Peatland Restoration and Ecosystem Services

Science, Policy and Practice

Author: Aletta Bonn,Tim Allott,Martin Evans,Hans Joosten,Rob Stoneman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316546101

Category: Nature

Page: N.A

View: 6584

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Peatlands provide globally important ecosystem services through climate and water regulation or biodiversity conservation. While covering only 3% of the earth's surface, degrading peatlands are responsible for nearly a quarter of carbon emissions from the land use sector. Bringing together world-class experts from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of peatlands from an ecological, social and economic perspective, this book focuses on how peatland restoration can foster climate change mitigation. Featuring a range of global case studies, opportunities for reclamation and sustainable management are illustrated throughout against the challenges faced by conservation biologists. Written for a global audience of environmental scientists, practitioners and policy makers, as well as graduate students from natural and social sciences, this interdisciplinary book provides vital pointers towards managing peatland conservation in a changing environment.

Tropical Peatland Ecosystems

Author: Mitsuru Osaki,Nobuyuki Tsuji

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431556818

Category: Science

Page: 651

View: 8075

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This book is an excellent resource for scientists, political decision makers, and students interested in the impact of peatlands on climate change and ecosystem function, containing a plethora of recent research results such as monitoring-sensing-modeling for carbon–water flux/storage, biodiversity and peatland management in tropical regions. It is estimated that more than 23 million hectares (62 %) of the total global tropical peatland area are located in Southeast Asia, in lowland or coastal areas of East Sumatra, Kalimantan, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak and Southeast Thailand. Tropical peatland has a vital carbon–water storage function and is host to a huge diversity of plant and animal species. Peatland ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change and the impacts of human activities such as logging, drainage and conversion to agricultural land. In Southeast Asia, severe episodic droughts associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, in combination with over-drainage, forest degradation, and land-use changes, have caused widespread peatland fires and microbial peat oxidation. Indonesia's 20 Mha peatland area is estimated to include about 45–55 GtC of carbon stocks. As a result of land use and development, Indonesia is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases (2–3 Gtons carbon dioxide equivalent per year), 80 % of which is due to deforestation and peatland loss. Thus, tropical peatlands are key ecosystems in terms of the carbon–water cycle and climate change.

Restoration and Reclamation of Boreal Ecosystems

Attaining Sustainable Development

Author: Dale Vitt,Jagtar Bhatti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107015715

Category: Nature

Page: 412

View: 2950

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Provides the conceptual backbone and specific information necessary for the ecologically sound restoration and sustainable development of boreal ecosystems.

Boreal Peatland Ecosystems

Author: R.K. Wieder,D.H. Vitt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540319131

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 3431

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This is the first truly ecosystem-oriented book on peatlands. It adopts an ecosystems approach to understanding the world's boreal peatlands. The focus is on biogeochemical patterns and processes, production, decomposition, and peat accumulation, and it provides additional information on animal and fungal diversity. A recurring theme is the legacy of boreal peatlands as impressive accumulators of carbon as peat over millennia.

Creating and Restoring Wetlands

From Theory to Practice

Author: Christopher Craft

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124076599

Category: Science

Page: 358

View: 2909

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Creating and Restoring Wetlands: From Theory to Practice describes the challenges and opportunities relating to the restoration of freshwater and estuarine wetlands in natural, agricultural, and urban environments in the coming century. The underpinnings of restoration, driven by ecological (disturbance, dispersal, succession) theory, are described and applied to various activities (restoring hydrology, soils, and biota) that are used to improve the short- and long-term success of wetland restoration projects. Unforeseen problems that hinder restoration efforts and solutions to these problems are discussed in this comprehensive book that contains five sections and 13 chapters that include an introduction describing the defining characteristics of wetland – hydrology, soils, biota, the role of theory in guiding wetland succession, ecosystem development following restoration, and differentiating wetland reclamation, restoration, and creation, restoration of various estuarine and freshwater wetlands, case studies of estuarine and freshwater restoration and large-scale restoration, and finally, the future of wetland restoration. Explicitly links ecological theory to restoration efforts in a variety of freshwater and estuarine, natural, agricultural, urban landscapes, and wetland ecosystems Contains case studies of small- and large-scale restoration activities ensuring relevance to individuals and organizations Illustrates successes as well as failures of freshwater and estuarine wetland restorations in order to learn from them Presents specific information on hydrology, biota, wetland succession, ecosystem development following restoration, and more

