Power Distribution Networks with On-Chip Decoupling Capacitors

Author: Renatas Jakushokas,Mikhail Popovich,Andrey V. Mezhiba,Selçuk Köse,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441978714

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 644

View: 1849

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This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power distribution systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this second edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

On-Chip Power Delivery and Management

Author: Inna P. Vaisband,Renatas Jakushokas,Mikhail Popovich,Andrey V. Mezhiba,Selçuk Köse,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319293958

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 742

View: 3296

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This book describes methods for distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits with power levels exceeding many tens of watts and power supplies below a volt. It provides a broad and cohesive treatment of power delivery and management systems and related design problems, including both circuit network models and design techniques for on-chip decoupling capacitors, providing insight and intuition into the behavior and design of on-chip power distribution systems. Organized into subareas to provide a more intuitive flow to the reader, this fourth edition adds more than a hundred pages of new content, including inductance models for interdigitated structures, design strategies for multi-layer power grids, advanced methods for efficient power grid design and analysis, and methodologies for simultaneously placing on-chip multiple power supplies and decoupling capacitors. The emphasis of this additional material is on managing the complexity of on-chip power distribution networks.

Power Distribution Networks in High Speed Integrated Circuits

Author: Andrey V. Mezhiba,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146150399X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 9041

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Distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits has become a challenging task as power levels exceeding tens of watts have become commonplace while the power supply is plunging toward one volt. This book is dedicated to this important subject. The primary purpose of this monograph is to provide insight and intuition into the behavior and design of power distribution systems for high speed, high complexity integrated circuits.

Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design

Author: Vasilis F. Pavlidis,Ioannis Savidis,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0124104843

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 768

View: 6088

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Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuit Design, Second Eition, expands the original with more than twice as much new content, adding the latest developments in circuit models, temperature considerations, power management, memory issues, and heterogeneous integration. 3-D IC experts Pavlidis, Savidis, and Friedman cover the full product development cycle throughout the book, emphasizing not only physical design, but also algorithms and system-level considerations to increase speed while conserving energy. A handy, comprehensive reference or a practical design guide, this book provides effective solutions to specific challenging problems concerning the design of three-dimensional integrated circuits. Expanded with new chapters and updates throughout based on the latest research in 3-D integration: Manufacturing techniques for 3-D ICs with TSVs Electrical modeling and closed-form expressions of through silicon vias Substrate noise coupling in heterogeneous 3-D ICs Design of 3-D ICs with inductive links Synchronization in 3-D ICs Variation effects on 3-D ICs Correlation of WID variations for intra-tier buffers and wires Offers practical guidance on designing 3-D heterogeneous systems Provides power delivery of 3-D ICs Demonstrates the use of 3-D ICs within heterogeneous systems that include a variety of materials, devices, processors, GPU-CPU integration, and more Provides experimental case studies in power delivery, synchronization, and thermal characterization

Power Integrity Modeling and Design for Semiconductors and Systems

Author: Madhavan Swaminathan,Ege Engin

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132797178

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 9219

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The First Comprehensive, Example-Rich Guide to Power Integrity Modeling Professionals such as signal integrity engineers, package designers, and system architects need to thoroughly understand signal and power integrity issues in order to successfully design packages and boards for high speed systems. Now, for the first time, there's a complete guide to power integrity modeling: everything you need to know, from the basics through the state of the art. Using realistic case studies and downloadable software examples, two leading experts demonstrate today's best techniques for designing and modeling interconnects to efficiently distribute power and minimize noise. The authors carefully introduce the core concepts of power distribution design, systematically present and compare leading techniques for modeling noise, and link these techniques to specific applications. Their many examples range from the simplest (using analytical equations to compute power supply noise) through complex system-level applications. The authors Introduce power delivery network components, analysis, high-frequency measurement, and modeling requirements Thoroughly explain modeling of power/ground planes, including plane behavior, lumped modeling, distributed circuit-based approaches, and much more Offer in-depth coverage of simultaneous switching noise, including modeling for return currents using time- and frequency-domain analysis Introduce several leading time-domain simulation methods, such as macromodeling, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages Present the application of the modeling methods on several advanced case studies that include high-speed servers, high-speed differential signaling, chip package analysis, materials characterization, embedded decoupling capacitors, and electromagnetic bandgap structures This book's system-level focus and practical examples will make it indispensable for every student and professional concerned with power integrity, including electrical engineers, system designers, signal integrity engineers, and materials scientists. It will also be valuable to developers building software that helps to analyze high-speed systems.

