Geschichtswissenschaft jenseits des Nationalstaats

Studien zu Beziehungsgeschichte und Zivilisationsvergleich

Author: Jürgen Osterhammel

Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht

ISBN: 3647351628

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 4042

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Die deutsche Geschichtswissenschaft ist in weiten Teilen von einer nationalgeschichtlichen Perspektive gekennzeichnet. Die in diesem Band gesammelten Aufsätze sind als Einspruch gegen diese einseitige Prägung zu verstehen. Jürgen Osterhammel behandelt zwischen den Polen Vergleich und Beziehungsgeschichte verschiedene Themen der Weltgeschichte, wobei der Begriff »Beziehung« sich nicht auf dem Bereich der internationalen Politik beschränkt, sondern andere Arten von Beziehungen wie etwa Kulturtransfers in gleicher Weise einbezieht. Auch geht es in diesem Band nicht um »Außereuropäische Geschichte« – letztlich eine Kategorie einer auf Europa zentrierten Historie – sondern vielmehr darum, Amerika, Asien, Afrika und Ozeanien in den Horizont einer »normalen« Geschichtswissenschaft zu integrieren. Neben eine nationalgeschichtliche und eine auf Europa zielende Historie könnte so eine Geschichte in weltbürgerlicher Absicht treten. Dabei geht es nicht um Antworten von globaler Gültigkeit, sondern um Fragen in einem universalen Horizont.

What the Slaves Ate

Recollections of African American Foods and Foodways from the Slave Narratives

Author: Herbert C. Covey,Dwight Eisnach

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 031337497X

Category: History

Page: 311

View: 7231

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The powerful, long-neglected testimony of former slaves places African American slave foods and foodways at the center of the complex social dynamics of the plantation South.

The South Vs. the South

How Anti-Confederate Southerners Shaped the Course of the Civil War

Author: William W. Freehling

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195130278

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 8131

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Examines how the whites living in the border states during the Civil War and the slaves themselves helped to contribute to the defeat of the Confederate forces.

New Perspectives on Race and Slavery in America

Essays in Honor of Kenneth M. Stampp

Author: Robert H. Abzug,Stephen E. Maizlish

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813161827

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 7086

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For more than three decades race relations have been at the forefront of historical research in America. These new essays on race and slavery -- some by highly regarded, award-winning veterans in the field and others by talented newcomers -- point in fresh directions. They address specific areas of contention even as together they survey important questions across four centuries of social, cultural, and political history.Looking at the institution itself, Robert McColley reconsiders the origins of black slavery in America, while William W. Freehling presents a striking interpretation of the Denmark Vesey slave conspiracy of 1822. In the political arena, William E. Gienapp and Stephen E. Maizlish assess the power of race and slave issues in, respectively, the Republican and Democratic parties of the 1850s. For the Civil War and Reconstruction eras, Reid Mitchell profiles the consciousness of the average Confederate soldier, while Leon F. Litwack explores the tasks facing freed slaves. Arthur Zilversmit switches the perspective to Washington with a reevaluation of Grant's commitments to the freedmen. Essays on the twentieth century focus on the South. James Oakes traces the rising fortunes of the supposedly vanquished planter class as it entered this century. Moving to more recent times, John G. Sproat looks at the role of South Carolina's white moderates during the struggle over segregation in the late 1950s and early 1960s and their failure at Orangeburg in 1968. Finally, Joel Williamson assesses what the loss of slavery has meant to southern culture in the 120 years since the end of the Civil War. A wide-ranging yet cohesive exploration, New Perspectives on Race and Slavery in America takes on added significance as a volume that honors Kenneth M. Stampp, the mentor of all the authors and long considered one of the great modern pioneers in the history of slavery and the Civil War.