Drivers of Environmental Change in Uplands

Author: Aletta Bonn,Tim Allott,Klaus Hubacek,Jon Stewart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134061641

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 544

View: 4906

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The uplands are a crucial source of ecosystem services, such as water provision, carbon retention, maintenance of biodiversity, provision of recreation value and cultural heritage. This puts them in the focus of both environmental and social scientists as well as practitioners and land managers.. This volume brings together a wealth of knowledge of the British uplands from diverse but interrelated fields of study, clearly demonstrating their importance in 21st Century Britain, and indicating how we may through interdisciplinary approaches meet the challenges provided by past and future drivers of environmental change. The upland environments are subject to change. They face imminent threats as well as opportunities from pressures such as climate change, changes in land management and related changes in fire risk, increases in erosion and water colour, degradation of habitats, altered wildlife and recreational value, as well as significant changes in the economy of these marginal areas. This book presents up-to-date scientific background information, addresses policy related issues and lays out pressing land management questions. A number of world-class experts provide a review of cutting-edge natural and social science and an assessment of past, current and potential future management strategies, policies and other drivers of change. After appraisal of key concepts and principles, chapters provide specific examples and applications by focussing on UK upland areas and specifically the Peak District National Park as a key example for other highly valuable upland regions.

Ecosystem Services

Author: Jetske A. Bouma,Pieter J. H. van Beukering

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107062888

Category: Nature

Page: 274

View: 6030

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Draws on a range of interdisciplinary perspectives to provide a framework for translating concepts into ecosystem-related decision-making and practice.

Mires and Peatlands in Europe

Status, Distribution and Conservation

Author: Hans Joosten,Franziska Tanneberger,Asbjorn Moen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783510653836

Category: Bog conservation

Page: 780

View: 2008

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The European continent features an impressive variety of mires and peatlands. Polygon, palsa, and aapa mires, concentric and eccentric bogs, spring and percolation fens, coastal marshes, blanket bogs, saline fens, acid, alkaline, nutrient poor, nutrient rich: the peatlands of Europe represent unique ecosystem biodiversity and harbour a large treasure of flora and fauna typical of peat forming environments. Europe is also the continent with the longest history, the highest intensity, and the largest variety of peatland use, and as a consequence it has the highest proportion of degraded peatlands worldwide. Peatland science and technology developed in parallel to exploitation and it is therefore not surprising that almost all modern peatland terms and concepts originated and matured in Europe. Their massive degradation also kindled the desire to protect these beautiful landscapes, full of peculiar wildlife. In recent decades attention has widened to include additional vital ecosystem services that natural and restored peatlands provide. Already the first scientific book on peatlands (Schoockius 1658) contained a chapter on restoration. Yet, only now there is a rising awareness of the necessity to conserve and restore mires and peatlands in order to avoid adverse environmental and economic effects. This book provides - for the first time in history - a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of mires and peatlands in biogeographic Europe. Written by 134 authors, the book describes mire and peatland types, terms, extent, distribution, use, conservation, and restoration individually for each country and integrated for the entire continent. Complemented by a multitude of maps and photographs, the book offers an impressive and colourful journey, full of surprising historical context and fascinating details, while appreciating the core principles and unifying concepts of mire science.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum,J. K. Jeglum

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199602999

Category: Nature

Page: 382

View: 9402

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The Biology of Peatlands Second Edition provides a comprehensive overview of peatland ecosystems, examining the entire range of biota (microbes, invertebrates, plants and vertebrates) present in this habitat and considering management, conservation and restoration issues. The second edition has been fully revised and updated with the latest research.

Peatlands

Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes

Author: I.P. Martini,A. Martinez Cortizas,W. Chesworth

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468051

Category: Law

Page: 606

View: 2368

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'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene. The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.' * Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches * Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities * Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

REDD+ on the ground

A case book of subnational initiatives across the globe

Author: Erin O Sills,Stibniati S Atmadja,Claudio de Sassi,Amy E Duchelle,Demetrius L Kweka, Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo,William D Sunderlin

Publisher: CIFOR

ISBN: 6021504550

Category:

Page: 500

View: 3127

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REDD+ is one of the leading near-term options for global climate change mitigation. More than 300 subnational REDD+ initiatives have been launched across the tropics, responding to both the call for demonstration activities in the Bali Action Plan and the market for voluntary carbon offset credits.

Water Ecosystem Services

Author: Julia Martin-Ortega

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107100372

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 175

View: 7461

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This book uses ecosystem services-based approaches to address major global and regional water challenges, for researchers, students, and policy makers.

