Practical meta-analysis

Author: Mark W. Lipsey,David B. Wilson

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: 9780761921677

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 1746

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What research designs and methodological features qualify a study for meta-analysis and which disqualify it? What types of research reports are appropriate for the meta-analysis? What is the cultural and linguistic range of the studies to be included? By integrating and translating the current methodological and statistical work into a practical guide, the authors address these questions to provide readers with a state-of-the-art introduction to the various approaches to doing meta-analysis. Through the use of a simple metaphor, that of meta-analysis as a form of survey research in which research reports, rather than individual people, are surveyed, the authors show readers how to develop a coding form for their meta-analysis, how to select and gather various research reports for the study, how to code the appropriate information about each study's characteristics, and how to analyze the resulting data using various software packages.

Practical Meta-Analysis

Author: Mark W. Lipsey,David B. Wilson

Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated

ISBN: 9780761921684

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 3474

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What research designs and methodological features qualify a study for meta-analysis and which disqualify it? What types of research reports are appropriate for the meta-analysis? What is the cultural and linguistic range of the studies to be included? By integrating and translating the current methodological and statistical work into a practical guide, the authors address these questions to provide readers with a state-of-the-art introduction to the various approaches to doing meta-analysis.

Meta-Study of Qualitative Health Research

A Practical Guide to Meta-Analysis and Meta-Synthesis

Author: Barbara L. Paterson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761924159

Category: Medical

Page: 162

View: 9391

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Meta-study is an exciting new opportunity for the analysis and synthesis of qualitative research findings. Over the last two decades, a wide range of methods and approaches originating from the social and health sciences have provided a wealth of new knowledge sources from which to develop theory. This book provides step-by-step directions for how to conduct a meta-study, as well as recommendations for tools and standards for the application of this approach. Meta-study entails an exhaustive analysis of the theory, method, and findings of research in a substantive area. These analytic processes form the foundation upon which a credible synthesis of new knowledge can be explored. Meta-study permits investigators to: { look beyond individual findings { critically interpret variations and contradictions in the body of available research { move toward the potential for knowledge synthesis The authors of this timely volume: { differentiate between meta-analysis and meta-synthesis { write in a how-to style { illustrate each step with examples from their own meta-study projects in the substantive field of chronic illness { use their own experience with performing a meta-study to explain the process, including past mistakes and retrospective insight

Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis

A Step-by-Step Approach

Author: Harris Cooper

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483347044

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 5247

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The Fifth Edition of Harris Cooper's bestselling Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-by-Step Approach offers practical advice on how to conduct a synthesis of research in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. The book is written in plain language with four running examples drawn from psychology, education, and health science. With ample coverage of literature searching and the technical aspects of meta-analysis, this one-of-a-kind book applies the basic principles of sound data gathering to the task of producing a comprehensive assessment of existing research.

Meta-Analytic Procedures for Social Research

Author: Robert Rosenthal

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803942462

Category: Medical

Page: 155

View: 8419

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Praised in the first edition for the clarity of his general framework for conceptualizing meta-analysis, Rosenthal's revised edition covers the latest techniques in the field, such as a new effect size indicator for one size data, a new coefficient of robustness of replication, new procedures for combining and comparing effect sizes for multiple dependent variables, and new data on the magnitude of the problem of incomplete retrieval (the file drawer problem).

Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis

Prevention, Assessment and Adjustments

Author: Hannah R. Rothstein,Alexander J. Sutton,Michael Borenstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047087015X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 374

View: 6305

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Publication bias is the tendency to decide to publish a study based on the results of the study, rather than on the basis of its theoretical or methodological quality. It can arise from selective publication of favorable results, or of statistically significant results. This threatens the validity of conclusions drawn from reviews of published scientific research. Meta-analysis is now used in numerous scientific disciplines, summarizing quantitative evidence from multiple studies. If the literature being synthesised has been affected by publication bias, this in turn biases the meta-analytic results, potentially producing overstated conclusions. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis examines the different types of publication bias, and presents the methods for estimating and reducing publication bias, or eliminating it altogether. Written by leading experts, adopting a practical and multidisciplinary approach. Provides comprehensive coverage of the topic including: Different types of publication bias, Mechanisms that may induce them, Empirical evidence for their existence, Statistical methods to address them, Ways in which they can be avoided. Features worked examples and common data sets throughout. Explains and compares all available software used for analysing and reducing publication bias. Accompanied by a website featuring software, data sets and further material. Publication Bias in Meta-Analysis adopts an inter-disciplinary approach and will make an excellent reference volume for any researchers and graduate students who conduct systematic reviews or meta-analyses. University and medical libraries, as well as pharmaceutical companies and government regulatory agencies, will also find this invaluable.

Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis

Author: Larry V. Hedges,Ingram Olkin

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080570658

Category: Mathematics

Page: 369

View: 3459

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The main purpose of this book is to address the statistical issues for integrating independent studies. There exist a number of papers and books that discuss the mechanics of collecting, coding, and preparing data for a meta-analysis , and we do not deal with these. Because this book concerns methodology, the content necessarily is statistical, and at times mathematical. In order to make the material accessible to a wider audience, we have not provided proofs in the text. Where proofs are given, they are placed as commentary at the end of a chapter. These can be omitted at the discretion of the reader. Throughout the book we describe computational procedures whenever required. Many computations can be completed on a hand calculator, whereas some require the use of a standard statistical package such as SAS, SPSS, or BMD. Readers with experience using a statistical package or who conduct analyses such as multiple regression or analysis of variance should be able to carry out the analyses described with the aid of a statistical package.

Introduction to Meta-Analysis

Author: Michael Borenstein,Larry V. Hedges,Julian P. T. Higgins,Hannah R. Rothstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119964377

Category: Medical

Page: 450

View: 481

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This book provides a clear and thorough introduction to meta-analysis, the process of synthesizing data from a series of separate studies. Meta-analysis has become a critically important tool in fields as diverse as medicine, pharmacology, epidemiology, education, psychology, business, and ecology. Introduction to Meta-Analysis: Outlines the role of meta-analysis in the research process Shows how to compute effects sizes and treatment effects Explains the fixed-effect and random-effects models for synthesizing data Demonstrates how to assess and interpret variation in effect size across studies Clarifies concepts using text and figures, followed by formulas and examples Explains how to avoid common mistakes in meta-analysis Discusses controversies in meta-analysis Features a web site with additional material and exercises A superb combination of lucid prose and informative graphics, written by four of the world’s leading experts on all aspects of meta-analysis. Borenstein, Hedges, Higgins, and Rothstein provide a refreshing departure from cookbook approaches with their clear explanations of the what and why of meta-analysis. The book is ideal as a course textbook or for self-study. My students, who used pre-publication versions of some of the chapters, raved about the clarity of the explanations and examples. David Rindskopf, Distinguished Professor of Educational Psychology, City University of New York, Graduate School and University Center, & Editor of the Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics. The approach taken by Introduction to Meta-analysis is intended to be primarily conceptual, and it is amazingly successful at achieving that goal. The reader can comfortably skip the formulas and still understand their application and underlying motivation. For the more statistically sophisticated reader, the relevant formulas and worked examples provide a superb practical guide to performing a meta-analysis. The book provides an eclectic mix of examples from education, social science, biomedical studies, and even ecology. For anyone considering leading a course in meta-analysis, or pursuing self-directed study, Introduction to Meta-analysis would be a clear first choice. Jesse A. Berlin, ScD Introduction to Meta-Analysis is an excellent resource for novices and experts alike. The book provides a clear and comprehensive presentation of all basic and most advanced approaches to meta-analysis. This book will be referenced for decades. Michael A. McDaniel, Professor of Human Resources and Organizational Behavior, Virginia Commonwealth University

How Science Takes Stock

The Story of Meta-Analysis

Author: Morton Hunt

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610442962

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 9591

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Policymakers, medical practitioners, and the public alike face an increasingly bewildering flood of new and often contradictory scientific studies on almost every topic. Whether the issue is the the best treatment for breast cancer, the need for prenatal food programs to improve the health of poor infants and mothers, or the ability of women to succeed in scientific professions, the healthy growth of modern science has at times done more to stir up controversy than to establish reliable knowledge. But now scientists in several fields have developed a sophisticated new methodology called meta-analysis to address this problem. By numerically combining diverse research findings on a single question, meta-analysis can be used to identify their central tendency and reach conclusions far more reliable than those of any single investigation. How Science Takes Stock vividly tells the story of meta-analysis through the eyes of its architects and champions, and chronicles its history, techniques, achievements, and controversies. Noted science author Morton Hunt visits key practitioners and recounts their use of meta-analysis to resolve important scientific puzzles and longstanding debates. Does psychotherapy work, and if so what form works best? Does spending federal money on education really improve student performance? Can a single enzyme significantly decrease the risk of heart attack? Do boot camps reduce juvenile delinquency? With each account, Hunt illustrates the major components of the meta-analytic method, reveals strategies for resolving practical and theoretical problems, and discusses the impact of meta-analysis on the science and policy communities. In many cases, he demonstrates how meta-analysts have gone a step further to determine the causes of earlier discrepancies. In this way they not only identify successful approaches to the question at hand, but also clarify the conditions under which they will work best. Hunt also portrays the important but frequently controversial business of doing meta-analysis for legislators and government agencies, particularly in sensitive areas of social policy. How Science Takes Stock demonstrates how the statistical techniques of meta-analysis produce more accurate data than the standard literature review or the old-fashioned process of tallying up the results of each scientific study as if they were votes in an election to decide the truth. Hunt also addresses issues of quality control in each phase of the meta-analytic process, and answers skeptics who claim that the dissimilarities between studies are often too significant for meta-analysis to be any more than an apples and oranges approach. This volume conveys the power of meta-analysis to help social policymakers and health professionals resolve their most pressing problems. How Science Takes Stock concludes with a discussion of the future of meta-analysis that examines its potential for further refinements, its growth in the scientific literature, and exciting new possibilities for its future use. An appendix by meta-analysis expert Harris Cooper offers some finer points on the mechanics of conducting a meta-analytic investigation.

