Private Regulation and the Internal Market

Sports, Legal Services, and Standard Setting in Eu Economic Law

Author: Mislav Mataija

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198746652

Category: Civil rights

Page: 336

View: 2900

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How does EU internal market law, in particular the rules on free movement and competition, apply to private regulation? What issues arise if a bar association were to regulate advertising; when a voluntary product standard impedes trade; or when a sporting body restricts the cross-border transfer of a football player? Covering the EU's free movement and competition rules from a general and sector-specific angle, focusing specifically on the legal profession, standard-setting, and sports, this book is the first systematic study of EU economic law in areas where private regulation is both important and legally controversial. Mislav Mataija discusses how the interpretation of both free movement and competition rule adapts to the rise of private regulation, and examines the diminishing relevance of the public/private distinction. As private regulators take on increasingly important tasks, the legal scrutiny over their measures becomes broader and moves towards what Mataija describes as 'regulatory autonomy.' This approach broadly disciplines, but also recognizes the legitimacy of private regulators; granting them an explicit margin of discretion and focusing on governance and process considerations rather than on their impact on trade and competition. The book also demonstrates how the application of EU internal market law fits in the context of strategic attempts by the EU institutions to negotiate substantive reforms in areas where private regulation is pervasive. Surveying recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the practice of the European Commission, Mataija demonstrates how EU internal market law is used as a control mechanism over private regulators.

Economic Governance in Europe

Comparative Paradoxes and Constitutional Challenges

Author: Federico Fabbrini

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191065943

Category: Law

Page: 300

View: 3474

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The Euro-Crisis and the legal and institutional responses to it have had important constitutional implications on the architecture of the European Union (EU). Going beyond the existing literature, Federico Fabbrini's book takes a broad look and examines how the crisis and its aftermath have changed relations of power in the EU, disaggregating three different dimensions: (1) the vertical relations of power between the member states and the EU institutions, (2) the relations of power between the political branches and the courts, and (3) the horizontal relations of power between the EU member states themselves. The first part of the book argues that, in the aftermath of the Euro-crisis, power has been shifting along each of these axes in paradoxical ways. In particular, through a comparison of the United States, Fabbrini reveals that the EU is nowadays characterized by a high degree of centralization in budgetary affairs, an unprecedented level of judicialization of economic questions, and a growing imbalance between the member states in the governance of fiscal matters. As the book makes clear, however, each of these dynamics is a cause for concern - as it calls into question important constitutional values for the EU, such as the autonomy of the member states in taking decision about taxing and spending, the preeminence of the political process in settling economic matters, and the balance between state power and state equality. The second part of the book, therefore, devises possible options for future legal and institutional developments in the EU which may revert these paradoxical trends. In particular, Fabbrini considers the ideas of raising a fiscal capacitiy, restoring the centrality of the EU legislative process, and reforming the EU executive power, and discusses the challenges that accompany any further step towards a deeper Economic and Monetary Union.

Foreign Policy Objectives in European Constitutional Law

Author: Joris Larik

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191055980

Category: Law

Page: 400

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Presenting the first comprehensive account of foreign policy objectives as a growing part of European constitutional law, Joris Larik confronts the trend of enshrining international ambitions in the highest laws of states and the European Union. Closely examining the provisions of foreign policy objectives, Larik differentiates their legal force and functions, situating them into the overall legal order of the state, the EU, and the composite 'European constitutional space'. He argues that the codification of foreign policy objectives suggests a progression in the evolution of the role of the constitution: from limiting public authority to guiding it towards certain goals, both at home and in the wider world. Advancing a comparative constitutional perspective for the study of EU external relations, this volume contributes a constitutional dimension to the 'normative power' debate in the study of EU foreign policy. Drawing on established national doctrines on constitutional objectives from Germany, France, and India, the book provides a common vocabulary for coming to terms with foreign policy objectives as legal norms across different jurisdictions. In the pluralist context and closely intertwined legal orders of the EU and its Member States, it shows how objectives help to channel the individual ambitions of the Member States through the Union framework towards a more coherent external action. Furthermore, the book connects its legal findings with the debate on the EU as an actor in international relations, exploring the role of these norms in inter-institutional struggles and processes of identity-shaping, legitimation, and socialization.

