Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy

Author: Jose Antonio Cheibub

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521542449

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

View: 1107

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This book questions the reasons why presidential democracies more likely to break down than parliamentary ones.

Legislative Voting and Accountability

Author: John M. Carey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139476793

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Legislatures are the core representative institutions in modern democracies. Citizens want legislatures to be decisive, and they want accountability, but they are frequently disillusioned with the representation legislators deliver. Political parties can provide decisiveness in legislatures, and they may provide collective accountability, but citizens and political reformers frequently demand another type of accountability from legislators – at the individual level. Can legislatures provide both kinds of accountability? This book considers what collective and individual accountability require and provides the most extensive cross-national analysis of legislative voting undertaken to date. It illustrates the balance between individualistic and collective representation in democracies, and how party unity in legislative voting shapes that balance. In addition to quantitative analysis of voting patterns, the book draws on extensive field and archival research to provide an extensive assessment of legislative transparency throughout the Americas.

Democracy and the Culture of Skepticism

The Politics of Trust in Argentina and Mexico

Author: Matthew R. Cleary,Susan Stokes

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610441281

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 3058

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Some theorists claim that democracy cannot work without trust. According to this argument, democracy fails unless citizens trust that their governing institutions are serving their best interests. Similarly, some assert that democracy works best when people trust one another and have confidence that politicians will look after citizen interests. Questioning such claims, Democracy and the Culture of Skepticism, by Matthew Cleary and Susan Stokes, suggests that skepticism, not trust, is the hallmark of political culture in well-functioning democracies. Drawing on extensive research in two developing democracies, Argentina and Mexico, Democracy and the Culture of Skepticism shows that in regions of each country with healthy democracies, people do not trust one another more than those living in regions where democracy functions less well, nor do they display more personal trust in governments or politicians. Instead, the defining features of the healthiest democracies are skepticism of government and a belief that politicians act in their constituents' best interest only when it is personally advantageous for them to do so. In contrast to scholars who lament what they see as a breakdown in civic life, Cleary and Stokes find that people residing in healthy democracies do not participate more in civic organizations than others, but in fact, tend to retreat from civic life in favor of private pursuits. The authors conclude that governments are most efficient and responsive when they know that institutions such as the press or an independent judiciary will hold them accountable for their actions. The question of how much citizens should trust politicians and governments has consumed political theorists since America's founding. In Democracy and the Culture of Skepticism, Matthew Cleary and Susan Stokes test the relationship between trust and the quality of governance, showing that it is not trust, but vigilance and skepticism that provide the foundation for well-functioning democracies. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation Series on Trust

Presidents, Parties, and Prime Ministers

How the Separation of Powers Affects Party Organization and Behavior

Author: David J. Samuels,Matthew S. Shugart

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139489372

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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This book provides a framework for analyzing the impact of the separation of powers on party politics. Conventional political science wisdom assumes that democracy is impossible without political parties, because parties fulfil all the key functions of democratic governance. They nominate candidates, coordinate campaigns, aggregate interests, formulate and implement policy, and manage government power. When scholars first asserted the essential connection between parties and democracy, most of the world's democracies were parliamentary. Yet by the dawn of the twenty-first century, most democracies had directly elected presidents. David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide a theoretical framework for analyzing variation in the relationships among presidents, parties, and prime ministers across the world's democracies, revealing the important ways that the separation of powers alters party organization and behavior - thereby changing the nature of democratic representation and accountability.

Institutions on the Edge

The Origins and Consequences of Inter-Branch Crises in Latin America

Author: Gretchen Helmke

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316889327

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Why does institutional instability pervade the developing world? Examining contemporary Latin America, Institutions on the Edge develops and tests a novel argument to explain why institutional crises emerge, spread, and repeat in some countries, but not in others. The book draws on formal bargaining theories developed in the conflict literature to offer the first unified micro-level account of inter-branch crises. In so doing, Helmke shows that concentrating power in the executive branch not only fuels presidential crises under divided government, but also triggers broader constitutional crises that cascade on to the legislature and the judiciary. Along the way, Helmke highlights the importance of public opinion and mass protests, and elucidates the conditions under which divided government matters for institutional instability.

