Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

Author: Juan M. Coronado,Fernando Fresno,María D. Hernández-Alonso,Raquel Portela

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447150619

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 8640

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Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970’s. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a systematic account of the current understanding of the relationships between the physicochemical properties of the catalysts and photoactivity. The already long list of photocatalysts phases and their modifications is increasing day by day. By approaching this field from a material sciences angle, an integrated view allows readers to consider the diversity of photocatalysts globally and in connection with other technologies. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a valuable road-map, outlining the common principles lying behind the diversity of materials, but also delimiting the imprecise border between the contrasted results and the most speculative studies. This broad approach makes it ideal for specialist but also for engineers, researchers and students in related fields.

Self-Cleaning Materials and Surfaces

A Nanotechnology Approach

Author: Walid A. Daoud

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118652363

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 5150

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With increasing demand for hygienic, self-disinfecting and contamination free surfaces, interest in developing self-cleaning protective materials and surfaces has grown rapidly in recent times. This new title comprises of invited chapters from renowned researchers in the area of self-cleaning nano-coatings and the result is a comprehensive review of current research on both hydrophobic and hydrophilic (photocatalytic effect) self-cleaning materials.

Application of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis to Construction Materials

State-of-the-Art Report of the RILEM Technical Committee 194-TDP

Author: Yoshihiko Ohama,Dionys Van Gemert

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789400736092

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 48

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Titanium dioxide photocatalysis is based on the semiconducting nature of its anatase crystal type. Construction materials with titanium photocatalyst show performances of air purification, self-cleaning, water purification, antibacterial action. This book describes principles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis, its applications to cementitious and noncementitious materials, as well as an overview of standardization of testing methods.

Expanding Boundaries: Systems Thinking in the Built Environment

Sustainable Built Environment (SBE) Regional Conference Zurich 2016

Author: Guillaume Habert,Arno Schlueter

Publisher: vdf Hochschulverlag AG

ISBN: 372813774X

Category:

Page: 760

View: 2740

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Consuming over 40% of total primary energy, the built environment is in the centre of worldwide strategies and measures towards a more sustainable future. To provide resilient solutions, a simple optimisation of individual technologies will not be sufficient. In contrast, whole system thinking reveals and exploits connections between parts. Each system interacts with others on different scales (materials, components, buildings, cities) and domains (ecology, economy and social). Whole-system designers optimize the performance of such systems by understanding interconnections and identifying synergies. The more complete the design integration, the better the result. In this book, the reader will find the proceedings of the 2016 Sustainable Built Environment (SBE) Regional Conference in Zurich. Papers have been written by academics and practitioners from all continents to bring forth the latest understanding on systems thinking in the built environment.

Photocatalysis

Author: Dionysios D Dionysiou,Gianluca Li Puma,Jinhua Ye,Jenny Schneider,Detlef Bahnemann

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782627103

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 978

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From environmental remediation to alternative fuels, this book explores the numerous important applications of photocatalysis. The book covers topics such as the photocatalytic processes in the treatment of water and air; the fundamentals of solar photocatalysis; the challenges involved in developing self-cleaning photocatalytic materials; photocatalytic hydrogen generation; photocatalysts in the synthesis of chemicals; and photocatalysis in food packaging and biomedical and medical applications. The book also critically discusses concepts for the future of photocatalysis, providing a fascinating insight for researchers. Together with Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Perspectives, these volumes provide a complete overview to photocatalysis.

Photocatalysis

Applications

Author: Dionysios D. Dionysiou,Gianluca Li Puma,Jinhua Ye,Jenny Schneider,Detlef Bahnemann

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 178262709X

Category: Science

Page: 394

View: 1400

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From environmental remediation to alternative fuels, this book explores the numerous important applications of photocatalysis. The book covers topics such as the photocatalytic processes in the treatment of water and air; the fundamentals of solar photocatalysis; the challenges involved in developing self-cleaning photocatalytic materials; photocatalytic hydrogen generation; photocatalysts in the synthesis of chemicals; and photocatalysis in food packaging and biomedical and medical applications. The book also critically discusses concepts for the future of photocatalysis, providing a fascinating insight for researchers. Together with Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Perspectives, these volumes provide a complete overview to photocatalysis.