Banking Regulation and World Trade Law

GATS, EU and Prudential Institution Building

Author: Lazaros E. Panourgias

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847311814

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 3067

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Banking Regulation and World Trade Law concerns the legal aspects of the interaction between banking regulation and international trade in financial services. The author studies the internal banking market of the European Union, the liberalisation of financial services trade in the World Trade Organization, the accords of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the European Central Bank. The book focuses on the balancing between banking regulation and international trade law. It discusses discrimination and proportionality in national banking regulation, the allocation of prudential regulation and supervision between home and host country, and international financial law-making. The author questions decentralised/nation-based banking regulation and supervision as a foundation for a sustainable liberalisation of international trade in financial services. The book considers various reforms of the international financial architecture, such as the incorporation of the Basel processes and accords into the WTO system, and the setting up of new international institutions by building on the Basel Committees or the IMF structures. The role of central banking in designing the international financial architecture is also explored: the book reviews the ECB's competence over foreign exchange policy and its function as lender of last resort, and treats price stability, banking soundness and representation as critical concepts. The analysis also reveals that the concept of 'prudential', despite its extensive use in banking regulation, has not been defined with adequate precision. In seeking to delineate the interface between international economic law and banking regulation, Dr Panourgias builds on the rich European scholarship on institutional financial issues and the US interdisciplinary approach to world trade law. He also entertains the notion of international financial law as a distinct field. The book will be of particular interest to those concerned with financial law and international banking.

Public Procurement and the EU Competition Rules

Author: Albert Sánchez Graells

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1509900284

Category: Law

Page: 584

View: 2354

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Public procurement and competition law are both important fields of EU law and policy, intimately intertwined in the creation of the internal market. Hitherto their close connection has been noted, but not closely examined. This work is the most comprehensive attempt to date to explain the many ways in which these fields, often considered independent of one another, interact and overlap in the creation of the internal market. This process of convergence between competition and public procurement law is particularly apparent in the 2014 Directives on public procurement, which consolidate the principle of competition in terms very close to those advanced by the author in the first edition. This second edition builds upon this approach and continues to ask how competition law principles inform and condition public procurement rules, and whether the latter (in their revised form) are adequate to ensure that competition is not distorted. The second edition also deepens the analysis of the market behaviour of the public buyer from a competition perspective. Proceeding through a careful assessment of the general rules of competition and public procurement, the book constantly tests the efficacy of these rules against a standard of the proper functioning of undistorted competition in the market for public procurement. It also traces the increasing relevance of competition considerations in the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union and sets out criteria and recommendations to continue influencing the development of EU Economic Law.

Constructing a European Market

Standards, Regulation, and Governance

Author: Michelle Egan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191529524

Category: Political Science

Page: 380

View: 5053

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Efforts to tackle the trade impeding effects of divergent standards and regulations are at the core of European economic relations. This volume draws on literature from several disciplines to develop a comprehensive account of the regulatory strategies and institutional arrangements adopted by the EU in promoting the single market in goods. It provides a historical overview and detailed cases studies of the various policy initiatives that have altered the boundaries between the public and private sector in fostering market integration. Tackling interstate barriers to trade has relied heavily on European law to shape the framework of relations between states, and trade liberalization has been facilitated by legal rulings resolving territorial conflicts over regulatory jurisdiction and authority. The European Court of Justice has actively shaped markets, acting as a 'free trade umpire' in balancing the goals of market liberalization and market regulation while fostering market compliance. Although markets are absolutely dependent on public authority, the institutional innovation of the EU has been to use the private sector in an ancillary role to the state. By delegating responsibility to set standards for market access, the EU has chosen to draw on the resources of private actors, resulting in a system of governance that is a distinctive, hybrid model of regulation composed of state and non-state actors. Though the "outsourcing" of public sector regulatory activity was expected to be more effective than the process of regulatory harmonization, progress has been difficult. The current deficit in setting standards for European-wide market access raises concerns about the efficiency and effectiveness of such a regulatory regime. Egan provides a detailed evaluation of that process, highlighting regulatory gaps in the single market and the need to focus not only on the process of market integration, but also its outcome and impact on European business. Comparisons with American efforts to create a national market are made throughout to demonstrate the difficulties of constructing and maintaining a single market. American and European efforts to devise a uniform market for commerce and trade have involved both public and private authorities, though with different degrees of coordination and centralization, as many of the strategies undertaken by the EU echo earlier American market-building efforts.