Presidents and Assemblies

Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics

Author: Matthew Soberg Shugart,John M. Carey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521429900

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 6856

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In recent years renewed attention has been directed to the importance of the role of institutional design in democratic politics. Particular interest has concerned constitutional design and the relative merits of parliamentary versus presidential systems. In this book, the authors systematically assess the strengths and weaknesses of various forms of presidential systems, drawing on recent developments in the theoretical literature about institutional design and electoral rules. They develop a typology of democratic regimes structured around the separation of powers principle, including two hybrid forms, the premier-presidential and president-parliamentary systems, and they evaluate a number of alternative ways of balancing powers between the branches within these basic frameworks. They also demonstrate that electoral rules are critically important in determining how political authority is exercised.

Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521576147

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 474

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David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.

The Architecture of Government

Rethinking Political Decentralization

Author: Daniel Treisman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139466496

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Since the days of Montesquieu and Jefferson, political decentralization has been seen as a force for better government and economic performance. It is thought to bring government 'closer to the people', nurture civic virtue, protect liberty, exploit local information, stimulate policy innovation, and alleviate ethnic tensions. Inspired by such arguments, and generously funded by the major development agencies, countries across the globe have been racing to devolve power to local governments. This book re-examines the arguments that underlie the modern faith in decentralization. Using logical analysis and formal modeling, and appealing to numerous examples, it shows that most are based on vague intuitions or partial views that do not withstand scrutiny. A review of empirical studies of decentralization finds these as inconclusive and mutually contradictory as the theories they set out to test.

Designing Federalism

A Theory of Self-Sustainable Federal Institutions

Author: Mikhail Filippov,Peter C. Ordeshook,Olga Shvetsova

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521016483

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 5401

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Argues that a number of institutional variables can be critical in determining federal success.

Rebuilding Leviathan

Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies

Author: Anna Grzymala-Busse

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139464922

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Why do some governing parties limit their opportunistic behaviour and constrain the extraction of private gains from the state? This analysis of post-communist state reconstruction provides surprising answers to this fundamental question of party politics. Across the post-communist democracies, governing parties have opportunistically reconstructed the state - simultaneously exploiting it by extracting state resources and building new institutions that further such extraction. They enfeebled or delayed formal state institutions of monitoring and oversight, established new discretionary structures of state administration, and extracted enormous informal profits from the privatization of the communist economy. By examining how post-communist political parties rebuilt the state in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, Grzymala-Busse explains how even opportunistic political parties will limit their corrupt behaviour and abuse of state resources when faced with strong political competition.

The Democracy Sourcebook

Author: Robert Alan Dahl,Ian Shapiro,José Antônio Cheibub

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262541473

Category: Political Science

Page: 556

View: 8161

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A collection of classic and contemporary writings on democracy, suitable for use in a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate courses.

Patterns of Democracy

Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries

Author: Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300172028

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 2723

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In this updated and expanded edition of his classic text, Arend Lijphart offers a broader and deeper analysis of worldwide democratic institutions than ever before. Examining thirty-six democracies during the period from 1945 to 2010, Lijphart arrives at important—and unexpected—conclusions about what type of democracy works best. Praise for the previous edition: "Magnificent. . . . The best-researched book on democracy in the world today."—Malcolm Mackerras, American Review of Politics "I can't think of another scholar as well qualified as Lijphart to write a book of this kind. He has an amazing grasp of the relevant literature, and he's compiled an unmatched collection of data."—Robert A. Dahl, Yale University "This sound comparative research . . . will continue to be a standard in graduate and undergraduate courses in comparative politics."—Choice

Democracy and Redistribution

Author: Carles Boix

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521532679

Category: History

Page: 264

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In this 2003 book, Boix offers a complete theory of political transitions.