On-Chip Inductance in High Speed Integrated Circuits

Author: Yehea I. Ismail,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461516854

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 303

View: 1917

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The appropriate interconnect model has changed several times over the past two decades due to the application of aggressive technology scaling. New, more accurate interconnect models are required to manage the changing physical characteristics of integrated circuits. Currently, RC models are used to analyze high resistance nets while capacitive models are used for less resistive interconnect. However, on-chip inductance is becoming more important with integrated circuits operating at higher frequencies, since the inductive impedance is proportional to the frequency. The operating frequencies of integrated circuits have increased dramatically over the past decade and are expected to maintain the same rate of increase over the next decade, approaching 10 GHz by the year 2012. Also, wide wires are frequently encountered in important global nets, such as clock distribution networks and in upper metal layers, and performance requirements are pushing the introduction of new materials for low resistance interconnect, such as copper interconnect already used in many commercial CMOS technologies. On-Chip Inductance in High Speed Integrated Circuits deals with the design and analysis of integrated circuits with a specific focus on on-chip inductance effects. It has been described throughout this book that inductance can have a tangible effect on current high speed integrated circuits. For example, neglecting inductance and using an RC interconnect model in a production 0.25 mum CMOS technology can cause large errors (over 35%) in estimates of the propagation delay of on-chip interconnect. It has also been shown that including inductance in the repeater insertion design process as compared to using an RC model improves the overall repeater solution in terms of area, power, and delay with average savings of 40.8%, 15.6%, and 6.7%, respectively. On-Chip Inductance in High Speed Integrated Circuits is full of design and analysis techniques for RLC interconnect. These techniques are compared to techniques traditionally used for RC interconnect design to emphasize the effect of inductance. emOn-Chip Inductance in High Speed Integrated Circuits will be of interest to researchers in the area of high frequency interconnect, noise, and high performance integrated circuit design.

On-Chip Communication Architectures

System on Chip Interconnect

Author: Sudeep Pasricha,Nikil Dutt

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 9780080558288

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 814

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Over the past decade, system-on-chip (SoC) designs have evolved to address the ever increasing complexity of applications, fueled by the era of digital convergence. Improvements in process technology have effectively shrunk board-level components so they can be integrated on a single chip. New on-chip communication architectures have been designed to support all inter-component communication in a SoC design. These communication architecture fabrics have a critical impact on the power consumption, performance, cost and design cycle time of modern SoC designs. As application complexity strains the communication backbone of SoC designs, academic and industrial R&D efforts and dollars are increasingly focused on communication architecture design. On-Chip Communication Architecures is a comprehensive reference on concepts, research and trends in on-chip communication architecture design. It will provide readers with a comprehensive survey, not available elsewhere, of all current standards for on-chip communication architectures. A definitive guide to on-chip communication architectures, explaining key concepts, surveying research efforts and predicting future trends Detailed analysis of all popular standards for on-chip communication architectures Comprehensive survey of all research on communication architectures, covering a wide range of topics relevant to this area, spanning the past several years, and up to date with the most current research efforts Future trends that with have a significant impact on research and design of communication architectures over the next several years

Power Distribution Network Design for VLSI

Author: Qing K. Zhu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471657200

Category: Computers

Page: 207

View: 411

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A hands–on troubleshooting guide for VLSI network designers The primary goal in VLSI (very large scale integration) power network design is to provide enough power lines across a chip to reduce voltage drops from the power pads to the center of the chip. Voltage drops caused by the power network′s metal lines coupled with transistor switching currents on the chip cause power supply noises that can affect circuit timing and performance, thus providing a constant challenge for designers of high–performance chips. Power Distribution Network Design for VLSI provides detailed information on this critical component of circuit design and physical integration for high–speed chips. A vital tool for professional engineers (especially those involved in the use of commercial tools), as well as graduate students of engineering, the text explains the design issues, guidelines, and CAD tools for the power distribution of the VLSI chip and package, and provides numerous examples for its effective application. Features of the text include: ∗ An introduction to power distribution network design ∗ Design perspectives, such as power network planning, layout specifications, decoupling capacitance insertion, modeling, and analysis ∗ Electromigration phenomena ∗ IR drop analysis methodology ∗ Commands and user interfaces of the VoltageStorm(TM) CAD tool ∗ Microprocessor design examples using on–chip power distribution ∗ Flip–chip and package design issues ∗ Power network measurement techniques from real silicon The author includes several case studies and a glossary of key words and basic terms to help readers understand and integrate basic concepts in VLSI design and power distribution.

