Principles of Scientific Methods

Author: Mark Chang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482238101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 247

View: 8932

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Principles of Scientific Methods focuses on the fundamental principles behind scientific methods. The book refers to "science" in a broad sense, including natural science, physics, mathematics, statistics, social science, political science, and engineering science. A principle is often abstract and has broad applicability while a method is usually concrete and specific. The author uses many concrete examples to explain principles and presents analogies to connect different methods or problems to arrive at a general principle or a common notion. He mainly discusses a particular method to address the great idea behind the method, not the method itself. The book shows how the principles are not only applicable to scientific research but also to our daily lives. The author explains how scientific methods are used for understanding how and why things happen, making predictions, and learning how to prevent mistakes and solve problems. Studying the principles of scientific methods is to think about thinking and to enlighten our understanding of scientific research. Scientific principles are the foundation of scientific methods. In this book, you’ll see how the principles reveal the big ideas behind our scientific discoveries and reflect the fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of scientists. The principles make the scientific methods coherent and constitute the source of creativity.

Theories of Scientific Method

an Introduction

Author: Robert Nola,Howard Sankey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317493486

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 7203

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What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.

Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method

Author: Henry H. Bauer

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252064364

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 7608

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Concern has recently arisen over the quality of American education and our declining scientific and research orientation. Debates are emerging about what direction public universities should be taking as we head into the twenty-first century. Why and to what extent should society know about science? This book will help readers come to an informed understanding about the place of science and technology in today's world.

The Principles of Knowledge Creation

Research Methods in the Social Sciences

Author: Bengt Gustavsson (Ph. D.)

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781008843

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 4864

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'. . . a vast array of material that would be useful in a variety of courses and projects. Recommended.' - R.K. Murray, Choice

Scientific Method in Brief

Author: Hugh G. Gauch, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107311527

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8726

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The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy and law. Informed by position papers on science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation, this book aligns with a distinctively mainstream vision of science. It is an ideal resource for anyone undertaking a systematic study of scientific method for the first time, from undergraduates to professionals in both the sciences and the humanities.

Principles and Methods of Social Research

Author: William D. Crano,Marilynn B. Brewer,Andrew Lac

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135646112

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 5706

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An extensive revision, this classic text presents the most recent advances in social research design and methodology. The authors thoroughly describe the research process using methods derived from basic principles of scientific inquiry and demonstrate how they apply to the study of human behavior. These applications make it an indispensable resource for all fields of human social research, particularly communication, psychology, public health, and marketing. With a heavy emphasis on reliability and validity, the book considers experimental, quasi-experimental, and survey research designs in light of these qualities. Principles and Methods of Social Research is noted for its: *emphasis on understanding the principles that govern the use of a method to facilitate the researcher's choice of the proper methodological approach; *use of the laboratory experiment as a point of reference for describing and evaluating field experiments, correlational designs, quasi-experiments, and survey designs; and *unique chapter on the ethics of social research including the power a researcher wields and tips on how to use it responsibly. Highlights of the thoroughly expanded and updated edition include: *new chapters on meta-analysis and social cognition methods; * the latest on experimental operations and procedures, such as implicit measures, simulations, and Internet experiments; * expanded coverage of conducting experiments outside of the lab, including conducting experiments on the Web and on applied evaluation research methods, including efficacy and effectiveness research. Intended as a text for upper-level and graduate courses in research methods in social psychology, the social sciences, communications, and public health research. No previous methods courses are required.

Die Grundsätze wissenschaftlicher Betriebsführung

Author: Frederick Winslow Taylor,R. Roesler

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3861957132

Category:

Page: 96

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Fredericks W. Taylors Werk "Die Grunds tze wissenschaftlicher Betriebsf hrung" ist einer der wichtigsten betriebswirtschaftlichen Klassiker. Das Buch von Taylor (1856-1915) begr ndet den Taylorismus, der den richtigen Bewegungsablauf aus umfangreichen Zeit- und Arbeitsstudien ermittelte. Taylor untersuchte als Inginieur verschiedene Unternehmen und bewirkte in diesen Branchen deutliche Verbesserungen.

Principles of Scientific Sociology

Author: Walter L. Wallace

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202368207

Category: Social Science

Page: 545

View: 2014

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Principles of Scientific Sociology represents a major attempt to redirect the course of contemporary sociological thought. It is clear, well-organized, innovative, and original in its discussion of the context and methods of sociology conceived as a natural science. Wallace delineates the subject matter of sociology, classifies its variables, presents a logic of inquiry, and advocates the use of this logic for the acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories and for the solving of human problems. Social scientists, including political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, economists, social psychologists, and students of social phenomena among nonhumans, will find this work indispensable reading. Principles of Scientifc Sociology emphasizes the relationship between pure and applied sociological analysis. The essential contributions of each to the other are specified. Relationships between the substantive concepts of the sociology of humans, on the one hand, and the sociology of nonhumans, on the other, are systematized. In an attempt to put sociological analysis on a firm scientific basis, the book contains a concluding chapter focusing on central premises of natural science and their applicability to sociology. Wallace identifies the simple elements and relationships that sociological analysis requires if it is to lead to an understanding of complex social phenomena. On this basis, he considers the substantive elements and relations that comprise structural functionalism, historical materialism, symbolic interactionism, and other approaches to social data. He develops groundwork for standardizing these elements so that the contexts of different analyses may become rigorously comparable. The result is a fine, one-volume synthesis of sociological theory.

