Philosophical Devices

Proofs, Probabilities, Possibilities, and Sets

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191656259

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 8103

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This book is designed to explain the technical ideas that are taken for granted in much contemporary philosophical writing. Notions like 'denumerability', 'modal scope distinction', 'Bayesian conditionalization', and 'logical completeness' are usually only elucidated deep within difficult specialist texts. By offering simple explanations that by-pass much irrelevant and boring detail, Philosophical Devices is able to cover a wealth of material that is normally only available to specialists. The book contains four sections, each of three chapters. The first section is about sets and numbers, starting with the membership relation and ending with the generalized continuum hypothesis. The second is about analyticity, a prioricity, and necessity. The third is about probability, outlining the difference between objective and subjective probability and exploring aspects of conditionalization and correlation. The fourth deals with metalogic, focusing on the contrast between syntax and semantics, and finishing with a sketch of Gödel's theorem. Philosophical Devices will be useful for university students who have got past the foothills of philosophy and are starting to read more widely, but it does not assume any prior expertise. All the issues discussed are intrinsically interesting, and often downright fascinating. It can be read with pleasure and profit by anybody who is curious about the technical infrastructure of contemporary philosophy.

Philosophical Devices

Proofs, Probabilities, Possibilities, and Sets

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199651728

Category: Mathematics

Page: 192

View: 1290

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This book is designed to explain the technical ideas that are taken for granted in much contemporary philosophical writing. By offering simple explanations that by-pass much irrelevant and boring detail, Philosophical Devices is able to cover a wealth of material that is normally only available to specialists. The book's four sections deal with sets and numbers; analyticity, a prioricity, and necessity; probability; and metalogic. PhilosophicalDevices will be useful for university students who have got past the foothills of philosophy and are starting to read more widely, but it does not assume any prior expertise. All the issues discussed are intrinsicallyinteresting, and often downright fascinating. It can be read with pleasure and profit by anybody who is curious about the technical infrastructure of contemporary philosophy.

Philosophical Devices

Proofs, Probabilities, Possibilities, and Sets

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199651736

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 7881

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Philosophical Devices introduces the technical ideas that are taken for granted in contemporary philosophical writing. It offers simple explanations and covers a wealth of material that is normally available only to specialists. This original, distinctive book will appeal to anyone who is curious about the technical infrastructure of philosophy.

More Precisely

The Math You Need to Do Philosophy

Author: Eric Steinhart

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 9781770480094

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 518

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More Precisely provides a rigorous and engaging introduction to the mathematics necessary to do philosophy. It is impossible to fully understand much of the most important work in contemporary philosophy without a basic grasp of set theory, functions, probability, modality and infinity. Until now, this knowledge was difficult to acquire. Professors had to provide custom handouts to their classes, while students struggled through math texts searching for insight. More Precisely fills this key gap. Eric Steinhart provides lucid explanations of the basic mathematical concepts and sets out most commonly used notational conventions. Furthermore, he demonstrates how mathematics applies to many fundamental issues in branches of philosophy such as metaphysics, philosophy of language, epistemology, and ethics.

Just the Arguments

100 of the Most Important Arguments in Western Philosophy

Author: Michael Bruce,Steven Barbone

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444344412

Category: Philosophy

Page: 424

View: 4698

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Does the existence of evil call into doubt the existence of God? Show me the argument. Philosophy starts with questions, but attempts at answers are just as important, and these answers require reasoned argument. Cutting through dense philosophical prose, 100 famous and influential arguments are presented in their essence, with premises, conclusions and logical form plainly identified. Key quotations provide a sense of style and approach. Just the Arguments is an invaluable one-stop argument shop. A concise, formally structured summation of 100 of the most important arguments in Western philosophy The first book of its kind to present the most important and influential philosophical arguments in a clear premise/conclusion format, the language that philosophers use and students are expected to know Offers succinct expositions of key philosophical arguments without bogging them down in commentary Translates difficult texts to core arguments Designed to provides a quick and compact reference to everything from Aquinas’ “Five Ways” to prove the existence of God, to the metaphysical possibilities of a zombie world Visit www.justthearguments.com, the editor's site for students, teachers, researchers, and fans of philosophy

Logic for Philosophy

Author: Theodore Sider

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 289

View: 482

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Logic for Philosophy is an introduction to logic for students of contemporary philosophy. It is suitable both for advanced undergraduates and for beginning graduate students in philosophy. It covers (i) basic approaches to logic, including proof theory and especially model theory, (ii)extensions of standard logic that are important in philosophy, and (iii) some elementary philosophy of logic. It emphasizes breadth rather than depth. For example, it discusses modal logic and counterfactuals, but does not prove the central metalogical results for predicate logic (completeness,undecidability, etc.) Its goal is to introduce students to the logic they need to know in order to read contemporary philosophical work. It is very user-friendly for students without an extensive background in mathematics. In short, this book gives you the understanding of logic that you need to dophilosophy.

Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics

Author: D. M. Armstrong

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199590613

Category: Philosophy

Page: 125

View: 2299

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This book tries to present in brief compass a metaphysical system, matured (as is hoped) over many years. By metaphysics is understood an account of the fundamental categories of being, such notions as property, relation, causality. These notions are more abstract than the results of scientific inquiry, and are controversial among scientists as well as among philosophers. The book sprang from lectures given to graduate students, and has deliberately been kept at an informal level. It includes some explanations not required in a book for professional philosophers. The argument is developed in sixteen short chapters. It is argued that the world is a world of states of affairs, involving universals and particulars. The notion of finding suitable truthmakers for truths grows in importance as the book proceeds.

Philosophical Logic

An Introduction

Author: Sybil Wolfram

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317858581

Category: Philosophy

Page: 308

View: 6598

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First published in 1989. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

On the Philosophy of Logic

Author: Jennifer Fisher

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 0495008885

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 4023

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Jennifer Fisher’s ON THE PHILOSOPHY OF LOGIC explores questions about logic often overlooked by philosophers. Which of the many different logics available to us is right? How would we know? What makes a logic right in the first place? Is logic really a good guide to human reasoning? An ideal companion text for any course in symbolic logic, this lively and accessible book explains important logical concepts, introduces classical logic and its problems and alternatives, and reveals the rich and interesting philosophical issues that arise in exploring the fundamentals of logic. THE WADSWORTH PHILOSOPHICAL TOPICS SERIES (under the general editorship of Robert Talisse, Vanderbilt University) presents readers with concise, timely, and insightful introductions to a variety of traditional and contemporary philosophical subjects. With this series, students of philosophy will be able to discover the richness of philosophical inquiry across a wide array of concepts, including hallmark philosophical themes and themes typically underrepresented in mainstream philosophy publishing. Written by a distinguished list of scholars who have garnered particular recognition for their excellence in teaching, this series presents the vast sweep of today’s philosophical exploration in highly accessible and affordable volumes. These books will prove valuable to philosophy teachers and their students as well as to other readers who share a general interest in philosophy. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

The Philosopher's Toolkit

A Compendium of Philosophical Concepts and Methods

Author: Julian Baggini,Peter S. Fosl

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444357476

Category: Philosophy

Page: 304

View: 2994

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The second edition of this popular compendium provides the necessary intellectual equipment to engage with and participate in effective philosophical argument, reading, and reflection Features significantly revised, updated and expanded entries, and an entirely new section drawn from methods in the history of philosophy This edition has a broad, pluralistic approach--appealing to readers in both continental philosophy and the history of philosophy, as well as analytic philosophy Explains difficult concepts in an easily accessible manner, and addresses the use and application of these concepts Proven useful to philosophy students at both beginning and advanced levels

Wittgenstein's Notes on Logic

Author: Michael Potter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199215839

Category: Philosophy

Page: 310

View: 6966

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This is the first book-length study of Wittgenstein's first philosophical work, The Notes on Logic . Since Wittgenstein is one of the most important figures in the history of philosophy, and one of the few who attracts the interest of non-philosophers, the book is likely to be of unusually wide interest. Using a challenging blend of biography and philosophy, it draws new conclusions about the nature of the Notes , about the genesis of theTractatus (which draws on material from them), and about Wittgenstein's highly individualistic working methods.

An Introduction to Non-Classical Logic

From If to Is

Author: Graham Priest

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139469678

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2151

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This revised and considerably expanded 2nd edition brings together a wide range of topics, including modal, tense, conditional, intuitionist, many-valued, paraconsistent, relevant, and fuzzy logics. Part 1, on propositional logic, is the old Introduction, but contains much new material. Part 2 is entirely new, and covers quantification and identity for all the logics in Part 1. The material is unified by the underlying theme of world semantics. All of the topics are explained clearly using devices such as tableau proofs, and their relation to current philosophical issues and debates are discussed. Students with a basic understanding of classical logic will find this book an invaluable introduction to an area that has become of central importance in both logic and philosophy. It will also interest people working in mathematics and computer science who wish to know about the area.

