Peace Operations and Intrastate Conflict

The Sword Or the Olive Branch?

Author: Thomas R. Mockaitis

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275961732

Category: History

Page: 166

View: 495

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Based upon consideration of United Nation missions to the Congo, Somalia, and the former Yugoslavia and examination of counterinsurgency campaigns, Mockaitis develops a new model for intervening in intrastate conflicts and commends the British approach to civil strife as the basis for a new approach to peace operations.

Civil-Military Cooperation in Peace Operations: The Case of Kosovo

Author: Thomas R. Mockaitis,Strategic Studies Institute

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9781312329676

Category: Education

Page: 48

View: 708

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The U.S. missions to Bosnia and Kosovo and the current operation in Iraq make it clear that winning wars accomplishes little if we cannot also win the peace. The strategic goals for which the wars are fought can only be achieved if the follow-on mission leaves an occupied territory more stable and democratic than before. Civilmilitary cooperation (CIMIC) is the key to achieving such stability. Although such cooperation has occurred in the past, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization developed its own CIMIC doctrine in response to the humanitarian interventions of the 1990s. Humanitarian intervention requires the intervening military force to provide security and lend its considerable assets to relief operations and rebuilding. CIMIC provides the mechanism for such cooperation and support. Like any concept employed in coalition warfare, CIMIC application varies widely. Examining diverse national approaches to CIMIC in the field reveals best practices and common mistakes.

The United Nations, Intra-State Peacekeeping and Normative Change

Author: Esref Aksu

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719067488

Category: Political Science

Page: 241

View: 4034

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the 'historical structural' approach, this study seeks to understand whether, how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's relationship with intra-state conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state 'peacekeeping environments', and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of 'normative basis' revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter, among them, state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development."--BOOK JACKET.

Evaluating Peacekeeping Missions

A Typology of Success and Failure in International Interventions

Author: Sarah-Myriam Martin- Brûlé

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317268628

Category: Political Science

Page: 154

View: 5618

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book offers a new perspective on peace missions in intra-state wars, based on comparative field research. In theoretical terms, this book proposes a new definition of peace operation success based on two crucial elements: the (re)establishment of order and the accomplishment of the mandate. The work presents a new typology for assessing peace operations as failures, partial failures, partial successes, or successes. This focus on ‘blurry’ outcomes provides a clearer theoretical framework to understand what constitutes successful peace operations. It explains the different outcomes of peace operations (based on the type of success/failure) by outlining the effect(s) of the combination of the key ingredients-strategy and the type of interveners. Empirically, this book tests the saliency of the theoretical framework by examining the peace operations which took place in Somalia, Sierra Leone and Liberia. This book refutes the classification of these three cases as the ‘worst’ context for ‘transitional politics’, and demonstrates that peace operations may succeed, partially of totally, in challenging contexts, and that the diverse outcomes are better explained by the type of intervener and the strategy employed than by the type of context. This work shows that, for a peace operation in an intra-state war, the adoption of a deterrence strategy works best for re-establishing order while the involvement of a great power facilitates the accomplishment of the mandate. This book will be of much interest to students of peacekeeping, conflict resolution, civil wars, security studies and IR in general.

Humanitarian Intervention and Conflict Resolution in West Africa

From ECOMOG to ECOMIL

Author: John M. Kabia

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317119568

Category: Political Science

Page: 234

View: 2097

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The end of the Cold War has been characterized by a wave of violent civil wars that have produced unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe and suffering. Although mostly intra-state, these conflicts have spread across borders and threatened international peace and security. One of the worst affected regions is West Africa which has been home to some of Africa's most brutal and intractable conflicts for more than a decade. This volume locates the peacekeeping operations of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) within an expanded post-Cold War conceptualization of humanitarian intervention. It examines the organization's capacity to protect civilians at risk in civil conflicts and to facilitate the processes of peacemaking and post-war peace-building. Taking the empirical case of ECOWAS, the book looks at the challenges posed by complex political emergencies (CPEs) to humanitarian intervention and traces the evolution of ECOWAS from an economic integration project to a security organization, examining the challenges inherent in such a transition.