Physics and Chemistry of Interfaces

Author: Hans-Jürgen Butt,Karlheinz Graf,Michael Kappl

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527606408

Category: Science

Page: 373

View: 8678

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Serving as a general introduction to surface and interface science, this book focuses on basic concepts rather than specific details, and on intuitive understanding rather than merely learning facts. The text reflects the fact that the physics and chemistry of surfaces is a diverse area of research that involves classical scientific and engineering disciplines. As such, it discusses fundamental subjects, such as thermodynamics of interfaces, as well as applied topics including wetting, friction, and lubrication. Following an introduction to the most important techniques and methods, readers will be able to apply simple models to their own scientific problems. Furthermore, manifold high end technological applications are shown together with the basic scientific treatment, for example AFM, surface technology, biotechnology, microelectronics, and biomaterials. The book is written with advanced students of chemistry, physics, materials science, chemical engineering and related subjects who have a basic knowledge of natural sciences and mathematics in mind. In addition, scientists and engineers who are not yet specialists in surface science but want to learn more about this important subject will equally benefit.

Oxide Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion

Titanium Dioxide

Author: Janusz Nowotny

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439848394

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 7006

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Oxide semiconductors, including titanium dioxide (TiO2), are increasingly being considered as replacements for silicon in the development of the next generation of solar cells. Oxide Semiconductors for Solar Energy Conversion: Titanium Dioxide presents the basic properties of binary metal oxide semiconductors and the performance-related properties of TiO2 as they relate to solar energy. The book provides a general background on oxide semiconductors based on binary oxides and their solid solutions, including electronic and ionic conductors. It covers several aspects of solid-state electrochemistry of oxides, such as defect chemistry, and defect-related properties, such as electrical properties, diffusion, segregation, and reactivity. The author also takes a pioneering approach in considering bulk versus surface semiconducting properties, showing how they are different due to the effect of segregation. One of the first on semiconducting, photocatalytic, and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 and its solid solutions with donor- and acceptor-type ions, the book discusses defect chemistry of TiO2 in terms of defect equilibria and defect-related properties, including electrical properties, self and chemical diffusion, surface properties, segregation, and reactivity and photoreactivity with oxygen, water, and microbial agents. The text also illustrates the use of TiO2 as an emerging material for solar energy conversion systems, including the generation of hydrogen fuel by photoelectrochemical water splitting, the photocatalytic purification of water, and the generation of photovoltaic electricity. In addition, it presents defect disorder diagrams for the formation of TiO2-based semiconductors with controlled properties. Encompassing the areas of solid-state science, surface chemistry, and photocatalysis, this book reflects the increasing awareness of the importance of structural imperfections, such as point defects, in understanding the properties of metal oxides, specifically TiO2-based semiconductors.

Polymer Nanocomposite Coatings

Author: Vikas Mittal

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466557311

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 351

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This work explores the use of composite nanotechnology for thin coatings on various substrates. It compiles recent advances in nanocomposite coatings for experienced researchers and provides background information for those new to the field. The book not only explains the synthesis of bulk nanocomposite materials, it describes their application in areas such as the automotive and packaging industries. It explains how nanocomposite coatings provide a gas barrier to the substrate foil or laminate and how the coatings are used to provide properties such as anti-scratch and anti-corrosion.

