Rare Earth

Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe

Author: Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387218483

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 9204

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What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

Rare Earth

Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe

Author: Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387952896

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 6629

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What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

Rare Earth

Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe

Author: Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387987019

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 2657

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What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

Rare Earth Frontiers

From Terrestrial Subsoils to Lunar Landscapes

Author: Julie Michelle Klinger

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 1501714600

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 9456

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Rare Earth Frontiers is a work of human geography that serves to demystify the powerful elements that make possible the miniaturization of electronics, green energy and medical technologies, and essential telecommunications and defense systems. Julie Michelle Klinger draws attention to the fact that the rare earths we rely on most are as common as copper or lead, and this means the implications of their extraction are global. Klinger excavates the rich historical origins and ongoing ramifications of the quest to mine rare earths in ever more impossible places. Klinger writes about the devastating damage to lives and the environment caused by the exploitation of rare earths. She demonstrates in human terms how scarcity myths have been conscripted into diverse geopolitical campaigns that use rare earth mining as a pretext to capture spaces that have historically fallen beyond the grasp of centralized power. These include legally and logistically forbidding locations in the Amazon, Greenland, and Afghanistan, and on the Moon. Drawing on ethnographic, archival, and interview data gathered in local languages and offering possible solutions to the problems it documents, this book examines the production of the rare earth frontier as a place, a concept, and a zone of contestation, sacrifice, and transformation.

Rare Earth

Author: Davis Bunn

Publisher: Baker Books

ISBN: 076420906X

Category: Fiction

Page: 363

View: 1651

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Conducting an undercover investigation into Kenya's corruption-prone obscure-metals industry, Marc Royce, posing as a relief organization auditor, forges an unexpected bond with an Israeli medical administrator who is offering humanitarian aid to local refugees. Simultaneous.

Rare Earth

Author: Paul Mason

Publisher: OR Books

ISBN: 1935928678

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 5028

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A washed up TV reporter stumbles onto a corruption scandal in Western China. Pursued through the desert by a psychotic spin-doctor and a world-weary cop, he discovers the real China: illegal metal mines, a fashion-crazed gang of girl bikers, a whole commune of Tiananmen Square survivors and the up-market sleaze-joints of Beijing. En route, he clashes with a stellar cast of people-traffickers, prostitutes and TV execs. But then the unquiet dead begin to intervene: ghosts from his own past and the past of Chinese Communism; the 'spirits that hover three feet above our heads' of Chinese folklore.

The Rare Earth Elements

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: David A. Atwood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111863263X

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 3623

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Lanthanides are of great importance for the electronic industries, this new book (from the EIBC Book Series) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic chemistry, particularly inorganic chemistry, of the lanthanoid elements, those having a 4f shell of electrons. A chapter is describing the similarity of the Group 3 elements, Sc, Y, La, the group from which the lanthanoids originate and the group 13 elements, particularly aluminum, having similar properties. Inclusion of the group 3 and 13 elements demonstrates how the lanthanoid elements relate to other, more common, elements in the Periodic Table. Beginning chapters describe the occurrence and mineralogy of the elements, with a focus on structural features observed in compounds described in later chapters. The majority of the chapters is organized by the oxidation state of the elements, Ln(0), Ln(II), Ln(III), and Ln(IV). Within this organization the chapters are further distinguished by type of compound, inorganic (oxides and hydroxides, aqueous speciation, halides, alkoxides, amides and thiolates, and chelates) and organometallic. Concluding chapters deal with diverse and critically important applications of the lanthanoids in electronic and magnetic materials, and medical imaging.

The Rare Earth Elements

An Introduction

Author: J.H.L. Voncken

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319268090

Category: Science

Page: 127

View: 7686

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This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

Rare Earth Elements

The Global Supply Chain

Author: Marc Humphries

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437937985

Category:

Page: 14

View: 3706

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Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

Rare Earth Materials in the Defense Supply Chain

Author: Belva M. Martin

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437932231

Category:

Page: 38

View: 4960

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This letter transmits the briefing in response to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which required a report on rare earth materials in the defense supply chain to the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives. Contents: Introduction; Objectives, Scope, and Methodology; Background; Summary; Objective 1: Current and Projected Availability; Objective 2: Defense System Dependency; Objective 3: Department of Defense Identified Risks and Actions; Agency Comments; Points of Contact. Charts and tables.

Rare Earth Fractionation in Hawaiian Volcanic Rocks

Author: Jean Guy Schilling

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Earths, Rare

Page: 390

View: 2493

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The procedure for determination of the rare earth elements and yttrium utilizing tracer-monitored group separation, neutron activation and carrier-free partition chromatography developed by Volfovsky et al. (1963) was revised and improved. Using this improved procedure, rare earth and yttrium abundances were measured in twenty Hawaiian lavas of known chemical and mineralogical composition, one peridotite inclusion from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, and one olivine-rich nodule and its host 1801 basalt flow from Hualalai, Hawaii, and a diabase from Oahu. When comparing the rare earths, element by element, in the twenty lavas, to a low potassium olivine tholeiite, four distinct groupings were observed. The origin and genetic relationships of these different groups are discussed in the light of their rare earth patterns, mineral patterns from other localities, experimental petrology, theoretical and geochemical reasoning. Possible processes operative in the formation of these lavas, such as fractional crystallization, partial melting, fractional melting, limestone syntexis and fractional resorption are explored. The origin of the ultramafic inclusions is also briefly discussed.

Rare Earth Metals: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464925968

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 156

View: 1058

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Rare Earth Metals: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Rare Earth Metals. The editors have built Rare Earth Metals: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Rare Earth Metals in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Rare Earth Metals: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys (Properties, Extraction, Preparation and Applications)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.

ISBN: 8178331209

Category:

Page: 688

View: 8592

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Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements

Rising Powers and Technological Change

Author: Ryan David Kiggins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137364246

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 7964

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The contributors argue that rare earths are essential to the information technology revolution on which humans have come to depend for communication, commerce, and, increasingly, engage in conflict. They demonstrate that rare earths are a strategic commodity over which political actors will and do struggle for control.

Principal Rare Earth Elements Deposits of the U. S.

A Summary of Domestic Deposits and a Global Perspective

Author: Keith R. Long

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437942989

Category:

Page: 96

View: 3220

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The rare earth elements (REE) are 15 elements with atomic no. 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium, plus yttrium. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-tech applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and lightweight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems. This study provides a non-technical overview of domestic reserves and resources of REE and possibilities for utilizing those resources. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors

Author: Maria Forsyth,Bruce Hinton

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857093584

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 338

View: 4119

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Corrosion inhibitors are an important method for minimizing corrosion; however traditional inhibitors such as chromates pose environmental problems. Rare earth metals provide an important, environmentally-friendly alternative. This book provides a comprehensive review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction. Chapter 1 begins by examining the important need to replace chromate, and then goes on to discuss the chemistry of the rare earth metals and their related compounds. Chapter 2 considers the techniques that can be used to identify corrosion inhibition mechanisms and to test the levels of protection offered to different metals by rare earth compounds. Subsequent chapters consider in more detail how rare earth elements can be used as corrosion inhibitors in different forms and for different metals. This includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings. Finally, chapter 10 considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them. Provides a review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction. Includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings. Considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them.