Nordic Approaches to Peace Operations

A New Model in the Making

Author: Peter Viggo Jakobsen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134176368

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8644

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A new examination of Nordic approaches to peace operations after the Cold War. It shows how the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) remain relevant for the study and practice of post-Cold War peace operations. This unique study is structured around eleven success conditions derived from an analysis of the lessons learned since the early 1990s, ensuring that the results of the case studies are directly comparable. These case studies are supplemented by an analysis of Nordics’ collective efforts to replace their old Cold War peacekeeping model with a new one that meets the requirements of the new era. The overall conclusion is that the Nordics have succeeded in meeting the post-Cold War requirements for success, both individually and collectively, and that a new effective model is in the making. This book makes several important contributions to the literature on peace operations. First, it demolishes the widely held view that the Nordic countries remain a bastion of traditional Cold War peacekeeping with little relevance for contemporary operations. Second, it constitutes the first systematic overview of the reforms undertaken by the four Nordic countries since the end of the Cold War. Third, it fills a "historical" gap by providing a comprehensive analysis of the celebrated old Nordic Cold War model, explaining how and why it developed and how it functioned. Finally, the analytical framework is a general tool which can be used to evaluate the approaches to peace operations employed by countries around the world. This book will be of great interest to all students of peacekeeping, peace studies, security studies and IR in general.

Regional Organizations and Peacemaking

Challengers to the UN?

Author: Peter Wallensteen,Anders Bjurner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317696700

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 7323

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book analyses the new and difficult roles of regional organizations in peacemaking after the end of the Cold War and how they relate to the United Nations (UN). Regional organizations have taken an increasingly prominent role in international efforts to deal with international security. The book highlights the complex interaction between the regional and sub-regional organizations, on the one hand, and their relations with the United Nations, on the other. Thus, the general issues of UN and its authority are scrutinized from legal, practical and geopolitical perspectives. Taking on a broad geographical focus on Africa, the Arab world and Europe, the book also provides an extensive range of case studies, with detailed analysis of particular situations, organizations and armed conflicts. The authors scrutinise the heterogeneous relationship between the different organizations as well as the challenges to them: political resources, legal standing, financial assets, capabilities and organizational set up. Moreover, they investigate whether regional organizations, as compared to the UN, are better suited to deal with today’s intra-state conflicts. The book also aims to dissect the evolution of these institutions historically – in relation to Chapter VIII of the UN Charter which mentions the resort to 'regional arrangements’ for conflict management – as well as more generally in relation to the principles of international law and UN principles of peacemaking. This book, written by a mixture of established scholars, diplomats and high-level policymakers, will be of great interest to students as well as practitioners in the field of peace and conflict studies, regional security, international organisations, conflict management and IR in general.

The United Nations and Global Security

Author: Richard M. Price,Mark W. Zacher

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9781403963901

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 6266

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The United Nations is among the most important international organizations. But is it only a talking shop? Or does it have a role, as forum, vehicle, or actor, in addressing the most important security issues facing the world today? Here top international scholars examine the role of the UN in preventing international and civil violence, arms control, deterring and reversing aggression, and addressing humanitarian crises. The chapters are concise while providing depth of understanding of the issues, positions, and problems facing the United Nations and its member states in grappling with increased opportunities and threats.

Globalization and Challenges to Building Peace

Author: Ashok Swain,Ramses Amer,Joakim Öjendal

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 1843312875

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 272

View: 5918

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Although globalization creates new wealth and encourages technological innovations, it has also failed to support and promote sustainable human development and thus can be accused of generating anguish and deprivation. This has already resulted in growing civil unrest and, in some cases, contributed to armed conflicts in the developing world. However, peace and conflict research has hitherto somehow overlooked the influence of increasing globalization on the formation and management of such emerging conflicts. This impressive edited volume asks the question: what concrete measures exist which can be effective in addressing the causes of conflict and building peace in an increasingly interdependent world?