The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma

Why Election Monitoring Became an International Norm

Author: Susan D. Hyde

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461255

Category: Political Science

Page: 264

View: 8059

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Why did election monitoring become an international norm? Why do pseudo-democrats-undemocratic leaders who present themselves as democratic-invite international observers, even when they are likely to be caught manipulating elections? Is election observation an effective tool of democracy promotion, or is it simply a way to legitimize electoral autocracies? In The Pseudo-Democrat's Dilemma, Susan D. Hyde explains international election monitoring with a new theory of international norm formation. Hyde argues that election observation was initiated by states seeking international support. International benefits tied to democracy give some governments an incentive to signal their commitment to democratization without having to give up power. Invitations to nonpartisan foreigners to monitor elections, and avoiding their criticism, became a widely recognized and imitated signal of a government's purported commitment to democratic elections. Hyde draws on cross-national data on the global spread of election observation between 1960 and 2006, detailed descriptions of the characteristics of countries that do and do not invite observers, and evidence of three ways that election monitoring is costly to pseudo-democrats: micro-level experimental tests from elections in Armenia and Indonesia showing that observers can deter election-day fraud and otherwise improve the quality of elections; illustrative cases demonstrating that international benefits are contingent on democracy in countries like Haiti, Peru, Togo, and Zimbabwe; and qualitative evidence documenting the escalating game of strategic manipulation among pseudo-democrats, international monitors, and pro-democracy forces.

Why Dominant Parties Lose

Mexico's Democratization in Comparative Perspective

Author: Kenneth F. Greene

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139466860

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Why have dominant parties persisted in power for decades in countries spread across the globe? Why did most eventually lose? Why Dominant Parties Lose develops a theory of single-party dominance, its durability, and its breakdown into fully competitive democracy. Greene shows that dominant parties turn public resources into patronage goods to bias electoral competition in their favor and virtually win elections before election day without resorting to electoral fraud or bone-crushing repression. Opposition parties fail because their resource disadvantages force them to form as niche parties with appeals that are out of step with the average voter. When the political economy of dominance erodes, the partisan playing field becomes fairer and opposition parties can expand into catchall competitors that threaten the dominant party at the polls. Greene uses this argument to show why Mexico transformed from a dominant party authoritarian regime under PRI rule to a fully competitive democracy.

The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions

Author: R. A. W. Rhodes,Sarah A. Binder,Bert A. Rockman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199548463

Category: Political Science

Page: 816

View: 7421

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The Oxford Handbooks of Political Science are the essential guide to the state of political science today. With engaging contributions from 39 major international scholars, The Oxford Handbook of Political Institutions provides the key point of reference for anyone working on political institutions and beyond.

The Civic Culture

Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations

Author: Gabriel Abraham Almond,Sidney Verba

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400874564

Category: Political Science

Page: 576

View: 9210

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The authors interviewed over 5,000 citizens in Germany, Italy, Mexico, Great Britain, and the U.S. to learn political attitudes in modem democratic states. Originally published in 1963. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Democratic Experiments in Africa

Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective

Author: Michael Bratton,Nicholas van de Walle

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521556125

Category: Political Science

Page: 307

View: 7782

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Appendix: The Data Set

A Centripetal Theory of Democratic Governance

Author: John Gerring,Strom C. Thacker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521710154

Category: Political Science

Page: 237

View: 2175

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This book outlines the importance of political institutions in achieving good governance within a democratic polity and sets forth an argument to explore what sorts of institutions do the job best. By focusing on 'centripetal institutions', which maximize both representation and authority by bringing political energy and actors toward the centre of a polity, the authors set forth a relatively novel theory of democratic governance, applicable to all political settings in which multi-party competition obtains. Basing their theory on national-level political institutions, the authors argue that there are three types of political institutions that are fundamental in securing a centripetal style of democratic governance: unitary (rather than federal) sovereignty, a parliamentary (rather than presidential) executive, and a closed-list PR electoral system (rather than a single-member district or preferential-vote system).