Rationalities in History

A Weberian Essay in Comparison

Author: D. L. d'Avray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139490508

Category: History

Page: N.A

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In Rationalities in History the distinguished historian David d'Avray writes a new comparative history in the spirit of Max Weber. In a strikingly original reassessment of seminal Weberian ideas, d'Avray applies value rationality to the comparative history of religion and the philosophy of law. Integrating theories of rational choice, anthropological reflections on relativism, and the recent philosophy of rationality with Weber's conceptual framework, d'Avray seeks to disengage 'rationalisation' from its enduring association with Western 'modernity'. This mode of analysis is contextualised through the examples of Buddhism, Imperial China and sixteenth-century Catholicism - in the latter case building upon unpublished archival research. This ambitious synthesis of social theory and comparative history will engage social scientists and historians from advanced undergraduate level upwards, stimulating interdisciplinary discourse, and making a significant contribution to the methodology of history. D'Avray explores the potential of this new Weberian analysis further in his companion volume, Medieval Religious Rationalities.

Die Verfassung des Politischen

Festschrift für Hans Vorländer

Author: André Brodocz,Dietrich Herrmann,Rainer Schmidt,Daniel Schulz,Julia Schulze Wessel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658047844

Category: Political Science

Page: 382

View: 4327

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​Die Beiträge befassen sich mit der Verfassung des Politischen und bilden die wichtigsten Kernthesen von Hans Vorländer ab.

Verhaltensökonomik und Normativität

Die Grenzen des Informationsmodells im Privatrecht und seine Alternativen

Author: Philipp Hacker

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161551352

Category: Law

Page: 1062

View: 9585

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English summary: People make mistakes, for example in purchase or investment decisions. Novel strategies of regulation seek to use these insights. However, they can only unfold their full potential once they are reconciled with core legal principles. Eventually, in this way, fair behaviour may even be legally promoted. German description: Verhaltensokonomisch basierte Regulierung, von `Nudging` bis `Debiasing`, hat langst auch Deutschland und Europa erreicht. Doch die Implikationen der Verhaltensokonomik fur Normsetzung sind nicht immer so eindeutig, wie sie auf den ersten Blick erscheinen mogen: Auf empirischer Ebene herrscht Unsicherheit uber den tatsachlichen Rationalitatsgrad von Marktakteuren; auf normativer Ebene Unklarheit daruber, welche rechtspolitischen Ziele mithilfe der neuen Techniken verfolgt werden sollen. Philipp Hacker nimmt sich dieser Herausforderungen an, begrundet entscheidungstheoretisch die Relevanz der Verhaltensokonomik fur das Privatrecht und macht sich fur ihren Einsatz zur Steigerung von Fairness in Marktkontexten stark, besonders im Verbraucher- und Kapitalmarktrecht. Auf dieser Grundlage erfahrt das Informationsmodell, das zentrale europaische Regulierungsparadigma, eine Neukonzeption.

Papacy, Monarchy and Marriage 860–1600

Author: David d'Avray

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316299279

Category: History

Page: N.A

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This analysis of royal marriage cases across seven centuries explains how and how far popes controlled royal entry into and exits from their marriages. In the period between c.860 and 1600, the personal lives of kings became the business of the papacy. d'Avray explores the rationale for papal involvement in royal marriages and uses them to analyse the structure of church-state relations. The marital problems of the Carolingian Lothar II, of English kings - John, Henry III, and Henry VIII - and other monarchs, especially Spanish and French, up to Henri IV of France and La Reine Margot, have their place in this exploration of how canon law came to constrain pragmatic political manoeuvring within a system increasingly rationalised from the mid-thirteenth century on. Using documents presented in the author's Dissolving Royal Marriages, the argument brings out hidden connections between legal formality, annulments, and dispensations, at the highest social level.