Conflict Prevention and Peace-building in Post-War Societies

Sustaining the Peace

Author: T. David Mason,James D. Meernik

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135989826

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 3284

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume provides an overview of the costs, benefits, consequences, and prospects for rebuilding nations emerging from violent conflict. The rationale for this comes from the growing realization that, in the post-Cold War era and in the aftermath of 9/11, our understanding of conflict and conflict resolution has to include consideration of the conditions conducive to sustaining the peace in nations torn by civil war or interstate conflict. The chapters analyze the prospects for building a sustainable peace from a number of different perspectives, examining: the role of economic development democratization respect for human rights the potential for renewal of conflict the United Nations and other critical topics. In an age when 'nation-building' is once again on the international agenda, and scholars as well as policy makers realize both the tremendous costs and benefits in fostering developed, democratic, peaceful and secure nations, the time has truly come for a book that integrates all the facets of this important subject. Conflict Prevention and Peace-building in Post-War Societies will appeal to students and scholars of peace studies, international relations, security studies and conflict resolution as well as policy makers and analysts.

NATO and Peace Support Operations, 1991-1999

Policies and Doctrines

Author: Henning Frantzen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134270305

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 9008

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This new book addresses the key question of how NATO and three of its member states are configuring their policies and military doctrines in order to handle the new strategic environment. This environment is increasingly dominated by 'new wars', more precisely civil wars within states, and peacekeeping as the strategy devised by outside actors for dealing with them. The book seeks to explain how this new strategic environment has been interpreted and how the new conflicts and peacekeeping have been fitted into 'defence' and 'war' - key concepts in the field of security studies.

United Nations Peace Operations in a Changing Global Order

Author: Cedric De Coning,Mateja Peter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331999106X

Category: Conflict management

Page: N.A

View: 8796

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"This book is essential for enhancing one's understanding of international conflict and for the continued relevance of the UN as a key stakeholder and participant in world affairs." --Maj. Gen. Kristin Lund, Head of Mission and Chief of Staff, UN peacekeeping mission in the Middle East (UNTSO) "This outstanding collection is a must-read for anyone interested in the challenges of peacekeeping today." --Dr. Lise Howard, Georgetown University, USA "I would recommend this book to policy makers, peacekeepers and scholars who wish to understand and improve the effectiveness of modern peacekeeping." --Lt. Gen. Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz, former Force Commander in the UN missions in the DRC (MONUSCO) and Haiti (MINUSTAH) "This exceptional collection of analyses by experts from both the global North and South will be of interest to practitioners and scholars alike - highly recommended." --Prof. Ramesh Thakur, Australian National University This open access volume explores how UN peace operations are adapting to four trends in the changing global order: (1) the rebalancing of relations between states of the global North and the global South; (2) the rise of regional organisations as providers of peace; (3) the rise of violent extremism and fundamentalist non-state actors; and (4) increasing demands from non-state actors for greater emphasis on human security. It identifies emerging conflict and peace trends (robustness of responses, rise of non-state threats, cross-state conflicts) and puts them in the context of tectonic shifts in the global order (rise of emerging powers, North-South rebalancing, emergence of regional organisations as providers of peace). The volume stimulates a discussion between practitioners and academics, offering an analysis of how the international community collectively makes sense of the changing global order and its implications for UN peace operations. Cedric de Coning is Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Norway and Senior Advisor for the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD), South Africa. Mateja Peter is Lecturer at the University of St. Andrews, UK and Senior Research Fellow at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Norway.

