Positivism and Sociology (RLE Social Theory)

Explaining Social Life

Author: Peter Halfpenny

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317651391

Category: Social Science

Page: 138

View: 6912

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Any serious attempt to explain social life has to come to terms with sociology's positivist legacy. It is a heritage on the one hand from the seventeenth-century political arithmeticians and the later moral statisticians who believed that quantification would provide the basis for a dispassionate analysis of social affairs; and on the other hand from the nineteenth-century post-Enlightenment social philosophers who were eager to develop an empirical science of society that would enable them to control social conduct – just as the physical sciences had provided the knowledge to tame nature. Yet every debate about the relation between positivism and sociology is clouded by the diversity of uses of the term 'positivism' – uses that are so varied that some can pronounce positivism dead while others find it still the vital force that dominates sociology. The particular merit of Peter Halfpenny's book is that it makes this diversity of uses its central theme. In order to provide a clear basis from which to assess controversial questions about the contribution of the positivist traditions to sociology, the book reviews twelve different important uses of the term 'positivism' that have emerged at different times since the mid-nineteenth century, when Auguste Comte coined both 'positivism' and 'sociology'. This review is conducted by examining the historical development of the two independent roots of modern sociological positivism – positivist philosophy and statistics – and by analysing logical positivist philosophy, which in many ways defined the course of twentieth century philosophy of the social (as well as the natural) sciences.

Positivism, Presupposition and Current Controversies (Theoretical Logic in Sociology)

Author: Jeffrey C. Alexander

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317808827

Category: Social Science

Page: 234

View: 9825

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This volume begins by challenging the bases of the recent scientization of sociology. Then it challenges some of the ambitious claims of recent theoretical debate. The author not only reinterprets the most important classical and modern sociological theories but extracts from the debates the elements of a more satisfactory, inclusive approach to these general theoretical points.

Sociology in Perspective

Author: Mark Kirby

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 9780435331603

Category: Sociology

Page: 831

View: 827

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This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.

Sociology and Organization Theory

Positivism, Paradigms and Postmodernity

Author: John Hassard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521484589

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 167

View: 5931

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It has been claimed that organization theory is in a state of crisis. This book traces the history of the orthodox systems theory paradigm in organization studies from its foundations to its recent deconstruction by postmodernists. The analysis offers general support for the "sociology-in-crisis" thesis, but takes issue with one of its main propositions, that paradigms are incommensurable. It is argued that paradigms are porous rather than hermetic phenomena, a fact that has profound implications for the theory building process.

Antisemitism and the Constitution of Sociology

Author: Marcel Stoetzler

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 0803266715

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 9198

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Modern antisemitism and the modern discipline of sociology not only emerged in the same period, butOCoantagonism and hostility between the two discourses notwithstandingOCoalso overlapped and complemented each other. Sociology emerged in a society where modernization was often perceived as destroying unity and OC social cohesion.OCO Antisemitism was likewise a response to the modern age, offering in its vilifications of OC the JewOCO an explanation of societyOCOs deficiencies and crises. a"Antisemitism and the Constitution of Sociology" is a collection of essays providing a comparative analysis of modern antisemitism and the rise of sociology. This volume addresses three key areas: the strong influence of writers of Jewish background and the rising tide of antisemitism on the formation of sociology; the role of antisemitism in the historical development of sociology through its treatment by leading figures in the field, such as Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Theodor W. Adorno; and the disciplineOCOs development in the aftermath of the Nazi Holocaust. Together the essays provide a fresh perspective on the history of sociology and the role that antisemitism, Jews, fascism, and the Holocaust played in shaping modern social theory. a"

Sociology, Work and Industry

Fifth edition

Author: Tony Watson,Marek Korczynski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134356196

