Principles of Scientific Methods

Author: Mark Chang

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482238101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 247

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Principles of Scientific Methods focuses on the fundamental principles behind scientific methods. The book refers to "science" in a broad sense, including natural science, physics, mathematics, statistics, social science, political science, and engineering science. A principle is often abstract and has broad applicability while a method is usually concrete and specific. The author uses many concrete examples to explain principles and presents analogies to connect different methods or problems to arrive at a general principle or a common notion. He mainly discusses a particular method to address the great idea behind the method, not the method itself. The book shows how the principles are not only applicable to scientific research but also to our daily lives. The author explains how scientific methods are used for understanding how and why things happen, making predictions, and learning how to prevent mistakes and solve problems. Studying the principles of scientific methods is to think about thinking and to enlighten our understanding of scientific research. Scientific principles are the foundation of scientific methods. In this book, you’ll see how the principles reveal the big ideas behind our scientific discoveries and reflect the fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of scientists. The principles make the scientific methods coherent and constitute the source of creativity.

Theories of Scientific Method

an Introduction

Author: Robert Nola,Howard Sankey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317493494

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 8966

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What is it to be scientific? Is there such a thing as scientific method? And if so, how might such methods be justified? Robert Nola and Howard Sankey seek to provide answers to these fundamental questions in their exploration of the major recent theories of scientific method. Although for many scientists their understanding of method is something they just pick up in the course of being trained, Nola and Sankey argue that it is possible to be explicit about what this tacit understanding of method is, rather than leave it as some unfathomable mystery. They robustly defend the idea that there is such a thing as scientific method and show how this might be legitimated. This book begins with the question of what methodology might mean and explores the notions of values, rules and principles, before investigating how methodologists have sought to show that our scientific methods are rational. Part 2 of this book sets out some principles of inductive method and examines its alternatives including abduction, IBE, and hypothetico-deductivism. Part 3 introduces probabilistic modes of reasoning, particularly Bayesianism in its various guises, and shows how it is able to give an account of many of the values and rules of method. Part 4 considers the ideas of philosophers who have proposed distinctive theories of method such as Popper, Lakatos, Kuhn and Feyerabend and Part 5 continues this theme by considering philosophers who have proposed naturalised theories of method such as Quine, Laudan and Rescher. This book offers readers a comprehensive introduction to the idea of scientific method and a wide-ranging discussion of how historians of science, philosophers of science and scientists have grappled with the question over the last fifty years.

Scientific Method in Practice

Author: Hugh G. Gauch

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521017084

Category: Science

Page: 435

View: 8176

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This book will enable scientists to be better scientists by offering them a deeper understanding of the scientific method.

Scientific Method in Brief

Author: Hugh G. Gauch, Jr

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107311527

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The fundamental principles of the scientific method are essential for enhancing perspective, increasing productivity, and stimulating innovation. These principles include deductive and inductive logic, probability, parsimony and hypothesis testing, as well as science's presuppositions, limitations, ethics and bold claims of rationality and truth. The examples and case studies drawn upon in this book span the physical, biological and social sciences; include applications in agriculture, engineering and medicine; and also explore science's interrelationships with disciplines in the humanities such as philosophy and law. Informed by position papers on science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences and National Science Foundation, this book aligns with a distinctively mainstream vision of science. It is an ideal resource for anyone undertaking a systematic study of scientific method for the first time, from undergraduates to professionals in both the sciences and the humanities.

The Principles of Knowledge Creation

Research Methods in the Social Sciences

Author: Bengt Gustavsson (Ph. D.)

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 9781781008843

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 1979

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'. . . a vast array of material that would be useful in a variety of courses and projects. Recommended.' - R.K. Murray, Choice

Management Research Methodology: Integration of Principles, Methods and Techniques (For Anna University)

Author: Krishnaswamy

Publisher: Pearson Education India

ISBN: 8131798917

Category:

Page: 548

View: 482

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Management Research Methodology: Integration of Principles, Methods and Techniques (For Anna University) adopts a balanced approach involving theory, applications and computations of research methodology for business students and entry-level managers. The text blends problem-solving techniques, creative aspects, mathematical modeling and quantitative approaches in a reader-friendly manner for enhanced understanding. Covering special topics like creativity, soft-system methodology, mathematical modeling and heuristics programming, this text serves as a handy reference for systematic research in production or operations, finance, marketing, and human resource management. Students studying management research, the social sciences, and industrial management will find this text a valuable guide to the subject.