Parallel Trade in Europe

Intellectual Property, Competition and Regulatory Law

Author: Christopher Stothers

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847313612

Category: Law

Page: 467

View: 3920

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Shortlisted for the 2008 Young Authors Inner Temple Book Prize Are parallel importers the key to free trade, breaking down long-established national barriers for the benefit of all? Or do they instead just operate in a dubious 'grey market' for their own profit, free-loading on the investment of innovators and brand owners to the ultimate detriment of everyone? Parallel trade is in turn lionised and demonised, both in legal commentary and in the mainstream press. As one might expect, the truth lies somewhere between these extremes. Once goods have been manufactured they are put onto the market in one country by the manufacturer. Parallel trade occurs when the goods are subsequently transferred to a second country by another party (the parallel trader, who may be the end consumer). The distinguishing feature of parallel trade is that the manufacturer did not intend those particular goods to end up in the second country. The goods are normally described in that country as 'parallel imports' or 'grey market goods'. The latter term is generally used to suggest that the trade, while not exactly 'black market', is not entirely lawful either. Understanding how European Community law operates to permit or restrict parallel trade involves exploring a complex matrix of rules from the fields of free movement, intellectual property, competition and regulatory law, including both private and public enforcement regimes. Where goods are parallel imported from outside the Community these rules change and new considerations come into play, such as obligations arising from the European Economic Area, the World Trade Organization and bilateral free trade agreements. The experience of Europe, which has grappled with the issues on a regional basis for more than four decades, provides a fertile source for examination of parallel trade in other jurisdictions. Christopher Stothers' comprehensive treatment successfully analyses this difficult topic, considering both Community and national decisions.

Private Law in the External Relations of the EU

Author: Marise Cremona,Hans-W Micklitz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191062014

Category: Law

Page: 350

View: 6395

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Private Law in the External Relations of the EU is an innovative study of the interactions between EU external relations law and private law, two unrelated fields of law, inverted if private law is understood as regulatory private law - the space where regulatory law intersects with private economic activity. Here the link between the Internal Market and the global market - and thereby international law - is much more prominent. In this book, key questions about the relationship between EU external relations law and private law are answered, including: in what ways might European private law act as a tool to achieve EU external policy objectives, particularly in regulatory fields? How might the quickly developing EU external competence over the procedural dimensions of private law, including private international law, impact on substantive law, both externally and internally? And how is the legal position of private parties affected by EU external relations? In asking these questions, this edited collection opens up a field of enquiry into the so far underexplored relationship between these two fields of law. In doing so, it addresses three different aspects of the relationship: (i) the evolution of the EU competence, (ii) the ways in which EU private law extends its reach beyond the boundaries of the internal market, and (iii) the ways in which the EU contributes to the formation of private regulation at the international level.

The Oxford Handbook of Business and Government

Author: David Coen,Wyn Grant,Graham Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199214271

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 787

View: 4676

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This text provides an introduction to the ways in which five different disciplines have approached the study of business and government. It examines how business interacts with government in different parts of the world, including the United States, the EU, China, Japan and South America.

Rules Without Rights

Land, Labor, and Private Authority in the Global Economy

Author: TIM. BARTLEY,Tim Bartley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198794339

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 8258

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Activists have exposed startling forms of labor exploitation and environmental degradation in global industries, leading many large retailers and brands to adopt standards for fairness and sustainability. This book is about the idea that transnational corporations can push these standards through their global supply chains, and in effect, pull factories, forests, and farms out of their local contexts and up to global best practices. For many scholars and practitioners, this kind of private regulation and global standard-setting can provide an alternative to regulation by territorially-bound, gridlocked, or incapacitated nation states, potentially improving environments and working conditions around the world and protecting the rights of exploited workers, impoverished farmers, and marginalized communities. But can private, voluntary standards actually create meaningful forms of regulation? Are forests and factories around the world actually being made into sustainable ecosystems and decent workplaces? Can global norms remake local orders? This book provides striking new answers by comparing the private regulation of land and labor in democratic and authoritarian settings. Case studies of sustainable forestry and fair labour standards in Indonesia and China show not only how transnational standards are implemented 'on the ground' but also how they are constrained and reconfigured by domestic governance. Combining rich multi-method analyses, a powerful comparative approach, and a new theory of private regulation, Rules without Rights reveals the contours and contradictions of transnational governance. Transformations in Governance is a major new academic book series from Oxford University Press. It is designed to accommodate the impressive growth of research in comparative politics, international relations, public policy, federalism, environmental and urban studies concerned with the dispersion of authority from central states up to supranational institutions, down to subnational governments, and side-ways to public-private networks. It brings together work that significantly advances our understanding of the organization, causes, and consequences of multilevel and complex governance. The series is selective, containing annually a small number of books of exceptionally high quality by leading and emerging scholars. The series targets mainly single-authored or co-authored work, but it is pluralistic in terms of disciplinary specialization, research design, method, and geographical scope. Case studies as well as comparative studies, historical as well as contemporary studies, and studies with a national, regional, or international focus are all central to its aims. Authors use qualitative, quantitative, formal modeling, or mixed methods. A trade mark of the books is that they combine scholarly rigour with readable prose and an attractive production style. The series is edited by Liesbet Hooghe and Gary Marks of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Walter Mattli of the University of Oxford.