Power Integrity Modeling and Design for Semiconductors and Systems

Author: Madhavan Swaminathan,Ege Engin

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132797178

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 9889

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The First Comprehensive, Example-Rich Guide to Power Integrity Modeling Professionals such as signal integrity engineers, package designers, and system architects need to thoroughly understand signal and power integrity issues in order to successfully design packages and boards for high speed systems. Now, for the first time, there's a complete guide to power integrity modeling: everything you need to know, from the basics through the state of the art. Using realistic case studies and downloadable software examples, two leading experts demonstrate today's best techniques for designing and modeling interconnects to efficiently distribute power and minimize noise. The authors carefully introduce the core concepts of power distribution design, systematically present and compare leading techniques for modeling noise, and link these techniques to specific applications. Their many examples range from the simplest (using analytical equations to compute power supply noise) through complex system-level applications. The authors Introduce power delivery network components, analysis, high-frequency measurement, and modeling requirements Thoroughly explain modeling of power/ground planes, including plane behavior, lumped modeling, distributed circuit-based approaches, and much more Offer in-depth coverage of simultaneous switching noise, including modeling for return currents using time- and frequency-domain analysis Introduce several leading time-domain simulation methods, such as macromodeling, and discuss their advantages and disadvantages Present the application of the modeling methods on several advanced case studies that include high-speed servers, high-speed differential signaling, chip package analysis, materials characterization, embedded decoupling capacitors, and electromagnetic bandgap structures This book's system-level focus and practical examples will make it indispensable for every student and professional concerned with power integrity, including electrical engineers, system designers, signal integrity engineers, and materials scientists. It will also be valuable to developers building software that helps to analyze high-speed systems.

Signal and Power Integrity--simplified

Author: Eric Bogatin

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132349795

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 757

View: 555

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The #1 guide to signal integrity, updated with all-new coverage of power integrity, high-speed serial links, and more * * Up-to-the-minute comprehensive guidance: everything engineers need to know to understand and design for signal integrity. * Authored by world-renowned signal integrity trainer, educator, and columnist Eric Bogatin. * Focuses on intuitive understanding, practical tools, and engineering discipline - not theoretical derivation or mathematical rigor. Today's marketplace demands faster devices and systems that deliver more functionality and longer life in smaller packaging. Signal Integrity - Simplified, Second Edition is the first book to bring together all the up-to-the-minute techniques designers need to overcome all of those challenges. Renowned expert Eric Bogatin thoroughly reviews the root causes of all four families of signal integrity problems, and shows how to design them out early in the design cycle. Drawing on his experience teaching 5,000+ engineers, he illuminates signal integrity, physical design, bandwidth, inductance, and impedance; presents practical tools for solving signal integrity problems; and offers specific design guidelines and solutions. In this edition, Bogatin adds extensive coverage of power integrity and high speed serial links: topics at the forefront of signal integrity design. Three new chapters address: * * Designing power delivery networks to support high-speed signal processing. * Using 4-Port S-parameters, the emerging standard for describing interconnects in high speed serial links. * Working with today's measurement and simulation tools and technologies

CMOS RF Modeling, Characterization and Applications

Author: M. Jamal Deen,Tor A. Fjeldly

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810249052

Category: Science

Page: 409

View: 5183

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CMOS technology has now reached a state of evolution, in terms of both frequency and noise, where it is becoming a serious contender for radio frequency (RF) applications in the GHz range. Cutoff frequencies of about 50 GHz have been reported for 0.18 æm CMOS technology, and are expected to reach about 100 GHz when the feature size shrinks to 100 nm within a few years. This translates into CMOS circuit operating frequencies well into the GHz range, which covers the frequency range of many of today's popular wireless products, such as cell phones, GPS (Global Positioning System) and Bluetooth. Of course, the great interest in RF CMOS comes from the obvious advantages of CMOS technology in terms of production cost, high-level integration, and the ability to combine digital, analog and RF circuits on the same chip. This book discusses many of the challenges facing the CMOS RF circuit designer in terms of device modeling and characterization, which are crucial issues in circuit simulation and design.

Multi-voltage CMOS Circuit Design

Author: Volkan Kursun,Eby G. Friedman

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780470010235

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 242

View: 1165

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This book presents an in-depth treatment of various power reduction and speed enhancement techniques based on multiple supply and threshold voltages. A detailed discussion of the sources of power consumption in CMOS circuits will be provided whilst focusing primarily on identifying the mechanisms by which sub-threshold and gate oxide leakage currents are generated. The authors present a comprehensive review of state-of-the-art dynamic, static supply and threshold voltage scaling techniques and discuss the pros and cons of supply and threshold voltage scaling techniques.