Spiritual Rationality

Papal Embargo as Cultural Practice

Author: Stefan K. Stantchev

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198704097

Category: History

Page: 238

View: 6511

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Spiritual Rationality: Papal Embargo as Cultural Practice offers the first book-length study of embargo in a pre-modern period and provides a unique exploration into the domestic implications of this tool of foreign policy. Based on a large and varied body of archival and printed, papal and secular sources, this inquiry covers Europe and the broader Mediterranean from c. 1150 to c. 1550. During this time of an increasing papal role within Christian society, the church employed restrictions on trade with Muslims, pagans, 'heretics', 'schismatics', disobedient Catholic communities and individual Jews in order to facilitate papally-endorsed warfare against external enemies and to discipline internal foes. Various trade bans were originally promulgated as individual responses to specific circumstances. These restrictions, however, were shaped by the premise that sin and the defense of the decorum of the faith and Christendom condoned, or even required, papal intervention into the lives of the laity and by the text-based approach of popes and canonists. Papal embargo, consequently, was not only the sum total of individual trade bans but also a legal and moral discourse that classified exchanges into legitimate and illegitimate ones, compelled merchants to distinguish clearly between themselves as (Roman) Christians and a multitude of others as non-Christians, and helped order symbolically both the relationships between the two groups and those between church and laity. Papal embargo's chief relevance thus lay within Christian society itself, where it functioned as an intangible pastoral staff. While sixteenth-century developments undermined it as a policy tool and a moral discourse alike, papal embargo inscribed the notion of the immorality of trade with the enemy into European thought.

The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity

Author: John H. Arnold

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191015016

Category: Religion

Page: 640

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The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Christianity takes as its subject the beliefs, practices, and institutions of the Christian Church between 400 and 1500AD. It addresses topics ranging from early medieval monasticism to late medieval mysticism, from the material wealth of the Church to the spiritual exercises through which certain believers might attempt to improve their souls. Each chapter tells a story, but seeks also to ask how and why 'Christianity' took particular forms at particular moments in history, paying attention to both the spiritual and otherwordly aspects of religion, and the material and political contexts in which they were often embedded. This Handbook is a landmark academic collection that presents cutting-edge interpretive perspectives on medieval religion for a wide academic audience, drawing together thirty key scholars in the field from the United States, the UK, and Europe. Notably, the Handbook is arranged thematically, and focusses on an analytical, rather than narrative, approach, seeking to demonstrate the variety, change, and complexity of religion throughout this long period, and the numerous different ways in which modern scholarship can approach it. While providing a very wide-ranging view of the subject, it also offers an important agenda for further study in the field.

Legalism

Community and Justice

Author: Fernanda Pirie,Judith Scheele

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191025933

Category: Law

Page: 260

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'Community' and 'justice' recur in anthropological, historical, and legal scholarship, yet as concepts they are notoriously slippery. Historians and lawyers look to anthropologists as 'community specialists', but anthropologists often avoid the concept through circumlocution: although much used (and abused) by historians, legal thinkers, and political philosophers, the term remains strikingly indeterminate and often morally overdetermined. 'Justice', meanwhile, is elusive, alternately invoked as the goal of contemporary political theorizing, and wrapped in obscure philosophical controversy. A conceptual knot emerges in much legal and political thought between law, justice, and community, but theories abound, without any agreement over concepts. The contributors to this volume use empirical case studies to unpick threads of this knot. Local codes from Anglo-Saxon England, north Africa, and medieval Armenia indicate disjunctions between community boundaries and the subjects of local rules and categories; processes of justice from early modern Europe to eastern Tibet suggest new ways of conceptualizing the relationship between law and justice; and practices of exile that recur throughout the world illustrate contingent formulations of community. In the first book in the series, Legalism: Anthropology and History, law was addressed through a focus on local legal categories as conceptual tools. Here this approach is extended to the ideas and ideals of justice and community. Rigorous cross-cultural comparison allows the contributors to avoid normative assumptions, while opening new avenues of inquiry for lawyers, anthropologists, and historians alike.

Money, Time and Rationality in Max Weber

Austrian Connections

Author: Stephen Parsons

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317797329

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 176

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This unique study into the roots of Max Weber's Political Economy, is an intriguing read and a valuable contribution to the Weberian literature. Parsons argues that Weber's analysis is highly influenced by the Austrian School of Economics and the relationship between his critique of centrally planned economies and that of Mises.

The Politics of Rationality

Reason through Occidental History

Author: Charles Webel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134490372

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 1355

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What are reason and rationality? How significant are recent postmodernist and neuroscientific challenges to these longheld notions? Should we abandon a belief in reason and an adherence to rationality? Or can reason and rationality be reformulated and reframed? And what does politics have to do with how we think about reason and why we act more or less rationally? The Politics of Rationality differs from other books with "reason" or “rationality” due to its historical, political, depth-psychological, and multidisciplinary approach to understanding reason through history. Charles P. Webel eloquently clarifies the links among ideas, their creators, the relevant mental processes, and the political cultures within which such important concepts as reasons and rationality take hold. He demonstrates how reason and rationality/irrationality have become what they mean for us today and proposes a way to rethink reason and rationality in light of the withering critiques leveled against them. In doing so, he presents a "history of reason and rationality" by examining the intellectual and political contexts of four representative theorists of reason and rationality-- Plato, Machiavelli, Kant, and Weber—and by addressing contemporary challenges posed by postmodernism, depth psychology, and neurophilosophy.