The Conduct of Inquiry

An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method

Author: Richard F. Kitchener

Publisher: University Press of Amer

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 556

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A textbook for an introductory logic course for students in the applied and practical sciences. Kitchener (philosophy, Colorado State U.) set out to revise Cohen and Nagel's standard text, but realized that he was diverging considerably so struck out on his own. He relies heavily on exercises to give students experience thinking scientific problems through, and includes a glossary without pronunciation guides. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Heidegger, Medicine & "scientific Method"

The Unheeded Message of the Zollikon Seminars

Author: Peter Wilberg

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1904519032

Category: Medical

Page: 103

View: 4376

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The aim of Heidegger, Medicine and 'Scientific Method' is to ensure that the profound implications of the Zollikon Seminars Heidegger held for doctors and psychiatrists do not remain unheeded. In one short volume Peter Wilberg concisely summarises Heidegger's fundamental critique of 'scientific method', redefines the basic principles of the 'phenomenological method' and lays out the foundations of a new 'phenomenological' approach to medicine - one which understands that illnesses have meanings not 'causes'. Grounded in Heidegger's fundamental distinction between the physical body (Korper) and the 'lived' or 'felt' body (Leib), phenomenological medicine offers a highly practical and therapeutic understanding of the relation between a patient's clinical disease 'pathology' and the felt 'dis-ease' or pathos that it embodies."

Principles of Research Methodology

A Guide for Clinical Investigators

Author: Phyllis G. Supino,Jeffrey S. Borer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461433606

Category: Medical

Page: 276

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Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators is the definitive, comprehensive guide to understanding and performing clinical research. Designed for medical students, physicians, basic scientists involved in translational research, and other health professionals, this indispensable reference also addresses the unique challenges and demands of clinical research and offers clear guidance in becoming a more successful member of a medical research team and critical reader of the medical research literature. The book covers the entire research process, beginning with the conception of the research problem to publication of findings. Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators comprehensively and concisely presents concepts in a manner that is relevant and engaging to read. The text combines theory and practical application to familiarize the reader with the logic of research design and hypothesis construction, the importance of research planning, the ethical basis of human subjects research, the basics of writing a clinical research protocol and scientific paper, the logic and techniques of data generation and management, and the fundamentals and implications of various sampling techniques and alternative statistical methodologies. Organized in thirteen easy to read chapters, the text emphasizes the importance of clearly-defined research questions and well-constructed hypothesis (reinforced throughout the various chapters) for informing methods and in guiding data interpretation. Written by prominent medical scientists and methodologists who have extensive personal experience in biomedical investigation and in teaching key aspects of research methodology to medical students, physicians and other health professionals, the authors expertly integrate theory with examples and employ language that is clear and useful for a general medical audience. A major contribution to the methodology literature, Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators is an authoritative resource for all individuals who perform research, plan to perform it, or wish to understand it better.

Scientific Method in Practice

Author: Hugh G. Gauch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521017084

Category: Science

Page: 435

View: 1125

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This book will enable scientists to be better scientists by offering them a deeper understanding of the scientific method.

Principles of Brewing Science

A Study of Serious Brewing Issues

Author: George Fix

Publisher: Brewers Publications

ISBN: 1938469194

Category: Cooking

Page: 190

View: 6879

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Principles of Brewing Science is an indispensable reference which applies the practical language of science to the art of brewing. As an introduction to the science of brewing chemistry for the homebrewer to the serious brewer’s desire for detailed scientific explanations of the process, Principles is a standard addition to any brewing bookshelf.

Philosophy of Scientific Method

Author: John Stuart Mill

Publisher: Cooper Press

ISBN: 1406744808

Category: Philosophy

Page: 512

View: 6805

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Many of the earliest books, particularly those dating back to the 1900s and before, are now extremely scarce and increasingly expensive. We are republishing these classic works in affordable, high quality, modern editions, using the original text and artwork.

William Whewell's Theory of Scientific Method

Author: Robert E. Butts

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822975262

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 9767

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William Whewell is considered one of the most important nineteenth-century British philosophers of science and a contributor to modern philosophical thought, particularly regarding the problem of induction and the logic of discovery. In this volume, Robert E. Butts offers selections from Whewell's most important writings, and analysis of counter-claims to his philosophy.

Health Research Methodology

A Guide for Training in Research Methods

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 929061157X

Category: Medical

Page: 237

View: 9733

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To accommodate requests from readers to incorporate recent developments on research methodology and experiences of past training courses the manual has been revised and reissued. A practical training manual covering the basic concepts and principles of s

Science, Reason, and Anthropology

The Principles of Rational Inquiry

Author: James William Lett

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780847685936

Category: Social Science

Page: 151

View: 4235

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For courses on anthropological theory, history, and methods... Science, Reason, and Anthropology explores the philosophical foundations of anthropology and identifies the fundamental principles of rational inquiry upon which all sound anthropological knowledge is based. As a field guide to critical thinking, with examples throughout, it is devoted to a thorough explication and analysis of the nature of reason and the practice of anthropological inquiry. Chapter one reviews the historical context of the contemporary debate between scientific and humanistic perspectives in anthropology, highlighting essential differences between the two approaches. Chapter two examines the nature of knowledge and explains the essential elements of epistemological analysis. Chapter three describes the basic features of the scientific method; it defines science as an objective, logical, and systematic approach to propositional knowledge, and explains each feature in detail. Chapter four applies the fundamental principles of critical thinking to an analysis of contemporary anthropological theory. Chapter five suggests a reconciliation between the scientific and humanistic approaches, arguing that the essential elements of sound reasoning are common to both perspectives. Science, Reason, and Anthropology argues forcefully for the preeminent value of the scientific approach in anthropology, but it does so while recognizing the inherent worth and innate appeal of the humanistic perspective. Even those who are not predisposed to share the author's conclusions will appreciate the clear and forthright manner with which he presents his arguments.