Electromagnetic Compatibility of Integrated Circuits

Techniques for low emission and susceptibility

Author: Sonia Ben Dhia,Mohamed Ramdani,Etienne Sicard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387266011

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 473

View: 6234

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Electromagnetic Compatibility of Integrated Circuits: Techniques for Low Emission and Susceptibility focuses on the electromagnetic compatibility of integrated circuits. The basic concepts, theory, and an extensive historical review of integrated circuit emission and susceptibility are provided. Standardized measurement methods are detailed through various case studies. EMC models for the core, I/Os, supply network, and packaging are described with applications to conducted switching noise, signal integrity, near-field and radiated noise. Case studies from different companies and research laboratories are presented with in-depth descriptions of the ICs, test set-ups, and comparisons between measurements and simulations. Specific guidelines for achieving low emission and susceptibility derived from the experience of EMC experts are presented.

Principles of Power Integrity for PDN Design--Simplified

Robust and Cost Effective Design for High Speed Digital Products

Author: Larry D. Smith,Eric Bogatin

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 0132735628

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 816

View: 641

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Consistently Design PDNs That Deliver Reliable Performance at the Right Cost Too often, PDN designs work inconsistently, and techniques that work in some scenarios seem to fail inexplicably in others. This book explains why and presents realistic processes for getting PDN designs right in any new product. Drawing on 60+ years of signal and power integrity experience, Larry Smith and Eric Bogatin show how to manage noise and electrical performance, and complement intuition with analysis to balance cost, performance, risk, and schedule. Throughout, they distill the essence of complex real-world problems, quantify core principles via approximation, and apply them to specific examples. For easy usage, dozens of key concepts and observations are highlighted as tips and listed in quick, chapter-ending summaries. Coverage includes • A practical, start-to-finish approach to consistently meeting PDN performance goals • Understanding how signals interact with interconnects • Identifying root causes of common problems, so you can avoid them • Leveraging analysis tools to efficiently explore design space and optimize tradeoffs • Analyzing impedance-related properties of series and parallel RLC circuits • Measuring low impedance for components and entire PDN ecologies • Predicting loop inductance from physical design features • Reducing peak impedances from combinations of capacitors • Understanding power and ground plane properties in the PDN interconnect • Taming signal integrity problems when signals change return planes • Reducing peak impedance created by on-die capacitance and package lead inductance • Controlling transient current waveform interactions with PDN features • Simple spreadsheet-based analysis techniques for quickly creating first-pass designs This guide will be indispensable for all engineers involved in PDN design, including product, board, and chip designers; system, hardware, component, and package engineers; power supply designers, SI and EMI engineers, sales engineers, and their managers.

Wireless Power Transfer Algorithms, Technologies and Applications in Ad Hoc Communication Networks

Author: Sotiris Nikoletseas,Yuanyuan Yang,Apostolos Georgiadis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319468103

Category: Computers

Page: 745

View: 1451

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This book is the first systematic exposition on the emerging domain of wireless power transfer in ad hoc communication networks. It selectively spans a coherent, large spectrum of fundamental aspects of wireless power transfer, such as mobility management in the network, combined wireless power and information transfer, energy flow among network devices, joint activities with wireless power transfer (routing, data gathering and solar energy harvesting), and safety provisioning through electromagnetic radiation control, as well as fundamental and novel circuits and technologies enabling the wide application of wireless powering. Comprising a total of 27 chapters, contributed by leading experts, the content is organized into six thematic sections: technologies, communication, mobility, energy flow, joint operations, and electromagnetic radiation awareness. It will be valuable for researchers, engineers, educators, and students, and it may also be used as a supplement to academic courses on algorithmic applications, wireless protocols, distributed computing, and networking.

Power Integrity for I/O Interfaces

With Signal Integrity/ Power Integrity Co-Design, Portable Documents

Author: Vishram S. Pandit,Woong Hwan Ryu,Myoung Joon Choi

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0132596962

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 7216

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Foreword by Joungho Kim The Hands-On Guide to Power Integrity in Advanced Applications, from Three Industry Experts In this book, three industry experts introduce state-of-the-art power integrity design techniques for today’s most advanced digital systems, with real-life, system-level examples. They introduce a powerful approach to unifying power and signal integrity design that can identify signal impediments earlier, reducing cost and improving reliability. After introducing high-speed, single-ended and differential I/O interfaces, the authors describe on-chip, package, and PCB power distribution networks (PDNs) and signal networks, carefully reviewing their interactions. Next, they walk through end-to-end PDN and signal network design in frequency domain, addressing crucial parameters such as self and transfer impedance. They thoroughly address modeling and characterization of on-chip components of PDNs and signal networks, evaluation of power-to-signal coupling coefficients, analysis of Simultaneous Switching Output (SSO) noise, and many other topics. Coverage includes The exponentially growing challenge of I/O power integrity in high-speed digital systems PDN noise analysis and its timing impact for single-ended and differential interfaces Concurrent design and co-simulation techniques for evaluating all power integrity effects on signal integrity Time domain gauges for designing and optimizing components and systems Power/signal integrity interaction mechanisms, including power noise coupling onto signal trace and noise amplification through signal resonance Performance impact due to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), crosstalk, and SSO noise, as well as their interactions Validation techniques, including low impedance VNA measurements, power noise measurements, and characterization of power-to-signal coupling effects Power Integrity for I/O Interfaces will be an indispensable resource for everyone concerned with power integrity in cutting-edge digital designs, including system design and hardware engineers, signal and power integrity engineers, graduate students, and researchers.