America in 1857

A Nation on the Brink

Author: Kenneth M. Stampp

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199729034

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 1791

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It was a year packed with unsettling events. The Panic of 1857 closed every bank in New York City, ruined thousands of businesses, and caused widespread unemployment among industrial workers. The Mormons in Utah Territory threatened rebellion when federal troops approached with a non-Mormon governor to replace Brigham Young. The Supreme Court outraged northern Republicans and abolitionists with the Dred Scott decision ("a breathtaking example of judicial activism"). And when a proslavery minority in Kansas Territory tried to foist a proslavery constitution on a large antislavery majority, President Buchanan reneged on a crucial commitment and supported the minority, a disastrous miscalculation which ultimately split the Democratic party in two. In America in 1857, eminent American historian Kenneth Stampp offers a sweeping narrative of this eventful year, covering all the major crises while providing readers with a vivid portrait of America at mid-century. Stampp gives us a fascinating account of the attempt by William Walker and his band of filibusters to conquer Nicaragua and make it a slave state, of crime and corruption, and of street riots by urban gangs such as New York's Dead Rabbits and Bowery Boys and Baltimore's Plug Uglies and Blood Tubs. But the focus continually returns to Kansas. He examines the outrageous political frauds perpetrated by proslavery Kansans, Buchanan's calamitous response and Stephen Douglas's break with the President (a rare event in American politics, a major party leader repudiating the president he helped elect), and the whirl of congressional votes and dramatic debates that led to a settlement humiliating to Buchanan--and devastating to the Democrats. 1857 marked a turning point, at which sectional conflict spun out of control and the country moved rapidly toward the final violent resolution in the Civil War. Stampp's intensely focused look at this pivotal year illuminates the forces at work and the mood of the nation as it plummeted toward disaster.

Families in Crisis in the Old South

Divorce, Slavery, and the Law

Author: Loren Schweninger

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807837504

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 6430

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In the antebellum South, divorce was an explosive issue. As one lawmaker put it, divorce was to be viewed as a form of "madness," and as another asserted, divorce reduced communities to the "lowest ebb of degeneracy." How was it that in this climate, the number of divorces rose steadily during the antebellum era? In Families in Crisis in the Old South, Loren Schweninger uses previously unexplored records to argue that the difficulties these divorcing families faced reveal much about the reality of life in a slave-holding society as well as the myriad difficulties confronted by white southern families who chose not to divorce. Basing his argument on almost 800 divorce cases from the southern United States, Schweninger explores the impact of divorce and separation on white families and on the enslaved and provides insights on issues including domestic violence, interracial adultery, alcoholism, insanity, and property relations. He examines how divorce and separation laws changed, how married women's property rights expanded, how definitions of inhuman treatment of wives evolved, and how these divorces challenged conventional mores.

Emotional and Sectional Conflict in the Antebellum United States

Author: Michael E. Woods

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107068983

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 7377

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The sectional conflict over slavery in the United States was not only a clash between labor systems and political ideologies but also a viscerally felt part of the lives of antebellum Americans. This book contributes to the growing field of emotions history by exploring how specific emotions shaped Americans' perceptions of, and responses to, the sectional conflict in order to explain why it culminated in disunion and war. Emotions from indignation to jealousy were inextricably embedded in antebellum understandings of morality, citizenship, and political affiliation. Their arousal in the context of political debates encouraged Northerners and Southerners alike to identify with antagonistic sectional communities and to view the conflicts between them as worth fighting over. Michael E. Woods synthesizes two schools of thought on Civil War causation: the fundamentalist, which foregrounds deep-rooted economic, cultural, and political conflict, and the revisionist, which stresses contingency, individual agency, and collective passion.

Criminal Injustice

Slaves and Free Blacks in Georgia's Criminal Justice System

Author: Glenn McNair

Publisher: University of Virginia Press

ISBN: 0813929830

Category: History

Page: 240

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Criminal Injustice: Slaves and Free Blacks in Georgia’s Criminal Justice System is the most comprehensive study of the criminal justice system of a slave state to date. McNair traces the evolution of Georgia’s legal culture by examining its use of slave codes and slave patrols, as well as presenting data on crimes prosecuted, trial procedures and practices, conviction rates, the appellate process, and punishment. Based on more than four hundred capital cases, McNair’s study deploys both narrative and quantitative analysis to get at both the theory and the reality of the criminal procedure for slaves in the century leading up to the Civil War. He shows how whites moved from the utopian innocence of the colony’s original Trustees, who envisioned a society free of slavery and the depravity it inculcated in masters, to one where slaveholders became the enforcers of laws and informal rules, the severity of which was limited only by the increasing economic value of their slaves as property. The slaves themselves, regarded under the law both as moveable property and--for the purposes of punishment--as moral agents, had, inevitably, a radically different view of Georgia’s slave criminal justice system. Although the rules and procedures were largely the same for both races, the state charged and convicted blacks more frequently and punished them more severely than whites for the same crimes. Courts were also more punitive in their judgment and punishment of black defendants when their victims were white, a pattern of disparate treatment based on race that persists to this day. Informal systems of control in urban households and on rural plantations and farms complemented the formal system and enhanced the power of slaveowners. Criminal Injustice shows how the prerogatives of slavery and white racial domination trumped any hope for legal justice for blacks.