Methods of Meta-Analysis

Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings

Author: Frank L. Schmidt,John E. Hunter

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483324516

Category: Social Science

Page: 672

View: 5069

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Designed to provide researchers clear and informative insight into techniques of meta-analysis, the Third Edition of Methods of Meta-Analysis: Correcting Error and Bias in Research Findings is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. It is the only book that presents a full and usable treatment of the role of study artifacts in distorting study results, as well as methods for correcting results for such biases and errors. Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the last thirty-five years, due to its immense impact on the development of cumulative knowledge and professional practice. This text, now in its updated Third Edition, has been revised to cover the newest developments in meta-analysis methods, evaluation, correction, and more. This reader-friendly book is the definitive resource on meta-analysis. “This text is the primary source text for psychometric meta-analysis methods.” —Emily E. Tanner-Smith, Vanderbilt University “The key strength of the book is the complete and thorough coverage of psychometric meta-analysis. This technique is not covered in any other meta-analysis text, and is a major contribution to the literature…The meta-analysis field needs to find ways to integrate Hunter and Schmidt’s methods into current meta-analysis practice.” —Terri D. Pigott, Loyola University of Chicago “This is an important text. It is the only book that presents adequate coverage of psychometric meta-analysis. In addition to its use as a textbook, it is an invaluable resource for anyone involved in meta-analytic studies.” —Steven Pulos, University of Northern Colorado

Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS

Author: Winfred Arthur, Jr.,Winston Bennett,Allen I. Huffcutt

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135643466

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 1765

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Conducting Meta-Analysis Using SAS reviews the meta-analysis statistical procedure and shows the reader how to conduct one using SAS. It presents and illustrates the use of the PROC MEANS procedure in SAS to perform the data computations called for by the two most commonly used meta-analytic procedures, the Hunter & Schmidt and Glassian approaches. This book serves as both an operational guide and user's manual by describing and explaining the meta-analysis procedures and then presenting the appropriate SAS program code for computing the pertinent statistics. The practical, step-by-step instructions quickly prepare the reader to conduct a meta-analysis. Sample programs available on the Web further aid the reader in understanding the material. Intended for researchers, students, instructors, and practitioners interested in conducting a meta-analysis, the presentation of both formulas and their associated SAS program code keeps the reader and user in touch with technical aspects of the meta-analysis process. The book is also appropriate for advanced courses in meta-analysis psychology, education, management, and other applied social and health sciences departments.

Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research

Author: Noel A. Card

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462525008

Category: Psychology

Page: 377

View: 5054

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Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for graduate course use or self-study. The author shows how to identify questions that can be answered using meta-analysis, retrieve both published and unpublished studies, create a coding manual, use traditional and unique effect size indices, and write a meta-analytic review. An ongoing example illustrates meta-analytic techniques. In addition to the fundamentals, the book discusses more advanced topics, such as artifact correction, random- and mixed-effects models, structural equation representations, and multivariate procedures. User-friendly features include annotated equations; discussions of alternative approaches; and "Practical Matters" sections that give advice on topics not often discussed in other books, such as linking meta-analytic results with theory and the utility of meta-analysis software programs. ÿ

The Essential Guide to Effect Sizes

Statistical Power, Meta-Analysis, and the Interpretation of Research Results

Author: Paul D. Ellis

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521142466

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 173

View: 3563

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A jargon-free introduction for students and researchers looking to interpret the practical significance of their results.

Meta-Analysis with R

Author: Guido Schwarzer,James R. Carpenter,Gerta Rücker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319214160

Category: Medical

Page: 252

View: 9327

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This book provides a comprehensive introduction to performing meta-analysis using the statistical software R. It is intended for quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences who wish to learn how to perform meta-analysis with R. As such, the book introduces the key concepts and models used in meta-analysis. It also includes chapters on the following advanced topics: publication bias and small study effects; missing data; multivariate meta-analysis, network meta-analysis; and meta-analysis of diagnostic studies.

Meta-Analysis

Quantitative Methods for Research Synthesis

Author: Fredric Marc Wolf,Fredric M. Wolf

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803927568

Category: Medical

Page: 65

View: 3167

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Meta-Analysis shows concisely, yet comprehensively, how to apply statistical methods to achieve a literature review of a common research domain. It demonstrates the use of combined tests and measures of effect size to synthesize quantitatively the results of independent studies for both group differences and correlations. Strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches, as well as of meta-analysis in general, are presented.