The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law

Author: Anthony Arnull,Damian Chalmers

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191653055

Category: Law

Page: 950

View: 624

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Since its formation the European Union has expanded beyond all expectations, and this expansion seems set to continue as more countries seek accession and the scope of EU law expands, touching more and more aspects of its citizens' lives. The EU has never been stronger and yet it now appears to be reaching a crisis point, beset on all sides by conflict and challenges to its legitimacy. Nationalist sentiment is on the rise and the Eurozone crisis has had a deep and lasting impact. EU law, always controversial, continues to perplex, not least because it remains difficult to analyse. What is the EU? An international organization, or a federation? Should its legal concepts be measured against national standards, or another norm? The Oxford Handbook of European Union Law illuminates the richness and complexity of the debates surrounding the law and policies of the EU. Comprising eight sections, it examines how we are to conceptualize EU law; the architecture of EU law; making and administering EU law; the economic constitution and the citizen; regulation of the market place; economic, monetary, and fiscal union; the Area of Freedom, Security, and Justice; and what lies beyond the regulatory state. Each chapter summarizes, analyses, and reflects on the state of play in a given area, and suggests how it is likely to develop in the foreseeable future. Written by an international team of leading commentators, this Oxford Handbook creates a vivid and provocative tapestry of the key issues shaping the laws of the European Union.

Extending Experimentalist Governance?

The European Union and Transnational Regulation

Author: Jonathan Zeitlin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198724500

Category: Law

Page: 410

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"Earleir versions of the chapters were discussed at workshops at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 2009 and at the University of Amsterdam in 2012"--page v.

The Oxford Handbook of Regulation

Author: Robert Baldwin,Martin Cave,Martin Lodge

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019162943X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 680

View: 517

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Regulation is often thought of as an activity that restricts behaviour and prevents the occurrence of certain undesirable activities, but the influence of regulation can also be enabling or facilitative, as when a market could potentially be chaotic if uncontrolled. This Handbook provides a clear and authoritative discussion of the major trends and issues in regulation over the last thirty years, together with an outline of prospective developments. It brings together contributions from leading scholars from a range of disciplines and countries. Each chapter offers a broad overview of key current issues and provides an analysis of different perspectives on those issues. Experiences in different jurisdictions and insights from various disciplines are drawn upon, and particular attention is paid to the challenges that are encountered when specific approaches are applied in practice. Contributors develop their own distinctive arguments relating to the central issues in regulation and apply scholarly rigour and clear writing to matters of high policy-relevance. The essays are original, accessible, and agenda-setting, and the Handbook will be essential reading both to students and researchers and to with regulatory and regulated professionals.

The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Healthcare Law

Author: I. Glenn Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199366527

Category: Medical care

Page: 1216

View: 506

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The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Health Law covers the breadth and depth of health law, with contributions from the most eminent scholars in the field. The Handbook paints with broad thematic strokes the major features of American healthcare law and policy, its recent reforms including the Affordable Care Act, its relationship to medical ethics and constitutional principles, and how it compares to the experience of other countries. It explores the legal framework for the patient experience, from access through treatment, to recourse (if treatment fails), and examines emerging issues involving healthcare information, the changing nature of healthcare regulation, immigration, globalization, aging, and the social determinants of health. This Handbook provides valuable content, accessible to readers new to the subject, as well as to those who write, teach, practice, or make policy in health law.

