Rare Earth

Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe

Author: Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387218483

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 2756

What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

Rare Earth Elements

The Global Supply Chain

Author: Marc Humphries

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437937985


Page: 14

View: 6438

Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

Rare Earths

Resources, Science, Technology and Applications : Proceedings of an International Symposium Held Jointly by TMS and AusIMM During the TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, California, March 1-5, 1992

Author: Renato G. Bautista

Publisher: N.A


Category: Rare earth metals

Page: 466

View: 7712

This proceedings volume aims to be a comprehensive source of information on the science, technology and application of rare earths. It is intended for any scientist or engineer involved in rare earths processing or materials.

Rare Earth Minerals

Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits

Author: A.P. Jones,F. Wall,C.T. Williams

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412610301

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 9633

30% discount for members of The Mineralogical Society of Britain and Ireland Rare Earth Minerals presents a current overview of this geologically and industrially important group of minerals. It presents a wide variety of formats, crystal structures, petrographic descriptions, analytical data and numerous illustrations from outcrop photos to SEM pictures and crystallographic models.

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys (Properties, Extraction, Preparation and Applications)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers


ISBN: 8178331209


Page: 688

View: 2384

Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

The Rare Earth Elements

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: David A. Atwood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111863263X

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 9020

Lanthanides are of great importance for the electronic industries, this new book (from the EIBC Book Series) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic chemistry, particularly inorganic chemistry, of the lanthanoid elements, those having a 4f shell of electrons. A chapter is describing the similarity of the Group 3 elements, Sc, Y, La, the group from which the lanthanoids originate and the group 13 elements, particularly aluminum, having similar properties. Inclusion of the group 3 and 13 elements demonstrates how the lanthanoid elements relate to other, more common, elements in the Periodic Table. Beginning chapters describe the occurrence and mineralogy of the elements, with a focus on structural features observed in compounds described in later chapters. The majority of the chapters is organized by the oxidation state of the elements, Ln(0), Ln(II), Ln(III), and Ln(IV). Within this organization the chapters are further distinguished by type of compound, inorganic (oxides and hydroxides, aqueous speciation, halides, alkoxides, amides and thiolates, and chelates) and organometallic. Concluding chapters deal with diverse and critically important applications of the lanthanoids in electronic and magnetic materials, and medical imaging.

Rare Earth Fractionation in Hawaiian Volcanic Rocks

Author: Jean Guy Schilling

Publisher: N.A


Category: Earths, Rare

Page: 390

View: 8305

The procedure for determination of the rare earth elements and yttrium utilizing tracer-monitored group separation, neutron activation and carrier-free partition chromatography developed by Volfovsky et al. (1963) was revised and improved. Using this improved procedure, rare earth and yttrium abundances were measured in twenty Hawaiian lavas of known chemical and mineralogical composition, one peridotite inclusion from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, and one olivine-rich nodule and its host 1801 basalt flow from Hualalai, Hawaii, and a diabase from Oahu. When comparing the rare earths, element by element, in the twenty lavas, to a low potassium olivine tholeiite, four distinct groupings were observed. The origin and genetic relationships of these different groups are discussed in the light of their rare earth patterns, mineral patterns from other localities, experimental petrology, theoretical and geochemical reasoning. Possible processes operative in the formation of these lavas, such as fractional crystallization, partial melting, fractional melting, limestone syntexis and fractional resorption are explored. The origin of the ultramafic inclusions is also briefly discussed.

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

Author: Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy,Chiranjib Kumar Gupta

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203413024

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 504

View: 9510

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths compiles information from scattered sources that is often available only to specialists. It provides a complete and usable survey of the rare earth resources, extraction, and production of numerous end products that translates to both laboratory and industrial settings. This book is a source of industry expertise and objectives that integrates a wide spectrum of scientific backgrounds. It presents the latest developments in rare earth extraction, production, and processing technology, design, and procedures in the preparation and purification of rare earths from minerals and ores to useful compounds and alloys.

