Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes

Author: I.P. Martini,A. Martinez Cortizas,W. Chesworth

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468051

Category: Law

Page: 606

View: 9636

'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene. The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.' * Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches * Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities * Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

A Focus on Peatlands and Peat Mosses

Author: Howard Alvin Crum,Sandra Planisek

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472063789

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 712

Examines the fens and bogs of the upper Midwest, with a taxonomic treatment of peat mosses

Into the Peatlands

A Journey Through the Moorland Year

Author: Robin A. Crawford

Publisher: Birlinn Ltd

ISBN: 1788851404

Category: Travel

Page: 272

View: 2798

In this book Robin A. Crawford explores the peatlands of Lewis. He explains how they have come to be and also considers how peat has been used for millennia, principally as a fuel but also, amongst other things, as a key element in the whisky-making process. In describing the seasonal processes of cutting, drying, stacking, storing and burning, he reveals one of the key rhythms of island life, but his study goes well beyond this to include many other aspects, including the wildlife and folklore associated with these lonely, watery places. Widening his gaze to other peatlands in the country, he also reflects on the historical and cultural importance that peat has played, and continues to play, in the story of Scotland.

Boreal Peatland Ecosystems

Author: R.K. Wieder,D.H. Vitt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540319131

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 8136

This is the first truly ecosystem-oriented book on peatlands. It adopts an ecosystems approach to understanding the world's boreal peatlands. The focus is on biogeochemical patterns and processes, production, decomposition, and peat accumulation, and it provides additional information on animal and fungal diversity. A recurring theme is the legacy of boreal peatlands as impressive accumulators of carbon as peat over millennia.

Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation

An issue brief on the importance of peatlands for carbon and biodiversity conservation and the role of drained peatlands as greenhouse gas emission hotspots

Author: Hans Joosten

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9289341696


Page: 15

View: 9816

Did you know that • peatlands hold more carbon than all forests of the world combined? • drained peatlands are responsible for 25% of total CO2 emissions in the Nordic and Baltic countries? • rewetting of peatlands substantially reduces these emissions? This policy brief pleads for increased commitments to conserving and rewetting peatlands; for abolishing regulations that drive peatland drainage; for changing drained peatland use to paludicultures; and for setting up good practice demonstration projects. It stresses the need for better communicating the benefits of wet peatlands and the costs arising from damaged ones. Finally it highlights the role of peatland rewetting and restoration in reaching national and international policy targets for climate change mitigation, water quality improvement and biodiversity conservation.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191508292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 3513

Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.

Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

Author: Andrew J. Baird,Lisa R. Belyea Belyea,Xavier Comas,A. S. Reeve,Lee D. Slater

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671635

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 6119

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 184. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands examines the role that northern peatlands play in regulating the atmospheric carbon budget. It summarizes current research in four interconnected areas: large-scale peatland dynamics and carbon cycling; plant and microbial dynamics and their effect on carbon fluxes to the atmosphere; methane accumulation in, and loss from, peatlands; and water and dissolved carbon fluxes through peatlands. The volume highlights include A thorough assessment of the challenges involved in incorporating carbon cycling in northern peatlands into global climate models; A conceptual model to examine the partitioning of terminal carbon mineralization into production of CO2 and CH4; A comprehensive review of the evidence for the accumulation of methane in deep and shallow peat; and A description of the hydrologic changes induced by peat harvesting and associated challenges in restoring altered peatlands to their natural hydrologic regime. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands will be of interest to research scientists and graduate and undergraduate students, particularly those who wish to know more about the role of peatlands in the global carbon cycle and their role as modifiers of climate.


Author: Pedro Serrano

Publisher: Arc Publications

ISBN: 1908376813

Category: Poetry

Page: 126

View: 9924

The poems in the first full-length collection to be published in the UK by the acclaimed Mexican poet Pedro Serrano are taken from Desplazamientos, a volume of selected poems which draws on all his collections since 1986. Chosen by both the poet and his accomplished translator, Anna Crowe, these poems are wide-ranging, passionate and linguistically thrilling, together forming a beautifully-balanced introduction to Serrano’s work.

Peatlands of the Western Guayana Highlands, Venezuela

Properties and Paleogeographic Significance of Peats

Author: Joseph Alfred Zinck,Otto Huber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642201387

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 9299

The Guayana Highlands in northeastern tropical America, rising from lowland rain forests and savannas up to 3000 m elevation, are characterized by ancient tablelands called tepuis. The peatlands that developed on the tepuis constitute unique and fascinating ecosystems and are the focus of this volume, which starts with an overview of tropical and subtropical peats, followed by an introduction to the geo-ecological features of the Guayana region as a whole, with special emphasis on the diversity of the vegetation cover from lowlands to uplands to highlands. The core subject centers on the properties and dating of the peat deposits and the interpretation of the chronological record in terms of past environmental changes. The well illustrated book will appeal to a broad range of scientists interested in tropical highland peats, including quaternarists, soil scientists, geomorphologists, geographers, geologists, ecologists, botanists, hydrologists, conservationists, and land use planners.