Scientific Research in Education

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Committee on Scientific Principles for Education Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309133098

Category: Education

Page: 204

View: 9345

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Researchers, historians, and philosophers of science have debated the nature of scientific research in education for more than 100 years. Recent enthusiasm for "evidence-based" policy and practice in educationâ€"now codified in the federal law that authorizes the bulk of elementary and secondary education programsâ€"have brought a new sense of urgency to understanding the ways in which the basic tenets of science manifest in the study of teaching, learning, and schooling. Scientific Research in Education describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas. Its main argument is that all scientific endeavors share a common set of principles, and that each fieldâ€"including education researchâ€"develops a specialization that accounts for the particulars of what is being studied. The book also provides suggestions for how the federal government can best support high-quality scientific research in education.

Principles of Research Methodology

A Guide for Clinical Investigators

Author: Phyllis G. Supino,Jeffrey S. Borer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461433606

Category: Medical

Page: 276

View: 8443

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Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators is the definitive, comprehensive guide to understanding and performing clinical research. Designed for medical students, physicians, basic scientists involved in translational research, and other health professionals, this indispensable reference also addresses the unique challenges and demands of clinical research and offers clear guidance in becoming a more successful member of a medical research team and critical reader of the medical research literature. The book covers the entire research process, beginning with the conception of the research problem to publication of findings. Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators comprehensively and concisely presents concepts in a manner that is relevant and engaging to read. The text combines theory and practical application to familiarize the reader with the logic of research design and hypothesis construction, the importance of research planning, the ethical basis of human subjects research, the basics of writing a clinical research protocol and scientific paper, the logic and techniques of data generation and management, and the fundamentals and implications of various sampling techniques and alternative statistical methodologies. Organized in thirteen easy to read chapters, the text emphasizes the importance of clearly-defined research questions and well-constructed hypothesis (reinforced throughout the various chapters) for informing methods and in guiding data interpretation. Written by prominent medical scientists and methodologists who have extensive personal experience in biomedical investigation and in teaching key aspects of research methodology to medical students, physicians and other health professionals, the authors expertly integrate theory with examples and employ language that is clear and useful for a general medical audience. A major contribution to the methodology literature, Principles of Research Methodology: A Guide for Clinical Investigators is an authoritative resource for all individuals who perform research, plan to perform it, or wish to understand it better.

Basic Science Methods for Clinical Researchers

Author: Morteza Jalali,Francesca Yvonne Louise Saldanha,Mehdi Jalali

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 012803078X

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 7663

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Basic Science Methods for Clinical Researchers addresses the specific challenges faced by clinicians without a conventional science background. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to core experimental methods commonly used to answer questions in basic science research and to outline their relative strengths and limitations in generating conclusive data. This book will be a vital companion for clinicians undertaking laboratory-based science. It will support clinicians in the pursuit of their academic interests and in making an original contribution to their chosen field. In doing so, it will facilitate the development of tomorrow’s clinician scientists and future leaders in discovery science. Serves as a helpful guide for clinical researchers who lack a conventional science background Organized around research themes pertaining to key biological molecules, from genes, to proteins, cells, and model organisms Features protocols, techniques for troubleshooting common problems, and an explanation of the advantages and limitations of a technique in generating conclusive data Appendices provide resources for practical research methodology, including legal frameworks for using stem cells and animals in the laboratory, ethical considerations, and good laboratory practice (GLP)

Methodology of Teaching Science

Author: Sonika Rajan

Publisher: Pearson Education India

ISBN: 813179900X

Category:

Page: 184

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Methodology of Teaching Science will provide readers with a solid foundation on which to build expertise in teaching of the subject. This text does a comprehensive examination by introducing students to science as a school subject. It covers aspects like instructional planning, unit planning, teaching aids, curriculum planning and science laboratories. It also outlines the role of a science teacher in developing a students' scientific aptitude and approach.

Evaluative Research

Principles and Practice in Public Service and Social Action Progr

Author: Edward Suchman

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610445171

Category: Social Science

Page: 196

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Describes the techniques used to determine the extent to which social goals are being achieved, to locate the barriers to these goals, and to discover the unanticipated results of social actions. The book is divided into three main sections: the conceptual, methodological, and administrative aspects of evaluation.