Making War and Building Peace

United Nations Peace Operations

Author: Michael W. Doyle,Nicholas Sambanis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400837694

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 1808

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Making War and Building Peace examines how well United Nations peacekeeping missions work after civil war. Statistically analyzing all civil wars since 1945, the book compares peace processes that had UN involvement to those that didn't. Michael Doyle and Nicholas Sambanis argue that each mission must be designed to fit the conflict, with the right authority and adequate resources. UN missions can be effective by supporting new actors committed to the peace, building governing institutions, and monitoring and policing implementation of peace settlements. But the UN is not good at intervening in ongoing wars. If the conflict is controlled by spoilers or if the parties are not ready to make peace, the UN cannot play an effective enforcement role. It can, however, offer its technical expertise in multidimensional peacekeeping operations that follow enforcement missions undertaken by states or regional organizations such as NATO. Finding that UN missions are most effective in the first few years after the end of war, and that economic development is the best way to decrease the risk of new fighting in the long run, the authors also argue that the UN's role in launching development projects after civil war should be expanded.

Peace Operations and Organized Crime

Enemies Or Allies?

Author: James Cockayne,Adam Lupel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136643125

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8162

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Peace operations are increasingly on the front line in the international community’s fight against organized crime; this book explores how, in some cases, peace operations and organized crime are clear enemies, while in others, they may become tacit allies. The threat posed by organized crime to international and human security has become a matter of considerable strategic concern for national and international decision-makers, so it is somewhat surprising how little thought has been devoted to addressing the complex relationship between organized crime and peace operations. This volume addresses this gap, questioning the emerging orthodoxy that portrays organized crime as an external threat to the liberal peace championed by western and allied states and delivered through peace operations. Based upon a series of case studies it concludes that organized crime is both a potential enemy and a potential ally of peace operations, and it argues for the need to distinguish between strategies to contain organized crime and strategies to transform the political economies in which it flourishes. The editors argue for the development of intelligent, transnational, and transitional law enforcement that can make the most of organized crime as a potential ally for transforming political economies, while at the same time containing the threat it presents as an enemy to building effective and responsible states. The book will be of great interest to students of peacebuilding, peace and conflict studies, organised crime, Security Studies and IR in general.

UN Peace Operations and Asian Security

Author: Mely Cabellero-Anthony,Amitav Acharya

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134194293

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 7599

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This is an unparallelled analysis of the state of the United Nations peace operations and their impact on Asian security.This new volume examines new strategies being adopted by the UN; including doctrinal shifts in peace operation, and assesses the division of labour between the UN, regional organisation and non-governmental organisations/actors. Based on selected papers from mostly Asian scholars, the book offers regional perspectives from South, Southeast and Northeast Asia on the changing nature of UN Peace operations and analyses some of the core issues that are of critical relevance to regional security in Asia. In addition it reveals interesting new insights on the new players in the area of peace operations – i.e. China and Japan and considers their projected roles as defined by their respective security concepts. It also delves into issues of possible areas of concern caused by the new activism of these regional powers in peace operations. Finally, the book also revisits the significant lessons learnt from the UN experience in Cambodia and East Timor and examines their impact on future directions of peace operations. This book was previously published as a special issue of the leading journal International Peacekeeping.

Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security

The African Union-United Nations Partnership in Darfur

Author: Linnéa Gelot

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136285784

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 5915

DOWNLOAD NOW »
At the turn of the century the regional-global security partnership became a key element of peace and security policy-making. This book investigates the impact of the joint effort made by the African Union (AU) and the United Nations (UN) to keep the peace and protect civilians in Darfur. This book focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the field of conflict management between the global centre and the African regional level. It moves beyond the dominant framework on regional-global security partnerships, which mainly considers one-sided legal and political factors. Instead, new perspectives on the relationships are presented through the lens of international legitimacy. The book argues that the AU and the UN Security Council fight for legitimacy to ensure their positions of authority and to improve the chances of success of their activities. It demonstrates in regard to the case of Darfur why and how legitimacy matters for states, international organisations, and also for global actors and local populations. Legitimacy, Peace Operations and Global-Regional Security will be of interest to students and scholars of International Relations, African Security and Global Governance.