Carbon Credits from Peatland Rewetting

Climate, Biodiversity, Land Use : Science, Policy, Implementation, and Recommendations of a Pilot Project in Belarus

Author: Franziska Tanneberger,Wendelin Wichtmann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783510652716

Category: Peat

Page: 223

View: 1158

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"Drained peatlands account for only 0.3% of the global land area. At the same time, drained peatlands are the source of a disproportional 6% of total anthropogenic CO2-emissions; a problem that needs to be addressed. The 'hotspots' are well known: Southeast Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, parts of the United States and Northeast China. The solution is obvious: Restore high water levels in peatlands. But many questions remain. How does rewetting affect greenhouse gas fluxes? What about methane? Are the emissions measurable, reportable and verifiable? Are emission reductions from peatland rewetting creditable towards Kyoto Protocol commitments? Can they be sold on the voluntary carbon market? How does rewetting influence biodiversity? And, may rewetted peatlands still be used productively? Belarus ranks 8th among the world's countries in terms of peatland CO2 emissions and occupies 3rd place in CO2-emissions per unit land area. In recent years, tens of thousands of hectares of drained peatlands in Belarus have been rewetted. This volume provides a synthesis of the challenges encountered and solutions adopted in a pilot project conducted in Belarus between 2008 and 2011. It presents data and conclusions from the project and relates basic principles to advanced applications, integrating science and politics, ecology and economy. The experiences and recommendations for peatland restoration set forth in this volume will inspire practitioners, land-use planners, scientists and politicians alike."--Publisher's description.

Nature-Based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas

Linkages between Science, Policy and Practice

Author: Nadja Kabisch,Horst Korn,Jutta Stadler,Aletta Bonn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319560913

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 7349

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This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas. Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, Second Edition

Author: John A. Stanturf

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482211971

Category: Nature

Page: 561

View: 7790

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Humans have influenced the landscapes and forests throughout the temperate and boreal zones for millennia. Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, Second Edition focuses on the negative impact of human activity, and explains the importance of forest restoration as a way to repair habitat, restore forest structure and function, and counteract the lasting effects of humanity. The book offers broad geographic coverage, as well as a combination of review and case study chapters providing social and policy contexts for restoration of specific forest types. This revised edition begins with a historical context for restoration, provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between degradation and restoration, and defines terms within that framework. While building on the first edition, it presents the response of restorationists to the current challenges of interpreting scattered science on forest history, stand development, and natural processes. It combines applicable experience designed to improve present and future ecological and social sustainability. Describes restoration in the context of rapid social, economic, environmental, and climate change Looks toward the future, presenting several completely new topics in forest restoration Covers different starting points for restoration, from non-forest to degraded forest Restoration of Boreal and Temperate Forests, Second Edition aids in the understanding of the diverse cultural and ecological contexts for restoration of temperate and boreal forests, and the creation of a better foundation of documented knowledge to support future and existing restoration decisions.

Ecosystem Services and Carbon Sequestration in the Biosphere

Author: Rattan Lal,Klaus Lorenz,Reinhard F. Hüttl,Bernd Uwe Schneider,Joachim von Braun

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400764553

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 464

View: 9851

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Ecological functions and human wellbeing depend on ecosystem services. Among the ecosystem services are provisional (food, feed, fuel, fiber), regulating (carbon sequestration, waste recycling, water cleansing), cultural (aesthetic, recreational, spiritual), and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling). Many relationships of various degree exist among ecosystem services. Thus, land use and soil management to enhance biospheric carbon sinks for carbon sequestration requires a comprehensive understanding on the effects on ecosystem services. Payments for ecosystem services including carbon pricing must address the relationship between carbon sequestration and ecosystem services to minimize risks of overshoot, and promote sustainable use of land-based carbon sinks for human wellbeing.

Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology

Principles and Applications

Author: Göran I. Ågren,Folke O. Andersson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107011078

Category: Nature

Page: 330

View: 7038

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Explains the structure, function and dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and demonstrates the application of ecosystem ecology to current environmental problems.

Forest Restoration in Landscapes

Beyond Planting Trees

Author: Stephanie Mansourian,Daniel Vallauri

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387291121

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 1748

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This book, published in cooperation with WWF International, integrates the restoration of forest functions into landscape conservation plans. The contents represent the collective body of knowledge and experience of WWF and its many partners - collected here for the first time. This guide will serve as a first stop for practitioners and researchers in many organizations and regions, and as a key reference on the subject.