Liquor in the Land of the Lost Cause

Southern White Evangelicals and the Prohibition Movement

Author: Joe L. Coker

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813136989

Category: History

Page: 344

View: 3353

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In the late 1800s, Southern evangelicals believed contemporary troubles -- everything from poverty to political corruption to violence between African Americans and whites -- sprang from the bottles of "demon rum" regularly consumed in the South. Though temperance quickly gained support in the antebellum North, Southerners cast a skeptical eye on the movement, because of its ties with antislavery efforts. Postwar evangelicals quickly realized they had to make temperance appealing to the South by transforming the Yankee moral reform movement into something compatible with southern values and culture. In Liquor in the Land of the Lost Cause: Southern White Evangelicals and the Prohibition Movement, Joe L. Coker examines the tactics and results of temperance reformers between 1880 and 1915. Though their denominations traditionally forbade the preaching of politics from the pulpit, an outgrowth of evangelical fervor led ministers and their congregations to sound the call for prohibition. Determined to save the South from the evils of alcohol, they played on southern cultural attitudes about politics, race, women, and honor to communicate their message. The evangelicals were successful in their approach, negotiating such political obstacles as public disapproval the church's role in politics and vehement opposition to prohibition voiced by Jefferson Davis. The evangelical community successfully convinced the public that cheap liquor in the hands of African American "beasts" and drunkard husbands posed a serious threat to white women. Eventually, the code of honor that depended upon alcohol-centered hospitality and camaraderie was redefined to favor those who lived as Christians and supported the prohibition movement. Liquor in the Land of the Lost Cause is the first comprehensive survey of temperance in the South. By tailoring the prohibition message to the unique context of the American South, southern evangelicals transformed the region into a hotbed of temperance activity, leading the national prohibition movement.

Within the Plantation Household

Black and White Women of the Old South

Author: Elizabeth Fox-Genovese

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 0807864226

Category: Social Science

Page: 563

View: 5662

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Documenting the difficult class relations between women slaveholders and slave women, this study shows how class and race as well as gender shaped women's experiences and determined their identities. Drawing upon massive research in diaries, letters, memoirs, and oral histories, the author argues that the lives of antebellum southern women, enslaved and free, differed fundamentally from those of northern women and that it is not possible to understand antebellum southern women by applying models derived from New England sources.

A Rage for Order

Black-White Relations in the American South Since Emancipation

Author: Joel Williamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198021087

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 6216

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The Crucible of Race, a major reinterpretation of black-white relations in the South, was widely acclaimed on publication and compared favorably to two of the seminal books on Southern history: Wilbur J. Cash's The Mind of Jim Crow. Representing 20 years of research and writing on the history of the South, The Crucible of Race explores the large topic of Southern race relations for a span of a century and a half. Oxford is pleased to make available an abridgement of this parent volume: A Rage for Order preserves all the theme lines that were advanced in the original volume and many of the individual stories. As in Crucible of Race, Williamson here confronts the awful irony that the war to free blacks from slavery also freed racism. He examines the shift in the power base of Southern white leadership after 1850 and recounts the terrible violence done to blacks in the name of self-protection. This condensation of one of the most important interpretations of Southern history is offered as a means by which a large audience can grasp the essentials of black-white relations--a problem that persists to this day and one with which we all must contend--North and South, black and white.

The Claims of Kinfolk

African American Property and Community in the Nineteenth-Century South

Author: Dylan C. Penningroth

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 0807862134

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1551

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In The Claims of Kinfolk, Dylan Penningroth uncovers an extensive informal economy of property ownership among slaves and sheds new light on African American family and community life from the heyday of plantation slavery to the "freedom generation" of the 1870s. By focusing on relationships among blacks, as well as on the more familiar struggles between the races, Penningroth exposes a dynamic process of community and family definition. He also includes a comparative analysis of slavery and slave property ownership along the Gold Coast in West Africa, revealing significant differences between the African and American contexts. Property ownership was widespread among slaves across the antebellum South, as slaves seized the small opportunities for ownership permitted by their masters. While there was no legal framework to protect or even recognize slaves' property rights, an informal system of acknowledgment recognized by both blacks and whites enabled slaves to mark the boundaries of possession. In turn, property ownership--and the negotiations it entailed--influenced and shaped kinship and community ties. Enriching common notions of slave life, Penningroth reveals how property ownership engendered conflict as well as solidarity within black families and communities. Moreover, he demonstrates that property had less to do with individual legal rights than with constantly negotiated, extralegal social ties.