Militias and the Challenges of Post-Conflict Peace

Silencing the Guns

Author: Chris Alden,Doctor Monika Thakur,Doctor Matthew Arnold

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 1780321171

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 4822

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Militias have proven to be a consistent and enduring challenge to achieving peace in war zones around the world. Whether armed by embattled governments in defence of their territory or fostered by external actors in the interests of greed or grievance, these groups occupy an uncertain and deeply controversial position in the changing landscape of conflict. Linked variously to atrocities against civilians or international criminal elements, part of what distinguishes them from more traditional combatants is their willingness to engage in violent tactics that defy international norms as well as a proclivity to embrace expediency in alliance-making. As such, their diversity of form, unorthodox nature and sheer numbers make achieving short-term stability and an enduring peace a consistently difficult proposition. Bringing together the lessons learned from four intensively researched case studies - the Democratic Republic of Congo, Timor-Leste, Afghanistan and Sudan - the book argues that the overly rigid 'cookie-cutter' approach to demilitaristation, developed and commonly implemented presently by the international community, is ineffective at meeting the myriad of challenges involving militias. In doing so, the authors propose a radical new framework for demilitarization that questions conventional models and takes into account on-the-ground realities.

Determinants of Success in UN Peacekeeping Operations

Author: Jacques L. Koko,Essoh J. M. C. Essis

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761858660

Category: Political Science

Page: 114

View: 4647

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book examines UN peacekeeping operations, initiated from 1956 through 2006 to manage cases of intrastate and interstate conflicts, in an attempt to identify the most significant factors that could help to explain the success or lack of success of such operations.

Ceasefire Agreements and Peace Processes

A Comparative Study

Author: Malin Akebo

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317204131

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 2087

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book analyses and compares ceasefire agreements as part of peace processes in intrastate armed conflicts. Research repeatedly underscores the importance of ceasefire agreements in peace processes but suggests that they can influence such processes in fundamentally different ways. However, despite contradictory expectations, remarkably few studies have so far been devoted to systematic and in-depth analysis of ceasefire agreements in contemporary intrastate armed conflicts. This book contributes to filling this gap by using a process-oriented conflict dynamics approach to analyse and explain how ceasefire agreements are being influenced by and in turn influences the broader dynamics of peace processes. Empirically, the book focuses on the armed conflicts in Aceh (Indonesia) and Sri Lanka. Based on document studies and 57 interviews with key actors, it presents comparative insights and in-depth knowledge about ceasefire agreements in different contextual settings. The book problematizes the common assumption in the literature that ceasefire agreements create momentum in peace processes and pave the way to peace, and it provides a more nuanced analysis and understanding based on two empirical cases analysed within a comparative framework. In contrast to conventional wisdom, it demonstrates how ceasefires on the contrary also can have negative implications on peace processes. This book will be of much interest to students of conflict resolution, peace studies, intra-state conflict, security studies and IR in general.

The UN at War

Peace Operations in a New Era

Author: John Karlsrud

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319628585

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 4817

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book is a critical political and institutional reflection on UN peace operations. It provides constructive suggestions as to how the UN and the international system can evolve to remain relevant and tackle the peace and security challenges of the 21st century, without abandoning the principles that the UN was founded upon and on which the legitimacy of UN peace operations rests. The author analyses the evolving politics on UN peace operations of the five veto powers of the UN Security Council, as well as major troop-contributing countries and western powers. He investigates the move towards peace enforcement and counter-terrorism, and what consequences this development may have for the UN. Karlsrud issues a challenge to practitioners and politicians to make sure that the calls for reform are anchored in a desire to improve the lives of people suffering in conflicts on the ground—and not spurred by intra-organizational turf battles or solely the narrow self-interests of member states. Finally, he asks how the UN can adapt its practices to become more field- and people-centered, in line with its core, primary commitments of protecting and serving people in need.