The Internal Market As a Legal Concept

Author: Jacques Delors Professor of European Law Stephen Weatherill,Stephen Weatherill

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198794800

Category:

Page: 272

View: 4813

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What does the 'internal market' mean? The EU is committed to the construction of an internal market, and in this analysis Stephen Weatherill explains that the EU's internal market is an ambiguous legal concept. One may readily suppose that the United Kingdom possesses an internal market. So does Germany, so does France, so does Australia, and Canada, and the United States of America. The European Union aspires to an internal market, but the detailed patterns governing these several internal markets are not uniform; in fact they vary according to the extent to which the constituent units are permitted to pursue different regulatory policies. They vary according to the scope of law-making competence and powers allocated to the central authority. They vary according to the governing institutional (judicial and political) arrangements. The quality and intensity of the regulated environment varies according to the choices made. There is a broad band of possible internal markets, ranging from one that is radically decentralized as a result of a choice in favour of unrestricted inter-jurisdictional competition to, at the other extreme, one that is radically centralized in the sense that law-making competence has been completely stripped away from the constituent units in favour of the central authority. Within that spectrum there is a huge range of options. In this inquiry into the limits and ambiguities of the internal market as a legal concept, Weatherill examines and explains the choices made by the EU and demonstrates what they entail for the shape of the EU's internal market. This book is not about 'Brexit', but it shows that one of the claims commonly made by Brexiteers - that the internal market can be confined merely to a deregulatory exercise in free market economics - has no support whatsoever in either EU constitutional law or in EU legislative and judicial practice.

The Regulatory Enterprise

Government, Regulation, and Legitimacy

Author: Tony Prosser

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199579830

Category: Law

Page: 243

View: 9987

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The use of regulation to control behaviour is a defining feature of modern government, penetrating a wide range of social and economic life. This book offers a detailed study of how regulation works in practice, its legal framework, and the arguments surrounding its economic and social impact

Coherence in EU Competition Law

Author: Wolf Sauter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191065986

Category: Law

Page: 352

View: 5288

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EU competition law plays a central role in the process of European integration both as a multifaceted tool for creating and policing the internal market as well as in organising national markets. Yet as a consequence of this role it is also subject to increasingly complex demands, a proliferation of (sectoral) regimes, and multiple objectives at both an EU and national level. This profligacy entails risks of fragmentation and divergence - which could jeopardise the proper functioning of the internal market. In this examination of EU competition law, Wolf Sauter discusses three main issues: (i) what degree of coherence exists in EU competition law; (ii) how this coherence can be explained, particularly in the broader context of integration by EU law; and (iii) how it contributes to the legitimacy and effectiveness of EU competition law. Specific focus is placed on antitrust, while mergers, state aid control, as well as the sectoral regimes for energy and electronic communications are also examined. In addition the book also charts the history and framework of these competition regimes that jointly constitute EU competition law, defining both its objectives and limitations.

Research Handbook on Climate Change and Trade Law

Author: Panagiotis Delimatsis

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1783478446

Category: Law

Page: 560

View: 2667

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The interaction between climate change and trade has grown in prominence in recent years. This Research Handbook contains authoritative original contributions from leading experts working at the interface between trade and climate change. It maps the state of affairs in such diverse areas as: carbon credits and taxes, sustainable standard-setting and trade in ‘green’ goods and services or investment, from both a regional and global perspective. Panagiotis Delimatsis redefines the interrelationship of trade and climate change for future scholarship in this area.

The In-house Providing in European Law

Author: ... Comba-Treumer,Steen Treumer

Publisher: Djoef Pub

ISBN: 9788757421682

Category: Law

Page: 213

View: 7028

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The distinction between in-house and ex-house providing is fundamental and is well known in practice and theory. It is of utmost importance, as the consequence of the categorization of an arrangement as "in-house" is, that it falls outside of the scope of the EC public procurement rules. However, for various reasons, it is often very difficult to establish whether an arrangement is in-house or not. The case law from the European Court of Justice on this subject is highly complex, whereas the case law at national level is sparse. Furthermore, the legal literature both at national and international levels has been relatively limited. This book deals with in-house in a broader perspective and looks into the interpretation, implementation, and practice at the national level in a range of Member States. This book is the first in the new European Procurement Law series, which will contribute to a strengthened dialogue between the various legal cultures in the field of procurement.