Photocatalysis and Water Purification

From Fundamentals to Recent Applications

Author: Pierre Pichat

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527645411

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 438

View: 9798

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Water is one of the essential resources on our planet. Therefore, fresh water and the recycling of waste-water are very important topics in various areas. Energy-saving green technologies are a demand in this area of research. Photocatalysis comprises a class of reactions which use a catalyst activated by light. These reactions include the decomposition of organic compounds into environmental friendly water and carbon dioxide, leading to interesting properties of surfaces covered with a photocatalyst: they protect e.g. against incrustation of fouling matter, they are self-cleaning, antibacterial and viricidal. Therefore, they are attractive candidates for environmental applications such as water purification and waste-water treatment. This book introduces scientists and engineers to the fundamentals of photocatalysis and enlightens the potentials of photocatalysis to increase water quality. Also, strategies to improve the photocatalytic efficacy are pointed out: synthesis of better photocatalysts, combination of photocatalysis with other technologies, and the proper design of photocatalytic reactors. Implementation of applications and a chapter on design approaches for photocatalytic reactors round off the book. 'Photocatalysis and Water Purification' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. G.Q. Max Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.

Nanomaterials in Energy and Environmental Applications

Author: Junhui He

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315341298

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 3003

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Nanoscience and nanotechnology are interdisciplinary fields that bring together physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and engineers to meet the potential future challenges that humankind will face, including the search for renewable energies for sustainable development and new technologies for carbon capture and environmental protection. Among the current subjects in nanoscience and nanotechnology, nanomaterials are developing fast and explosively and attracting a huge amount of attention. They continue to show promising potential and have found application in solar cells, fuel cells, secondary batteries, supercapacitors, air and water purification, and removal of domestic and outdoor air pollutants. To summarize the past developments and encourage future efforts, this book presents contributions from world-renowned specialists in the fields of nanomaterials, energy, and environmental science. It discusses the design and fabrication of nanostructured materials and their energy and environmental applications.

Photocatalysis

Principles and Applications

Author: Rakshit Ameta,Suresh C. Ameta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482254948

Category: Science

Page: 325

View: 704

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Photocatalysis, reactions carried out in the presence of a semiconductor and light, is rapidly becoming one of the most active areas of chemical research, with applications in areas such as electrochemistry, medicine, and environmental chemistry, Photocatalysis: Principles and Applications stresses the development of various types of photocatalytic semiconductors, including binary, ternary, quaternary, and composite, and their modifications by metallization, sensitization, and doping to enhance their photocatalytic activities. In addition to describing the principles and mechanisms of photocatalysis, it also discusses other possible applications of photocatalysis such as use as antifouling agents, controlling air pollution by degrading contaminants present in the environment, self-cleaning of glasses and tiles in the presence of light/artificial light, green composites, wastewater treatment, hydrogen generation, and inactivation of microorganisms. The book also describes medical applications and summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and also a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Introduces the basic principle of photocatalysis. Provides an overview of the types of semiconductors, their immobilization, and modifications to make them more active. Gives possible applications of photocatalysis in wastewater treatment and strategy to combat against different kinds of pollutions like water, air, and soil. Summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and as a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Discusses inactivation of different kinds of microorganisms. Covers medical applications. Features Introduces the basic principle of photocatalysis. Provides an overview of the types of semiconductors, their immobilization, and modifications to make them more active. Gives possible applications of photocatalysis in wastewater treatment and strategy to combat against different kinds of pollutions like water, air, and soil. Summarizes efforts in the field of photosplitting of water as a newer energy source and photoreduction of carbon dioxide for providing synthetic fuels and as a step towards mimicking photosynthesis. Discusses inactivation of different kinds of microorganisms. Covers medical applications.

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation

Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain,Ajay Kumar Mishra

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128110341

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 756

View: 5140

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New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. This book presents current research into how polymer nanocomposites can be used in environmental remediation, detailing major environmental issues, and key materials properties and existing polymers or nanomaterials that can solve these issues. The book covers the fundamental molecular structure of polymers used in environmental applications, the toxicology, economy and life-cycle analysis of polymer nanocomposites, and an analysis of potential future applications of these materials. Recent research and development in polymer nanocomposites has inspired the progress and use of novel and cost-effective environmental applications. Presents critical, actionable guidelines to the structure and property design of nanocomposites in environmental remediation Focuses on taking technology out of the lab and into the real world Summarizes the latest developments in polymer nanocomposites and their applications in catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants in the environment Enables researchers to stay ahead of the curve, with a full discussion of regulatory issues and potential new applications and materials in this area

Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water

Solutions for Improving Water Quality

Author: Anita Street,Richard Sustich,Jeremiah Duncan,Nora Savage

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1455731854

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 704

View: 4871

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Nanotechnology is already having a dramatic impact on improving water quality and the second edition of Nanotechnology Applications for Clean Water highlights both the challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection. This book presents detailed information on cutting-edge technologies, current research, and trends that may impact the success and uptake of the applications. Recent advances show that many of the current problems with water quality can be addressed using nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle enhanced filtration. The book describes these technologies in detail and demonstrates how they can provide clean drinking water in both large scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems. In addition, the book addresses the societal factors that may affect widespread acceptance of the applications. Sections are also featured on carbon nanotube arrays and graphene-based sensors for contaminant sensing, nanostructured membranes for water purification, and multifunctional materials in carbon microspheres for the remediation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Addresses both the technological aspects of delivering clean water supplies and the societal implications that affect take-up Details how the technologies are applied in large-scale water treatment plants and in point-of-use systems Highlights challenges and the opportunities for nanotechnology to positively influence this area of environmental protection

Nanoarchitecture

A New Species of Architecture

Author: John MacLane Johansen

Publisher: Princeton Architectural Press

ISBN: 9781568983011

Category: Architecture

Page: 159

View: 9706

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John Johansen, now 85 years old, has been one of the preeminent architects in the United States for more than half a century. After studying under Walter Gropius (who became his father-in-law) at Harvard, he embarked on an extraordinary career marked by experimental domestic and public design. Since retiring from practice, Johansen has devoted himself to producing futuristic architecture that looks to the newest technologies science has to offer--from nanotechnology to magnetic levitation to material science--for its inspiration. Nanoarchitecture presents eleven of Johansen's most inspired visions. A floating conference center, an apartment building that sprouts from the earth and grows on its own, and a levitating auditorium all demonstrate Johansen's capricious yet thought-provoking ideas. Taken together, they offer an antidote to much of today's form-driven practice. The projects in Nanoarchitecture are presented through a series of idiosyncratic models, drawings, and computer animations suggesting what it would be like to inhabit these fantastic spaces. Nanoarchitecture is designed by the award-winning practice COMA."[Johansen] points toward the creation of a new vernacular, a new fabric of space and time in which modern experience can increase, expand, and deepen." --Lebbeus Woods

Proceedings

Author: Avelino Corma,Joe W. Hightower,International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry,Catalysis Society of North America

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Catalysis

Page: N.A

View: 9864

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Nanostructured Titanium Dioxide Materials

Properties, Preparation and Applications

Author: Alireza Khataee

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814374733

Category: Electronic books

Page: 205

View: 9891

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During the past decade, research and development in the area of synthesis and applications of different nanostructured titanium dioxide have become tremendous. This book briefly describes properties, production, modification and applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide focusing in particular on photocatalytic activity. The physicochemical properties of nanostructured titanium dioxide are highlighted and the links between properties and applications are emphasized. The preparation of TiO2 nanomaterials, including nanoparticles, nanorods, nanowires, nanosheets, nanofibers, and nanotubes are primarily categorized by their preparation method (sol-gel and hydrothermal processes). Examples of early applications of nanostructured titanium dioxide in dye-sensitized solar cells, hydrogen production and storage, sensors, rechargeable batteries, electrocatalysis, self-cleaning and antibacterial surfaces and photocatalytic cancer treatment are reviewed. The review of modifications of TiO2 nanomaterials is mainly focused on the research related to the modifications of the optical properties of TiO2 nanomaterials, since many applications of TiO2 nanomaterials are closely related to their optical properties. Photocatalytic removal of various pollutants using pure TiO2 nanomaterials, TiO2-based nanoclays and non-metal doped nanostructured TiO2 are also discussed.