Handeln im Kontext

Neue Abhandlungen zu einem Forschungsprogramm im Anschluss an Max Weber

Author: Wolfgang Schluchter

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 3161556836

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

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English summary: Max Weber's research program is not only of historical interest, but has also played an important role in recent debates on social theory. The essays collected in this volume contribute to this program and aim to demonstrate its vitality. They consist of explications, interpretations and applications of Max Weber's work and can be summarized as contributions to a relational sociology beyond methodological individualism and methodological holism. They address questions such as the relation between structure and action, rationality in its various dimensions, the role of religion in a secular age, and the problems of comparing religions from a Weberian point of view without being trapped by evolutionism and normative euro-centrism. They also deal with Weber's position in economic and social history and in matters of higher education. German description: Das Forschungsprogramm Max Webers ist nicht nur von historischer Bedeutung, es spielt auch eine wichtige Rolle in der aktuellen Theoriediskussion in der Soziologie. Es lasst sich als eine relationale Soziologie verstehen, zwischen methodologischem Individualismus und methodologischem Holismus angesiedelt. Dies wird in der ersten der in diesem Band zusammengestellten zwolf Abhandlungen von Wolfgang Schluchter gezeigt. Sie stellen insgesamt den Versuch dar, das Potential dieses Forschungsprogramms in verschiedenen Hinsichten auszuloten. Die Abhandlungen umfassen Explikationen und Interpretationen des Werkes Max Webers, aber auch Anwendungen seines Ansatzes auf Fragen, die von ihm noch nicht behandelt wurden.

Wissenschaft als Beruf

Author: Max Weber

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 3954559056

Category: Philosophy

Page: 60

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Max Webers Text geht zurück auf einen 1917 in München vor Studienanfängern gehaltenen Vortrag über die Beruf des Wissenschaftlers. Dabei weist er zunächst auf die – auch heute noch – überaus unsicheren, weil von unkalkulierbaren Zufällen abhängigen Berufsaussichten hin, um sich dann der Spezialisierung als unabdingbarer Voraussetzungen für die wissenschaftliche Arbeit zuzuwenden. Nicht zuletzt unterscheidet Weber dabei streng zwischen den exakten Naturwissenschaften und den auf Sinnfragen ausgerichteten Geisteswissenschaften, deren fortschreitende Politisierung er als schädlich ablehnt.

Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus

Author: Max Weber

Publisher: Jazzybee Verlag

ISBN: 384961221X

Category:

Page: 271

View: 4668

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Die Serie "Meisterwerke der Literatur" beinhaltet die Klassiker der deutschen und weltweiten Literatur in einer einzigartigen Sammlung für Ihren eBook Reader. Lesen Sie die besten Werke großer Schriftsteller,Poeten, Autoren und Philosophen auf Ihrem Kindle Reader. Dieses Werk bietet zusätzlich * Eine Biografie/Bibliografie des Autors. Die protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus ist ein Werk von Max Weber, das zuerst in Form eines zweiteiligen Aufsatzes im November 1904 und Frühjahr 1905 im Archiv für Sozialwissenschaften und Sozialpolitik, Bd. XX und XXI erschien, und das 1920 in überarbeiteter Fassung veröffentlicht wurde. Es zählt neben Webers Schrift Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft zu seinen international wichtigsten Beiträgen zur Soziologie und ist ein grundlegendes Werk der Religionssoziologie. Zwischen der protestantischen Ethik und dem Beginn der Industrialisierung bzw. des Kapitalismus in Westeuropa besteht nach diesem Werk ein enger Zusammenhang. Die Kompatibilität („Wahlverwandtschaften“) der Ethik oder religiösen Weltanschauung der Protestanten, insbesondere der Calvinisten, und dem kapitalistischen Prinzip der Akkumulation von Kapital und Reinvestition von Gewinnen waren ein idealer Hintergrund für die Industrialisierung. (aus wikipedia.de)

Max Weber

Author: Dirk Kaesler

Publisher: C.H.Beck

ISBN: 340662250X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 128

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Zu Recht gilt Max Weber (1864–1920) heute international als einer der einflussreichsten Denker des 20. Jahrhunderts. Seine Werke zählen in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften zu den Schlüsseltexten der wissenschaftlichen Ausbildung. Dirk Kaesler zeichnet knapp und anschaulich die entscheidenden Stationen seines Lebens und Wirkens nach und macht deutlich, wie eng sowohl die Themen der wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten Webers als auch deren Ergebnisse mit zeitgenössischen und familienbiographischen Zusammenhängen verflochten sind.