Principles of Scientific Sociology

Author: Walter L. Wallace

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202368207

Category: Social Science

Page: 545

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Principles of Scientific Sociology represents a major attempt to redirect the course of contemporary sociological thought. It is clear, well-organized, innovative, and original in its discussion of the context and methods of sociology conceived as a natural science. Wallace delineates the subject matter of sociology, classifies its variables, presents a logic of inquiry, and advocates the use of this logic for the acceptance or rejection of hypotheses or theories and for the solving of human problems. Social scientists, including political scientists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, economists, social psychologists, and students of social phenomena among nonhumans, will find this work indispensable reading. Principles of Scientifc Sociology emphasizes the relationship between pure and applied sociological analysis. The essential contributions of each to the other are specified. Relationships between the substantive concepts of the sociology of humans, on the one hand, and the sociology of nonhumans, on the other, are systematized. In an attempt to put sociological analysis on a firm scientific basis, the book contains a concluding chapter focusing on central premises of natural science and their applicability to sociology. Wallace identifies the simple elements and relationships that sociological analysis requires if it is to lead to an understanding of complex social phenomena. On this basis, he considers the substantive elements and relations that comprise structural functionalism, historical materialism, symbolic interactionism, and other approaches to social data. He develops groundwork for standardizing these elements so that the contexts of different analyses may become rigorously comparable. The result is a fine, one-volume synthesis of sociological theory.

Universal Methods of Design

100 Ways to Research Complex Problems, Develop Innovative Ideas, and Design Effective Solutions

Author: Bella Martin,Bruce Hanington,Bruce M. Hanington

Publisher: Rockport Pub

ISBN: 1592537561

Category: Design

Page: 207

View: 4655

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This comprehensive reference provides a thorough and critical presentation of 100 research methods, synthesis/analysis techniques, and research deliverables for human centered design, delivered in a concise and accessible format perfect for designers, educators, and students. Whether research is already an integral part of a practice or curriculum, or whether it has been unfortunately avoided due to perceived limitations of time, knowledge, or resources, Universal Methods of Design serves as an invaluable compendium of methods that can be easily referenced and utilized by cross-disciplinary teams in nearly any design project. This essential guide: Dismantles the myth that user research methods are complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. Creates a shared meaning for cross-disciplinary design teams. llustrates methods with compelling visualizations and case studies. Characterizes each method at a glance. Indicates when methods are best employed to help prioritize appropriate design research strategies. Universal Methods of Design distills each method down to its most powerful essence, in a format that will help design teams select and implement the most credible research methods best suited to their design culture within the constraints of their projects.

How Students Learn:

Science in the Classroom

Author: Committee on How People Learn: A Targeted Report for Teachers,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309089506

Category: Education

Page: 264

View: 2737

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How Students Learn: Science in the Classroom builds on the discoveries detailed in the best-selling How People Learn. Now these findings are presented in a way that teachers can use immediately, to revitalize their work in the classroom for even greater effectiveness. Organized for utility, the book explores how the principles of learning can be applied in science at three levels: elementary, middle, and high school. Leading educators explain in detail how they developed successful curricula and teaching approaches, presenting strategies that serve as models for curriculum development and classroom instruction. Their recounting of personal teaching experiences lends strength and warmth to this volume. This book discusses how to build straightforward science experiments into true understanding of scientific principles. It also features illustrated suggestions for classroom activities.

Social Science Research

Principles, Methods, and Practices

Author: Anol Bhattacherjee

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781475146127

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 3498

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This book is designed to introduce doctoral and graduate students to the process of conducting scientific research in the social sciences, business, education, public health, and related disciplines. It is a one-stop, comprehensive, and compact source for foundational concepts in behavioral research, and can serve as a stand-alone text or as a supplement to research readings in any doctoral seminar or research methods class. This book is currently used as a research text at universities on six continents and will shortly be available in nine different languages.

String Theory and the Scientific Method

Author: Richard Dawid

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107067588

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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String theory has played a highly influential role in theoretical physics for nearly three decades and has substantially altered our view of the elementary building principles of the Universe. However, the theory remains empirically unconfirmed, and is expected to remain so for the foreseeable future. So why do string theorists have such a strong belief in their theory? This book explores this question, offering a novel insight into the nature of theory assessment itself. Dawid approaches the topic from a unique position, having extensive experience in both philosophy and high-energy physics. He argues that string theory is just the most conspicuous example of a number of theories in high-energy physics where non-empirical theory assessment has an important part to play. Aimed at physicists and philosophers of science, the book does not use mathematical formalism and explains most technical terms.