ambitions and resources, intent and commitment. Building upon this detailed account of the Basra and Helmand campaigns, this volume conducts an unprecedented assessment of British military institutional adaptation in response to operations gone awry. In calling attention to the enduring effectiveness of insurgent methods and the threat posed by undergoverned spaces, David H. Ucko and Robert Egnell underscore the need for military organizations to meet the irregular challenges of future wars in new ways.

Intra-State Conflict, Governments and Security

Dilemmas of Deterrence and Assurance

Author: Stephen M. Saideman,Marie-Joelle J. Zahar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134045042

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 1893

This volume seeks to understand the central role of governments in intra-state conflicts. The book explores how the government in any society plays two pivotal roles: as a deterrent against those who would use violence; and as a potential danger to the society. These roles come into conflict with each other, as those governments that can best deter potential rebels are also those that can do the most harm to their citizens. Therefore, a balance must be achieved, raising difficult tradeoffs for policy-makers. This volume marks a departure from studies of ethnic conflict and civil war in recent years, which have focused on failed states, in considering the idea that governments themselves may be the source of violence. The contributors not only explore the balancing act that governments must perform, but also on the positive and negative roles that the international community can play in these conflicts. In doing so, the book covers a range of cases from both advanced and newer democracies to the most conflict-prone parts of the world.

Regional Organizations and Peacemaking

Challengers to the UN?

Author: Peter Wallensteen,Anders Bjurner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317696700

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 6574

This book analyses the new and difficult roles of regional organizations in peacemaking after the end of the Cold War and how they relate to the United Nations (UN). Regional organizations have taken an increasingly prominent role in international efforts to deal with international security. The book highlights the complex interaction between the regional and sub-regional organizations, on the one hand, and their relations with the United Nations, on the other. Thus, the general issues of UN and its authority are scrutinized from legal, practical and geopolitical perspectives. Taking on a broad geographical focus on Africa, the Arab world and Europe, the book also provides an extensive range of case studies, with detailed analysis of particular situations, organizations and armed conflicts. The authors scrutinise the heterogeneous relationship between the different organizations as well as the challenges to them: political resources, legal standing, financial assets, capabilities and organizational set up. Moreover, they investigate whether regional organizations, as compared to the UN, are better suited to deal with today’s intra-state conflicts. The book also aims to dissect the evolution of these institutions historically – in relation to Chapter VIII of the UN Charter which mentions the resort to 'regional arrangements’ for conflict management – as well as more generally in relation to the principles of international law and UN principles of peacemaking. This book, written by a mixture of established scholars, diplomats and high-level policymakers, will be of great interest to students as well as practitioners in the field of peace and conflict studies, regional security, international organisations, conflict management and IR in general.

Conflict Prevention and Peace-building in Post-War Societies

Sustaining the Peace

Author: T. David Mason,James D. Meernik

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135989826

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 2722

This volume provides an overview of the costs, benefits, consequences, and prospects for rebuilding nations emerging from violent conflict. The rationale for this comes from the growing realization that, in the post-Cold War era and in the aftermath of 9/11, our understanding of conflict and conflict resolution has to include consideration of the conditions conducive to sustaining the peace in nations torn by civil war or interstate conflict. The chapters analyze the prospects for building a sustainable peace from a number of different perspectives, examining: the role of economic development democratization respect for human rights the potential for renewal of conflict the United Nations and other critical topics. In an age when 'nation-building' is once again on the international agenda, and scholars as well as policy makers realize both the tremendous costs and benefits in fostering developed, democratic, peaceful and secure nations, the time has truly come for a book that integrates all the facets of this important subject. Conflict Prevention and Peace-building in Post-War Societies will appeal to students and scholars of peace studies, international relations, security studies and conflict resolution as well as policy makers and analysts.

Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement in Africa

Methods of Conflict Prevention

Author: Robert I. Rotberg

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815775768

Category: Political Science

Page: 231

View: 4208

Edited by World Peace Foundation president Robert I. Rotberg, the chapters in this volume focus on preventing outbreaks of civil war and other vicious internal conflicts in Africa. The contributors review the sorry state of African conflict prevention and weigh the merits of new methods of peace enforcement, including militant early intervention by African crisis response forces to avoid or reduce intrastate mayhem. Peacekeeping and Peace Enforcement in Africa assesses the realities and challenges of reducing the frequency of civil warfare in Africa. It features a detailed report of extensive candid discussions of these issues by leading African ministers of defense and chiefs of staff.

Humanitarian Intervention and Conflict Resolution in West Africa


Author: Dr John M Kabia

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1409498948

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 418

The end of the Cold War has been characterized by a wave of violent civil wars that have produced unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe and suffering. Although mostly intra-state, these conflicts have spread across borders and threatened international peace and security. One of the worst affected regions is West Africa which has been home to some of Africa's most brutal and intractable conflicts for more than a decade. This volume locates the peacekeeping operations of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) within an expanded post-Cold War conceptualization of humanitarian intervention. It examines the organization's capacity to protect civilians at risk in civil conflicts and to facilitate the processes of peacemaking and post-war peace-building. Taking the empirical case of ECOWAS, the book looks at the challenges posed by complex political emergencies (CPEs) to humanitarian intervention and traces the evolution of ECOWAS from an economic integration project to a security organization, examining the challenges inherent in such a transition.