An Introduction to Philosophical Logic

Author: Anthony C. Grayling

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 9780631199823

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 8781

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An Introduction to Philosophical Logic has been a popular mainstay among students taking courses in philosophical logic and the philosophy of language since it was first published in 1982.

Logic

The Laws of Truth

Author: Nicholas Jeremy Josef Smith

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691151636

Category: Philosophy

Page: 528

View: 757

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Provides an essential introduction to classical logic.

An Introduction to Formal Logic

Author: Peter Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521008044

Category: Mathematics

Page: 357

View: 4701

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Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.

Hallucination

Philosophy and Psychology

Author: Fiona Macpherson,Dimitris Platchias

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262315068

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 375

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Reflection on the nature of hallucination has relevance for many traditional philosophical debates concerning the nature of the mind, perception, and our knowledge of the world. In recent years, neuroimaging techniques and scientific findings on the nature of hallucination, combined with interest in new philosophical theories of perception such as disjunctivism, have brought the topic of hallucination once more to the forefront of philosophical thinking. Scientific evidence from psychology, neuroscience, and psychiatry sheds light on the functional role and physiology of actual hallucinations; some disjunctivist theories offer a radically new and different philosophical conception of hallucination. This volume offers interdisciplinary perspectives on the nature of hallucination, offering essays by both scientists and philosophers.Contributors first consider topics from psychology and neuroscience, including neurobiological mechanisms of hallucination and the nature and phenomenology of auditory-verbal hallucinations. Philosophical discussions follow, with contributors first considering disjunctivism and then, more generally, the relation between hallucination and the nature of experience. ContributorsIstván Aranyosi, Richard P. Bentall, Paul Coates, Fabian Dorsch, Katalin Farkas, Charles Fernyhough, Dominic H. ffytche, Benj Hellie, Matthew Kennedy, Fiona Macpherson, Ksenija Maravic da Silva, Peter Naish, Simon McCarthy-Jones, Matthew Nudds, Costas Pagondiotis, Ian Phillips, Dimitris Platchias, Howard Robinson, Susanna Schellenberg, Filippo Varese

Knowing the Score

What Sports Can Teach Us About Philosophy (And What Philosophy Can Teach Us About Sports)

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465094945

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 304

View: 7877

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In Knowing the Score, philosopher David Papineau uses sports to illuminate some of modern philosophy's most perplexing questions. As Papineau demonstrates, the study of sports clarifies, challenges, and sometimes confuses crucial issues in philosophy. The tactics of road bicycle racing shed new light on questions of altruism, while sporting family dynasties reorient the nature v. nurture debate. Why do sports competitors choke? Why do fans think God will favor their team over their rivals? How can it be moral to deceive the umpire by framing a pitch? From all of these questions, and many more, philosophy has a great deal to learn. An entertaining and erudite book that ranges far and wide through the sporting world, Knowing the Score is perfect reading for armchair philosophers and Monday morning quarterbacks alike.

Thinking about Consciousness

Author: David Papineau

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 0191529486

Category: Philosophy

Page: 280

View: 8350

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The relation between subjective consciousness and the physical brain is widely regarded as the last mystery facing science. This book argues that there is no real puzzle here. Consciousness seems mysterious, not because of any hidden essence, but only because we think about it in a special way. David Papineau exposes the resulting potential for confusion, and shows that much scientific study of consciousness is misconceived. Modern physical science strongly supports a materialist account of consciousness. But there remains considerable resistance to this, both in philosophy and in the way most people think about the mind; we fall back on a dualist view, that consciousness is not part of the material world. Papineau argues that resistance to materialism is groundless. He offers a detailed analysis of the way human beings think about consciousness, and in particular the way in which we humans think about our conscious states by activating those selfsame states. His careful account of this distinctive mode of phenomenal thinking enables him, first, to show that the standard arguments against dualism are unsound, second, to explain why dualism is nevertheless so intuitively persuasive, and third, to expose much contemporary scientific study of consciousness as resting on a confusion. In placing a materialist account of consciousness on a firm foundation, this clear and forthright book lays many traditional problems to rest, and offers escape from immemorial misconceptions about the mind.