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 3013

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In the fourth edition of this successful and popular text, Tony Watson explains how the discipline of sociology contributes to our wider understanding of the variety of work practices and institutions, which exist in modern society. The new edition outlines both what has been achieved historically and what is currently being achieved by the sociological study of work, as well presenting a range of concepts, models and other theoretical ideas that students and researchers can apply to the study of work. Subjects covered include: * how working patterns have changed, and continued to change since the industrial revolution * work organizations * innovations in the structuring of work activities at the enterprise level * the occupational aspects of the organization of work in changing societies * how people experience and cope with the pressures, insecurities and inequalities of a restructured world of work * how challenge and resistance influence the shaping of work in an ever-changing world. Fully updated throughout, this book includes an all-new chapter on the distinctiveness of the sociological perspective along with guidance on the research and analysis of work. It will be essential reading for anybody studying the sociology of work and organizations.

Auguste Comte and Positivism

The Essential Writings

Author: Auguste Comte

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412817622

Category: Philosophy

Page: 555

View: 5906

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Although Auguste Comte is conventionally acknowledged as one of the founders of sociology and as a key representative of positivism, few new editions of his writings have been published in the English language in this century. He has become virtually dissociated from the history of modern positivism and the most recent debates about it. Gertrud Lenzer maintains that the work of Comte is, for better or for worse, essential to an understanding of the modern period of positivism. Three significant additions have been made to this edition: a new introduction by the editor, a new postscript - taken from the twelfth Auguste Comte Memorial Trust Lecture - also by the editor, as well as Comte's "Conclusion of the Whole Work of the System of Positive Polity" taken from the fourth volume of his seminal work.

Criminological Theory

An Analysis of Its Underlying Assumptions

Author: Werner J. Einstadter,Stuart Henry

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742542914

Category: Social Science

Page: 427

View: 9474

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Designed for upper-level senior and graduate criminological theory courses, this text thoroughly examines the ideas and assumptions underlying each major theoretical perspective in criminology. It lays bare theorists' ideas about human nature, social structure, social order, concepts of law, crime and criminals, the logic of crime causation and the policies and criminal justice practices that follow from these premises. The book provides students with a clear critical, analytic overview of criminological theory that enable enformed evaluative comparisons among different theorists.

Key Concepts in Sociology

Author: Peter Braham

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849203040

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 8895

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This is a compact, yet comprehensive, title that clarifies and explains the main concepts within sociology. It is useful both for new students and for students who wants to refresh their memory and come up with new ideas for essay topics.

Handbook of Social Theory

Author: George Ritzer,Barry Smart

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1847876730

Category: Social Science

Page: 552

View: 7935

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This book is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the roots, current debates and future development of social theory. It draws together a team of outstanding international scholars and presents an authoritative and panoramic critical survey of the field. The volume is divided into three parts. The first part examines the classical tradition. Included here are critical discussions of Comte, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, Weber, Simmel, Mead, Freud, Mannheim and classical feminist thought. This part conveys the classical tradition as a living resource in social theory, it demonstrates not only the critical significance of classical writings, but their continuing relevance. The second part moves on to examine the terrain of contemporary social theory. The contributions discuss the significance and strengths and weaknesses of structural functionalism, recent Marxian theory, critical theory, symbolic interactionism, phenomenology, ethnomethodology, exchange theory, rational choice, contemporary feminism, multiculturalism, postmodernism, the thought of Foucault and Habermas, and figurational sociology. The reader gains a comprehensive and informed picture of the key issues and central figures of the day. The final part ranges over the key debates in current social theory. Questions relating to positivism, metatheorizing, cultural studies, consumption, sexualities, the body, globalism, nationalism, socialism, knowledge societies, ethics and morality, as well as post-social relations are fully discussed. The dilemmas and promise of contemporary social theory are revealed with pinpoint accuracy.