Rare Earth Materials in the Defense Supply Chain

Author: Belva M. Martin

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437932231


Page: 38

View: 9717

This letter transmits the briefing in response to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, which required a report on rare earth materials in the defense supply chain to the U.S. Senate and U.S. House of Representatives. Contents: Introduction; Objectives, Scope, and Methodology; Background; Summary; Objective 1: Current and Projected Availability; Objective 2: Defense System Dependency; Objective 3: Department of Defense Identified Risks and Actions; Agency Comments; Points of Contact. Charts and tables.

Principal Rare Earth Elements Deposits of the U. S.

A Summary of Domestic Deposits and a Global Perspective

Author: Keith R. Long

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437942989


Page: 96

View: 1799

The rare earth elements (REE) are 15 elements with atomic no. 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium, plus yttrium. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-tech applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and lightweight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems. This study provides a non-technical overview of domestic reserves and resources of REE and possibilities for utilizing those resources. Illus. This is a print on demand report.

Rare Earth (A Marc Royce Thriller Book #2)

Author: Davis Bunn

Publisher: Baker Books

ISBN: 1441271074

Category: Fiction

Page: 368

View: 3641

Davis Bunn Strikes Gold Once Again! Marc Royce stares down from the helicopter on the Rift Valley slashing across Africa like a scar. Tribal feuds, drought, and dislocation have left their devastation. And he sees a new wound--a once-dormant volcano oozing molten lava across the dry landscape--and clouds of ash obscure his vision. His undercover assignment is similarly obscured. Supposedly dispatched to audit a relief organization's accounts, Marc finds himself amid the squalor and chaos of Kenyan refugee camps caught in a stranglehold of corruption and ruthlessness. But his true task relates to the area's reserves of once-obscure metals now indispensible to high-tech industry. The value of this rare earth inflames tensions on the world's stage as well as among warring tribes. When an Israeli medical administrator, Kitra, seeks Marc's help with her humanitarian efforts, they forge an unexpected link between impoverished African villages and another Silicon Valley rising in the Israeli desert. Precious metals and inventive minds promise new opportunities for prosperity, secure futures, and protection of valuable commodities from terrorists. As Marc prepares to report back to Washington, he seizes a chance to restore justice to this troubled land. This time, he may have gone too far.

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths

Extraction and Separation

Author: Dezhi Qi

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128139218

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 804

View: 8547

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths: Extraction and Separation provides the basic knowledge for rare earth extraction and separation, including flow sheet selection criteria and related technology. The book includes the latest research findings on all rare earth separation processes, methods of controlling operation costs, and strategies that help lower wastewater and waste solid discharge. It discusses many real process parameters and actual situations in rare earth separation plants, also examining the basic principles, technologies, process parameters and advances and achievements in the area of rare earth extraction and separation. In addition, the book covers extraction separation theory as developed by Professor Guanxian Xu and Professor Chunhua Yan and the creative use of a computational simulation program to replace the bench scale and pilot plant tests and directly design rare earth extraction separation processes. Outlines the theory of solvent extraction and separation of rare earths (REs) Provides the necessary tools for a REs separation plant design Includes a unique simulation program for the calculation of all process parameters Includes Chinese nomenclature that is useful for identifying the various processes, also comparing it to the global literature

Industrial applications of rare earth elements

based on a symposium sponsored by the Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry at the Second Chemical Congress of the North American Continent (180th ACS National Meeting), Las Vegas, Nevada, August 25-26, 1980

Author: Karl A. Gschneidner,American Chemical Society. Division of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry

Publisher: Amer Chemical Society

ISBN: 9780841206410

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 5664


Rare-earth halides

Author: R. E. Thoma,Oak Ridge National Laboratory Reactor Chemistry Division,U.S. Atomic Energy Commission

Publisher: N.A


Category: Science

Page: 61

View: 1509