Network Meta-Analysis for Decision-Making

Author: Sofia Dias,A. E. Ades,Nicky J. Welton,Jeroen P. Jansen,Alexander J. Sutton

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118647505

Category: Mathematics

Page: 488

View: 6464

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A practical guide to network meta-analysis with examples and code In the evaluation of healthcare, rigorous methods of quantitative assessment are necessary to establish which interventions are effective and cost-effective. Often a single study will not provide the answers and it is desirable to synthesise evidence from multiple sources, usually randomised controlled trials. This book takes an approach to evidence synthesis that is specifically intended for decision making when there are two or more treatment alternatives being evaluated, and assumes that the purpose of every synthesis is to answer the question “for this pre-identified population of patients, which treatment is ‘best’?” A comprehensive, coherent framework for network meta-analysis (mixed treatment comparisons) is adopted and estimated using Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods implemented in the freely available software WinBUGS. Each chapter contains worked examples, exercises, solutions and code that may be adapted by readers to apply to their own analyses. This book can be used as an introduction to evidence synthesis and network meta-analysis, its key properties and policy implications. Examples and advanced methods are also presented for the more experienced reader. Methods used throughout this book can be applied consistently: model critique and checking for evidence consistency are emphasised. Methods are based on technical support documents produced for NICE Decision Support Unit, which support the NICE Methods of Technology Appraisal. Code presented is also the basis for the code used by the ISPOR Task Force on Indirect Comparisons. Includes extensive carefully worked examples, with thorough explanations of how to set out data for use in WinBUGS and how to interpret the output. Network Meta-Analysis for Decision Making will be of interest to decision makers, medical statisticians, health economists, and anyone involved in Health Technology Assessment including the pharmaceutical industry.

Applied Meta-Analysis for Social Science Research

Author: Noel A. Card

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462525008

Category: Psychology

Page: 377

View: 2122

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Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for graduate course use or self-study. The author shows how to identify questions that can be answered using meta-analysis, retrieve both published and unpublished studies, create a coding manual, use traditional and unique effect size indices, and write a meta-analytic review. An ongoing example illustrates meta-analytic techniques. In addition to the fundamentals, the book discusses more advanced topics, such as artifact correction, random- and mixed-effects models, structural equation representations, and multivariate procedures. User-friendly features include annotated equations; discussions of alternative approaches; and "Practical Matters" sections that give advice on topics not often discussed in other books, such as linking meta-analytic results with theory and the utility of meta-analysis software programs. ÿ

Advances in Meta-Analysis

Author: Terri Pigott

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461422787

Category: Social Science

Page: 158

View: 7826

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The subject of the book is advanced statistical analyses for quantitative research synthesis (meta-analysis), and selected practical issues relating to research synthesis that are not covered in detail in the many existing introductory books on research synthesis (or meta-analysis). Complex statistical issues are arising more frequently as the primary research that is summarized in quantitative syntheses itself becomes more complex, and as researchers who are conducting meta-analyses become more ambitious in the questions they wish to address. Also as researchers have gained more experience in conducting research syntheses, several key issues have persisted and now appear fundamental to the enterprise of summarizing research. Specifically the book describes multivariate analyses for several indices commonly used in meta-analysis (e.g., correlations, effect sizes, proportions and/or odds ratios), will outline how to do power analysis for meta-analysis (again for each of the different kinds of study outcome indices), and examines issues around research quality and research design and their roles in synthesis. For each of the statistical topics we will examine the different possible statistical models (i.e., fixed, random, and mixed models) that could be adopted by a researcher. In dealing with the issues of study quality and research design it covers a number of specific topics that are of broad concern to research synthesists. In many fields a current issue is how to make sense of results when studies using several different designs appear in a research literature (e.g., Morris & Deshon, 1997, 2002). In education and other social sciences a critical aspect of this issue is how one might incorporate qualitative (e.g., case study) research within a synthesis. In medicine, related issues concern whether and how to summarize observational studies, and whether they should be combined with randomized controlled trials (or even if they should be combined at all). For each topic, included is a worked example (e.g., for the statistical analyses) and/or a detailed description of a published research synthesis that deals with the practical (non-statistical) issues covered.

Design Sensitivity

Statistical Power for Experimental Research

Author: Mark W. Lipsey

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803930636

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 207

View: 7325

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All researchers face an important challenge - designing research that will have sufficient sensitivity to detect those effects it purports to investigate. Sample size, validity and sensitivity, experimental error, subject variability, and the type of statistical analysis all influence the sensitivity of a research design. Through careful explanations and selection of examples, Lipsey examines the concept of design sensitivity and explains statistical power and the elements that determine it.