Euphony and Logos

Essays in Honour of Maria Steffen-Batóg and Tadeusz Batóg

Author: Roman Murawski,Jerzy Pogonowski

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9789042003828

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 534

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Classical Sociological Theory

A Reader

Author: Ian McIntosh

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 4789

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"How much compensation ought to be paid to a woman who was raped 7,500 times? What would the members of the Commission want for their daughters if their daughters had been raped even once?" Karen Parker, speaking before the U.N. Commission on Human Rights Seemingly every week, a new question arises relative to the current worldwide ferment over human injustices. Why does the U.S. offer $20,000 atonement money to Japanese Americans relocated to concentration camps during World War II, while not even apologizing to African Americans for 250 years of human bondage and another century of institutionalized discrimination? How can the U.S. and Canada best grapple with the genocidal campaigns against Native Americans on which their countries were founded? How should Japan make amends to Korean "comfort women" sexually enslaved during World War II? Why does South Africa deem it necessary to grant amnesty to whites who tortured and murdered blacks under apartheid? Is Germany's highly praised redress program, which has paid billions of dollars to Jews worldwide, a success, and, as such, an example for others? More generally, is compensation for a historical wrong dangerous "blood money" that allows a nation to wash its hands forever of its responsibility to those it has injured? A rich collection of essays from leading scholars, pundits, activists, and political leaders the world over, many written expressly for this volume, When Sorry Isn't Enoughalso includes the voices of the victims of some of the world's worst atrocities, thereby providing a panoramic perspective on an international controversy often marked more by heat than reason.

The Cambridge Companion to Weber

Author: Stephen Turner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521567534

Category: History

Page: 288

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This Companion introduces Max Weber, one of the very greatest figures in the history of the social sciences.

Max Weber in Amerika

Wirkungsgeschichte und Rezeptionsgeschiche Webers in der anglo-amerikanischen Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaft

Author: Ágnes Erdélyi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783851650228

Category: Philosophy, American

Page: 254

View: 678

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Max Webers "Religionssystematik"

Author: Hans Gerhard Kippenberg,Martin Riesebrodt

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161475016

Category: Social Science

Page: 349

View: 1124

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English summary: The volume offers a new approach to Max Weber's sociology of religion and his cross-culturally comparative studies. Focusing on key concepts and semantic fields, the discourse of the last turn of the century is reconstructed and Weber's location in it is defined. The volume shows Weber's dependency on other authors as well as his creativity and ingenuity in operationalizing concepts and linking them to an explanation of diverse civilizational developments. German description: Seit einigen Jahren ziehen Webers Studien zu den grossen Religionen die Aufmerksamkeit auf sich. Webers Behauptung, dass Judentum, Christentum, Islam, Hinduismus, Konfuzianismus und Buddhismus als Machte der Lebensregulierung Auswirkungen - positiver wie negativer Art - auf die Entstehung der modernen rationalen Kultur hatten, hat zunehmend in den Fachdisziplinen das Interesse geweckt. Kaum beachtet wurde hingegen, dass Webers Sicht ohne die Vorarbeit der zeitgenossischen vergleichenden Religionswissenschaft kaum denkbar gewesen ware. Erst ihre Paradigmen und Konzepte haben es ihm moglich gemacht, religionshistorische Daten zu Quellen einer universalen Kulturgeschichte zu machen. Das Interesse von Wissenschaftlern und Intellektuellen an der Religionsgeschichte grundete oftmals in der Annahme, dass die moderne, scheinbar areligiose Kultur nur im Kontext der Religionsgeschichte adaquat verstanden werden konne. Zudem stellte die Religion fur viele das starkste Gegengewicht zum modernen Utilitarismus dar, der als eine Gefahrdung der sozialmoralischen Ordnung und Kultur angesehen wurde. Gerade umgekehrt: Um ihre Entstehung zu analysieren, brauchte man die Hilfe der Religionsgeschichte. Max Weber selbst hat gelegentlich von seiner Religionssoziologie als Religionssystematik gesprochen. Die Autoren der Beitrage dieses Bandes machen Webers Stellung im wissenschaftlichen Diskurs der Jahrhundertwende sichtbar, sowohl in seiner Abhangigkeit von anderen Autoren wie auch in seiner Eigenstandigkeit und Kreativitat.