Power Integrity Analysis and Management for Integrated Circuits

Author: Raj Nair,Donald Bennett

Publisher: Prentice Hall

ISBN: 0137048289

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 7905

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New Techniques and Tools for Ensuring On-Chip Power Integrity—Down to Nanoscale As chips continue to scale, power integrity issues are introducing unexpected project complexity and cost. In this book, two leading industry innovators thoroughly discuss the power integrity challenges that engineers face in designing at nanoscale levels, introduce new analysis and management techniques for addressing these issues, and provide breakthrough tools for hands-on problem solving. Raj Nair and Dr. Donald Bennett first provide a complete foundational understanding of power integrity, including ULSI issues, practical aspects of power delivery, and the benefits of a total power integrity approach to optimizing chip physical designs. They introduce advanced power distribution network modeling, design, and analysis techniques that highlight abstraction and physics-based analysis, while also incorporating traditional circuit- and field-solver based approaches. They also present advanced techniques for floorplanning and power integrity management, and help designers anticipate emerging challenges associated with increased integration. Anasim RLCSim.exe, a new tool for power integrity aware floorplanning, is downloadable for free at anasim.com/category/software. The authors Systematically explore power integrity implications, analysis, and management for integrated circuits Present practical examples and industry best practices for a broad spectrum of chip design applications Discuss distributed and high-bandwidth voltage regulation, differential power path design, and the significance of on-chip inductance to power integrity Review both traditional and advanced modeling techniques for integrated circuit power integrity analysis, and introduce continuum modeling Explore chip, package, and board interactions for power integrity and EMI, and bring together industry best practices and examples Introduce advanced concepts for power integrity management, including non-linear capacitance devices, impedance modulation, and active noise regulation Power Integrity Analysis and Management for Integrated Circuits’ coverage of both fundamentals and advanced techniques will make this book indispensable to all engineers responsible for signal integrity, power integrity, hardware, or system design—especially those working at the nanoscale level.

Handbook of Distributed Generation

Electric Power Technologies, Economics and Environmental Impacts

Author: Ramesh Bansal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319513435

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 819

View: 4739

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This book features extensive coverage of all Distributed Energy Generation technologies, highlighting the technical, environmental and economic aspects of distributed resource integration, such as line loss reduction, protection, control, storage, power electronics, reliability improvement, and voltage profile optimization. It explains how electric power system planners, developers, operators, designers, regulators and policy makers can derive many benefits with increased penetration of distributed generation units into smart distribution networks. It further demonstrates how to best realize these benefits via skillful integration of distributed energy sources, based upon an understanding of the characteristics of loads and network configuration.

Coupled Data Communication Techniques for High-Performance and Low-Power Computing

Author: Ron Ho,Robert Drost

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441965882

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 206

View: 8758

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Wafer-scale integration has long been the dream of system designers. Instead of chopping a wafer into a few hundred or a few thousand chips, one would just connect the circuits on the entire wafer. What an enormous capability wafer-scale integration would offer: all those millions of circuits connected by high-speed on-chip wires. Unfortunately, the best known optical systems can provide suitably ?ne resolution only over an area much smaller than a whole wafer. There is no known way to pattern a whole wafer with transistors and wires small enough for modern circuits. Statistical defects present a ?rmer barrier to wafer-scale integration. Flaws appear regularly in integrated circuits; the larger the circuit area, the more probable there is a ?aw. If such ?aws were the result only of dust one might reduce their numbers, but ?aws are also the inevitable result of small scale. Each feature on a modern integrated circuit is carved out by only a small number of photons in the lithographic process. Each transistor gets its electrical properties from only a small number of impurity atoms in its tiny area. Inevitably, the quantized nature of light and the atomic nature of matter produce statistical variations in both the number of photons de?ning each tiny shape and the number of atoms providing the electrical behavior of tiny transistors. No known way exists to eliminate such statistical variation, nor may any be possible.