Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes

Author: I.P. Martini,A. Martinez Cortizas,W. Chesworth

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080468051

Category: Law

Page: 606

View: 9251

'In the past two decades there has been considerable work on global climatic change and its effect on the ecosphere, as well as on local and global environmental changes triggered by human activities. From the tropics to the Arctic, peatlands have developed under various geological conditions, and they provide good records of global and local changes since the Late Pleistocene. The objectives of the book are to analyze topics such as geological evolution of major peatlands basins; peatlands as self sustaining ecosystems; chemical environment of peatlands: water and peat chemistry; peatlands as archives of environmental changes; influence of peatlands on atmosphere: circular complex interactions; remote sensing studies of peatlands; peatlands as a resource; peatlands degradation, restoration, plus more.' * Presents an interdisciplinary approach, with an emphasis on Earth Science, and addresses the need for intergration between subdisciplines and the developing of new approaches * Synthesizes the evolutionary, ecological, and chemical characteristics of major peatlands, as well as focuses on the environmental changes, from climate changes to surface ares changes due to human activities * Covers topical studies of worldwide interest and provides examples from many different countries

A Focus on Peatlands and Peat Mosses

Author: Howard Alvin Crum,Sandra Planisek

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472063789

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 5492

Examines the fens and bogs of the upper Midwest, with a taxonomic treatment of peat mosses

Boreal Peatland Ecosystems

Author: R.K. Wieder,D.H. Vitt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540319131

Category: Science

Page: 436

View: 9143

This is the first truly ecosystem-oriented book on peatlands. It adopts an ecosystems approach to understanding the world's boreal peatlands. The focus is on biogeochemical patterns and processes, production, decomposition, and peat accumulation, and it provides additional information on animal and fungal diversity. A recurring theme is the legacy of boreal peatlands as impressive accumulators of carbon as peat over millennia.

Peatlands, climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation

An issue brief on the importance of peatlands for carbon and biodiversity conservation and the role of drained peatlands as greenhouse gas emission hotspots

Author: Hans Joosten

Publisher: Nordic Council of Ministers

ISBN: 9289341696


Page: 15

View: 5344

Did you know that • peatlands hold more carbon than all forests of the world combined? • drained peatlands are responsible for 25% of total CO2 emissions in the Nordic and Baltic countries? • rewetting of peatlands substantially reduces these emissions? This policy brief pleads for increased commitments to conserving and rewetting peatlands; for abolishing regulations that drive peatland drainage; for changing drained peatland use to paludicultures; and for setting up good practice demonstration projects. It stresses the need for better communicating the benefits of wet peatlands and the costs arising from damaged ones. Finally it highlights the role of peatland rewetting and restoration in reaching national and international policy targets for climate change mitigation, water quality improvement and biodiversity conservation.

The Biology of Peatlands, 2e

Author: Håkan Rydin,John K. Jeglum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191508292

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 819

Peatlands form important landscape elements in many parts of the world and play significant roles for biodiversity and global carbon balance. This new edition has been fully revised and updated, documenting the latest advances in areas such as microbial processes and relations between biological processes and hydrology. As well as thoroughly referencing the latest research, the authors expose a rich older literature where an immense repository of natural history has accumulated. The Biology of Peatlands starts with an overview of the main peatland types (marsh, swamp, fen, and bog), before examining the entire range of biota present (microbes, invertebrates, plants, and vertebrates), together with their specific adaptations to peatland habitats. Detailed coverage is devoted to the genus Sphagnum, the most important functional plant group in northern peatlands, although tropical and southern hemisphere peatlands are also covered. Throughout the book the interactions between organisms and environmental conditions (especially wetness, availability of oxygen, and pH) are emphasized, with chapters on the physical and chemical characteristics of peat, the role of peat as an archive of past vegetation and climate, and peatland succession and development. Several other key factors and processes are then examined, including hydrology and nutrient cycling. The fascinating peatland landforms in different parts of the world are described, together with theories on how they have developed. Human interactions with peatlands are considered in terms of management, conservation, and restoration. A final chapter, new to this edition, focuses on the role of peatlands as sources or sinks for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane, and the influences of climate change on peatlands. This timely and accessible text is suitable for students and researchers of peatland ecology, as well as providing an authoritative overview for professional ecologists and conservation biologists.

Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

Author: Andrew J. Baird,Lisa R. Belyea Belyea,Xavier Comas,A. S. Reeve,Lee D. Slater

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118671635

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 6204

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 184. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands examines the role that northern peatlands play in regulating the atmospheric carbon budget. It summarizes current research in four interconnected areas: large-scale peatland dynamics and carbon cycling; plant and microbial dynamics and their effect on carbon fluxes to the atmosphere; methane accumulation in, and loss from, peatlands; and water and dissolved carbon fluxes through peatlands. The volume highlights include A thorough assessment of the challenges involved in incorporating carbon cycling in northern peatlands into global climate models; A conceptual model to examine the partitioning of terminal carbon mineralization into production of CO2 and CH4; A comprehensive review of the evidence for the accumulation of methane in deep and shallow peat; and A description of the hydrologic changes induced by peat harvesting and associated challenges in restoring altered peatlands to their natural hydrologic regime. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands will be of interest to research scientists and graduate and undergraduate students, particularly those who wish to know more about the role of peatlands in the global carbon cycle and their role as modifiers of climate.


Author: Pedro Serrano

Publisher: Arc Publications

ISBN: 1908376813

Category: Poetry

Page: 126

View: 9727

The poems in the first full-length collection to be published in the UK by the acclaimed Mexican poet Pedro Serrano are taken from Desplazamientos, a volume of selected poems which draws on all his collections since 1986. Chosen by both the poet and his accomplished translator, Anna Crowe, these poems are wide-ranging, passionate and linguistically thrilling, together forming a beautifully-balanced introduction to Serrano’s work.

Peatlands of the Western Guayana Highlands, Venezuela

Properties and Paleogeographic Significance of Peats

Author: Joseph Alfred Zinck,Otto Huber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642201387

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 7620

The Guayana Highlands in northeastern tropical America, rising from lowland rain forests and savannas up to 3000 m elevation, are characterized by ancient tablelands called tepuis. The peatlands that developed on the tepuis constitute unique and fascinating ecosystems and are the focus of this volume, which starts with an overview of tropical and subtropical peats, followed by an introduction to the geo-ecological features of the Guayana region as a whole, with special emphasis on the diversity of the vegetation cover from lowlands to uplands to highlands. The core subject centers on the properties and dating of the peat deposits and the interpretation of the chronological record in terms of past environmental changes. The well illustrated book will appeal to a broad range of scientists interested in tropical highland peats, including quaternarists, soil scientists, geomorphologists, geographers, geologists, ecologists, botanists, hydrologists, conservationists, and land use planners.

Into the Peatlands

A Journey Through the Moorland Year

Author: Robin A. Crawford

Publisher: Birlinn Ltd

ISBN: 1788851404

Category: Travel

Page: 272

View: 6893

In this book Robin A. Crawford explores the peatlands of Lewis. He explains how they have come to be and also considers how peat has been used for millennia, principally as a fuel but also, amongst other things, as a key element in the whisky-making process. In describing the seasonal processes of cutting, drying, stacking, storing and burning, he reveals one of the key rhythms of island life, but his study goes well beyond this to include many other aspects, including the wildlife and folklore associated with these lonely, watery places. Widening his gaze to other peatlands in the country, he also reflects on the historical and cultural importance that peat has played, and continues to play, in the story of Scotland.

Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest

Author: Randall Kolka,Stephen Sebestyen,Elon S. Verry,Kenneth Brooks

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439814253

Category: Nature

Page: 512

View: 1802

The Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF) in Minnesota serves as a living laboratory and provides scientists with a fundamental understanding of peatland hydrology, acid rain impacts, nutrient and carbon cycling, trace gas emissions, and controls on mercury transport in boreal watersheds. Its important role in scientific research continues to grow as the data gathered offers invaluable insight into environmental changes over the last century and goes far in answering many of today’s pressing questions at landscape and global scales. Synthesizing five decades of research, Peatland Biogeochemistry and Watershed Hydrology at the Marcell Experimental Forest includes hundreds of research publications, dozens of graduate theses, and even some previously unpublished studies. Research at the MEF has been at the forefront of many scientific disciplines and these 15 chapters offer the depth and breadth of long-term studies on hydrology, biogeochemistry, ecology, and forest management on peatland watersheds at the MEF. Focusing on peatlands, lakes, and upland landscapes, the book begins with the pioneering research on hydrology done during the 1960s. It presents the innovative 1970’s studies of atmospheric deposition; the 1980’s research into nutrient cycles including carbon, nitrogen, and methane emissions; and the 1990’s investigations into mercury deposition. The book concludes with a look at the latest and on-going studies such as this century’s research into controls on methylmercury production and landscape-level carbon storage and cycling. Covering 50 years of research and written by a veritable who’s who in peatland and forestry science, this important milestone in the collection of ecological data highlights bright prospects for future research, including the continuation of existing long-term measurements, the initiation of new monitoring programs, and plans for unprecedented studies on climate change.

The Continental-Scale Greenhouse Gas Balance of Europe

Author: Han Dolman,Riccardo Valentini,A. Freibauer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387765700

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 7625

This book assesses the current greenhouse gas (GHG) monitoring capabilities of Europe, identifies and quantifies the uncertainties involved, and outlines the direction to a continental scale GHG monitoring network. The book uniquely addresses both the methodology of carbon cycle science and the science itself, providing a synthesis of carbon cycle science. The methods included provide the first comprehensive coverage of a full GHG accounting and monitoring system.

Changing Climates, Earth Systems and Society

Author: John Dodson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048187164

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 9211

The International Year of Planet Earth (IYPE) was established as a means of raising worldwide public and political awareness of the vast, though frequently under-used, potential the Earth Sciences possess for improving the quality of life of the peoples of the world and safeguarding Earth’s rich and diverse environments. The International Year project was jointly initiated in 2000 by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) and the Earth Science Division of the United Nations Educational, Scienti?c and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). IUGS, which is a Non-Governmental Organisation, and UNESCO, an Inter-Governmental Organisation, already shared a long record of productive cooperation in the na- ral sciences and their application to societal problems, including the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP) now in its fourth decade. With its main goals of raising public awareness of, and enhancing research in the Earth sciences on a global scale in both the developed and less-developed countries of the world, two operational programmes were demanded. In 2002 and 2003, the Series Editors together with Dr. Ted Nield and Dr. Henk Schalke (all four being core members of the Management Team at that time) drew up outlines of a Science and an Outreach Programme. In 2005, following the UN proclamation of 2008 as the United Nations International Year of Planet Earth, the “Year” grew into a triennium (2007–2009).

Peatland Forestry

Ecology and Principles

Author: Eero Paavilainen,Juhani Päivänen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662031256

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 250

View: 631

The book provides a review and synthesis of boreal mire ecosystems including peat soil properties, mire hydrology, carbon and nutrient cycling, and classification of mire sites. The emphasis, however, is on peatland forests as a renewable natural resource. The approach originated in northern Europe, because there, especially in Finland, operational scale forest drainage has a long tradition based on research aiming to maintain and increase wood production on peatlands. Whenever relevant, a closer look is also given to other countries in Europe, Canada, and the USA. The results of recent studies on different environmental effects of peatland forestry are also discussed in detail.