Conserving peatlands

Author: Lucy Parkyn

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9780851989983

Category: Nature

Page: 500

View: 5011

Peatlands are a unique and fast disappearing landscape. More and more countries are recognising this situation and protective legislation is increasingly being put in place. It is therefore important to understand all the processes and influences that are involved in sustaining the remaining examples of this fragile ecosystem. This book brings together the leading workers in this area. The contributions have been developed from the Peatlands Convention, held in Edinburgh and include a foreword by David Bellamy. The book addresses two key questions: why should peatlands be conserved and how should this be achieved? The first question is answered by chapters that look at the variety, attributes and interest in active bogs and peatlands throughout the world. There are contributions that consider the peat archive and look at how this contains information on the history of the site as well as material of much wider historical relevance. The book includes chapters describing the past and present uses of peatlands and includes discussion about their current commercial exploitation. This book summarises the current situation regarding peatlands and bogs and sets the agenda for their future survival. The work that has been brought together in this volume is important reading for all conservation workers, environmental scientists, ecologists, land managers and farmers working with peatlands and bogs. The book is also relevant to all government policy makers and voluntary bodies involved in sustaining biodiversity.

Peatlands and Environmental Change

Author: Dan Charman

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell


Category: Science

Page: 301

View: 8499

Peatlands and Environmental Change provides a comprehensivesummary of peatland science. The emphasis is on peatlands asdynamic parts of the landscape that are undergoing constant changeas a result of processes of peat accumulation and development, aswell as through human activity and climatic variability. The book is divided into four parts that look in turn at thenature of peatland classification and terminology, hydrological andecological processes and peatland growth, changes in peatlands andtheir influence on the environment, and resource management issues.Each chapter is supported by examples from all the main peatlandregions and site types including New Zealand, Australia and thetropics, as well as Europe and North America. Peatlands and Environmental Change is an idealintroduction to peatlands for those developing an understanding ofthese ecosystems, and for specialists who wish to broaden theirknowledge.

Peatland Forestry

Ecology and Principles

Author: Eero Paavilainen,Juhani Päivänen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662031256

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 250

View: 8815

The book provides a review and synthesis of boreal mire ecosystems including peat soil properties, mire hydrology, carbon and nutrient cycling, and classification of mire sites. The emphasis, however, is on peatland forests as a renewable natural resource. The approach originated in northern Europe, because there, especially in Finland, operational scale forest drainage has a long tradition based on research aiming to maintain and increase wood production on peatlands. Whenever relevant, a closer look is also given to other countries in Europe, Canada, and the USA. The results of recent studies on different environmental effects of peatland forestry are also discussed in detail.

Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest

Author: Randall Kolka,Stephen Sebestyen,Elon S. Verry,Kenneth Brooks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439814253

Category: Nature

Page: 512

View: 321

The Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in Minnesota serves as a living laboratory and provides scientists with a fundamental understanding of peatland hydrology, acid rain impacts, nutrient and carbon cycling, trace gas emissions, and controls on mercury transport in boreal watersheds. Its important role in scientific research continues to grow as the data gathered offers invaluable insight into environmental changes over the last century and goes far in answering many of today’s pressing questions at landscape and global scales. Synthesizing five decades of research, Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest includes hundreds of research publications, dozens of graduate theses, and even some previously unpublished studies. Research at the MEF has been at the forefront of many scientific disciplines and these 15 chapters offer the depth and breadth of long-term studies on hydrology, biogeochemistry, ecology, and forest management on peatland watersheds at the MEF. Focusing on peatlands, lakes, and upland landscapes, the book begins with the pioneering research on hydrology done during the 1960s. It presents the innovative 1970’s studies of atmospheric deposition; the 1980’s research into nutrient cycles including carbon, nitrogen, and methane emissions; and the 1990’s investigations into mercury deposition. The book concludes with a look at the latest and on-going studies such as this century’s research into controls on methylmercury production and landscape-level carbon storage and cycling. Covering 50 years of research and written by a veritable who’s who in peatland and forestry science, this important milestone in the collection of ecological data highlights bright prospects for future research, including the continuation of existing long-term measurements, the initiation of new monitoring programs, and plans for unprecedented studies on climate change.

The Patterned Peatlands of Minnesota

Author: Herbert Edgar Wright,Barbara Coffin,Norman E. Aaseng

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816619177

Category: Science

Page: 327

View: 6067

The gradual accumulation of knowledge about Minnesota's patterned peatlands over the past century is a fascinating story in the history of the science of ecology. Minnesota has more peat than any other state except Alaska, and these peatlands exhibit one of the most remarkable displays of the complex adjustment of living organisms to their environment. The parallel growth of an appreciation of the complexity of peatland ecosystems and of the importance of preserving at least the best of each peatland type is an equally fascinating chapter in the expansion of environmental awareness in the United States. Proposals to mine the peat for energy, combined with timber and mineral interest, stimulated an ambitious program of scientific study as well as debate over the peatlands' future. Research conducted during the past decade has unraveled many secrets of this intricate ecosystem - a unique ecosystem because it has been so little altered by human action since its development thousands of years ago. The Patterned Peatlands of Minnesota is a significant contribution to the current understanding of the ecology, hydrology, and socioeconomic history of Minnesota peatlands, and provides important perspectives for both development and preservation of peatlands wherever they may occur.

Restoration of damaged peatlands

with particular reference to lowland raised bogs affected by peat extraction

Author: Bryan D. Wheeler,S. C. Shaw,Great Britain. Dept. of the Environment

Publisher: Hmso


Category: Business & Economics

Page: 211

View: 7049