Structure, Consciousness, and History

Author: Richard Harvey Brown,Stanford M. Lyman

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521293402

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 4640

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These essays adopt the approach of 'symbolic realism' or 'cognitive aesthetics' to overcome the crisis of dualism in conventional sociological theory. This strategy of symbolic realism is a philosophical amalgam forged from findings in existential phenomenology, ordinary language philosophy and pragmatism. The synthesis emergent from these essays suggests a paradigm with broad implications for all the human studies.

Theorizing Classical Sociology

Author: Ray, Larry J

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335198651

Category: Social Science

Page: 218

View: 3152

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* How did classical sociology emerge and take shape? * What is the significance of classical sociology for current theoretical debates? * How can the classical tradition in social theory inform our understanding of the crisis of modernity? Social theory has been formed through elaboration and critique of the classical tradition, and this introductory volume illuminates current theoretical terrain by examining major classical theories - of Saint-Simon, Comte, Marx, Durkheim, Dilthey, Tonnies, Simmel and Weber - highlighting recurring themes and debates. It explains how classical sociology emerged through a debate with the Enlightenment, in which the concept of the 'social' took shape. This was constructed around various themes emphasizing contrasting components of social life - including material, cultural, rational and moral factors. These divergent theorizations set the scene for the play of theoretical oppositions that characterize much subsequent theoretical dispute. Along with these debates there were questions about the very identity of sociology, which in turn relate to a core issue in the discipline - grasping the crisis of modernity. This authoritative text introduces the key issues of classical sociology to undergraduates, making use of student-friendly features such as clear summaries, further reading and a glossary. It lays the foundations for an understanding of contemporary discussion, and will also be recognized at the postgraduate level as a key reference in the field.

Sociology, Phenomenology and Marxian Analysis

A Critical Discussion of the Theory and Practice of a Science of Society

Author: Barry Smart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134479735

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 4440

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Sociology is an established academic discipline but there has been continuing debate over its status as a science and the nature of its subject matter. This led to the emergence of a phenomenological sociology and to critiques of positivist sociology. This critical reappraisal of the relevance of Marxian analysis for a science of society shows how these developments within sociology have had their counterpart in Marxism. The author analyses the status of Marx’s work and the Marxist ‘tradition’ in sociology. He focuses upon those concerns which are common to both Marxian analysis and sociology – the question of subjectivity; the nature of social reality; and the dialectical relationship of the ‘doing’ or practice of a science of society to the social world within which such social analyses are situated. Originally published in 1976.

The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences

Positivism and Its Epistemological Others

Author: George Steinmetz

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822386887

Category: Social Science

Page: 633

View: 4497

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The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences provides a remarkable comparative assessment of the variations of positivism and alternative epistemologies in the contemporary human sciences. Often declared obsolete, positivism is alive and well in a number of the fields; in others, its influence is significantly diminished. The essays in this collection investigate its mutations in form and degree across the social science disciplines. Looking at methodological assumptions field by field, individual essays address anthropology, area studies, economics, history, the philosophy of science, political science and political theory, and sociology. Essayists trace disciplinary developments through the long twentieth century, focusing on the decades since World War II. Contributors explore and contrast some of the major alternatives to positivist epistemologies, including Marxism, psychoanalysis, poststructuralism, narrative theory, and actor-network theory. Almost all the essays are written by well-known practitioners of the fields discussed. Some essayists approach positivism and anti-positivism via close readings of texts influential in their respective disciplines. Some engage in ethnographies of the present-day human sciences; others are more historical in method. All of them critique contemporary social scientific practice. Together, they trace a trajectory of thought and method running from the past through the present and pointing toward possible futures. Contributors. Andrew Abbott, Daniel Breslau, Michael Burawoy, Andrew Collier , Michael Dutton, Geoff Eley, Anthony Elliott, Stephen Engelmann, Sandra Harding, Emily Hauptmann, Webb Keane, Tony Lawson, Sophia Mihic, Philip Mirowski, Timothy Mitchell, William H. Sewell Jr., Margaret R. Somers, George Steinmetz, Elizabeth Wingrove