Author: MOORE

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781468462937

Category: Science

Page: 221

View: 5244

For many centuries peatlands have been a source of fascination to naturalists and scientists. When the itinerant John Leland passed through the peatlands of Central Wales in 1538 his comment was 'The pastures and montaynes of Cairdiganshire be so great that the hunderith part of hit roteth on the ground and makes sogges and quikke more by long continuance for lak of eting of hit'. His observation displays considerable ecological discernment, for he pinpoints those features of the peatland ecosystem which serve to differentiate it from all others and which have fired the imagination of generations of ecologists with an enthusiasm to understand the processes which Leland observed. Peatlands are, by definition, unbalanced systems in which the rate of production of organic material by living organisms exceeds the rate at which these compounds are respired and degraded. The result is an accumulation of a proportion of this production (not always the 'hunderith part'!) as an organic deposit which we term peat. As the peat blanket thickens, the surface vegetation becomes insulated from underlying soils and rocks, and the resulting environmental changes are often accompanied by floristic changes which reflect the altered hydro logy and chemistry of the peat surface. Peat producing ecosystems, or mires, are thus dynamic ecological entities, constantly changing, growing, spreading and eroding.


Environmental Gradients, Boundaries, and Buffers

Author: George Mulamoottil

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781566701471

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 5245

An understanding of environmental gradients (physical, chemical, hydrological, and biological) is a prerequisite to the accurate delineation of wetland boundaries. Presenting the wide-ranging views of academicians, environmentalists, policy makers, consultants, planners, engineers, hydrologists, biologists, geochemists, ecologists, and conservationists, Wetlands: Environmental Gradients, Boundaries, and Buffers focuses on current topics and research related to wetland delineation; summarizes the main issues of concern; and provides recommendations on research needs. In addition to integrating the most important research and theoretical aspects, this book includes a strong prescriptive component, providing practicing professionals with specific guidance on defining the true dimensions of a wetland area.

Conserving peatlands

Author: Lucy Parkyn

Publisher: CABI

ISBN: 9780851989983

Category: Nature

Page: 500

View: 3824

Peatlands are a unique and fast disappearing landscape. More and more countries are recognising this situation and protective legislation is increasingly being put in place. It is therefore important to understand all the processes and influences that are involved in sustaining the remaining examples of this fragile ecosystem. This book brings together the leading workers in this area. The contributions have been developed from the Peatlands Convention, held in Edinburgh and include a foreword by David Bellamy. The book addresses two key questions: why should peatlands be conserved and how should this be achieved? The first question is answered by chapters that look at the variety, attributes and interest in active bogs and peatlands throughout the world. There are contributions that consider the peat archive and look at how this contains information on the history of the site as well as material of much wider historical relevance. The book includes chapters describing the past and present uses of peatlands and includes discussion about their current commercial exploitation. This book summarises the current situation regarding peatlands and bogs and sets the agenda for their future survival. The work that has been brought together in this volume is important reading for all conservation workers, environmental scientists, ecologists, land managers and farmers working with peatlands and bogs. The book is also relevant to all government policy makers and voluntary bodies involved in sustaining biodiversity.

Tropical Peatland Ecosystems

Author: Mitsuru Osaki,Nobuyuki Tsuji

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431556818

Category: Science

Page: 651

View: 3385

This book is an excellent resource for scientists, political decision makers, and students interested in the impact of peatlands on climate change and ecosystem function, containing a plethora of recent research results such as monitoring-sensing-modeling for carbon–water flux/storage, biodiversity and peatland management in tropical regions. It is estimated that more than 23 million hectares (62 %) of the total global tropical peatland area are located in Southeast Asia, in lowland or coastal areas of East Sumatra, Kalimantan, West Papua, Papua New Guinea, Brunei, Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak and Southeast Thailand. Tropical peatland has a vital carbon–water storage function and is host to a huge diversity of plant and animal species. Peatland ecosystems are extremely vulnerable to climate change and the impacts of human activities such as logging, drainage and conversion to agricultural land. In Southeast Asia, severe episodic droughts associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, in combination with over-drainage, forest degradation, and land-use changes, have caused widespread peatland fires and microbial peat oxidation. Indonesia's 20 Mha peatland area is estimated to include about 45–55 GtC of carbon stocks. As a result of land use and development, Indonesia is the third largest emitter of greenhouse gases (2–3 Gtons carbon dioxide equivalent per year), 80 % of which is due to deforestation and peatland loss. Thus, tropical peatlands are key ecosystems in terms of the carbon–water cycle and climate change.