Reef Evolution

Author: Rachel Wood

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198577843

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 6871

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If one does not understand the biology of the coral reef, one does not understand the reef at all. So, using more than 250 illustrations and specially drawn ecological reconstructions of reef communities, Rachel Wood provides a unique evolutionary approach to the understanding of ancient coral reef ecosystems. Marine organisms have aggregated to form reefs for over 3.5 billion years--creating the largest biologically constructed feature on earth, some visible from space. However, their study has been largely descriptive. Reef Evolution, documents the fundamental biological processes and innovations which have molded the evolution of reef ecosystems and given rise to the highly complex communities found today. The appearance of clonality, the acquisition of photosymbiosis, and the radiation of predator groups are all discussed in depth. Data from the fossil record documents the evolutionary development of reef ecosystems. Although reefs only occupy a small percentage of the oceans, their importance to the marine environment is many-faceted and global. They create harbors and allow the development of shallow basins with associated mangrove or seagrass communities; they protect coastlines from erosion; are involved in the regulation of atmospheric carbon, which in turn contributes to climate control. can provide extensive oil and gas reservoirs. From a biological standpoint, however, the great significance of reefs lies in their ability to generate and maintain a substantial proportion of tropical marine biodiversity. This unique interdisciplinary approach provides students and researchers in evolution, marine biology, ecology, paleontology, biodiversity, and geology with a text that will allow them to truly understand the biological innovations which have molded the evolution of coral reefs and given rise to the highly complex communities found today.

Coral Reefs

the Evolution

Author: Charles Darwin

Publisher: VM eBooks

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 134

View: 1489

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CRITICAL INTRODUCTION. JOHN W. JUDD. CORAL-REEFS. INTRODUCTION. (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, WHITSUNDAY ATOLL.) (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, REEF AT BOLABOLA ISLAND.) (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE I.—MAP SHOWING THE RESEMBLANCE IN FORM BETWEEN BARRIER CORAL-REEFS SURROUNDING MOUNTAINOUS ISLANDS, AND ATOLLS OR LAGOON ISLANDS.) CHAPTER I.—ATOLLS OR LAGOON-ISLANDS. SECTION 1.I.—KEELING ATOLL. (PLATE: UNTITLED WOODCUT, VERTICAL SECTION THROUGH KEELING ATOLL.) SECTION 1.II.—GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ATOLLS. (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE II.—GREAT CHAGOS BANK, NEW CALEDONIA,MENCHIKOFF ATOLL, ETC. SECTION 1.III.—ATOLLS OF THE MALDIVA ARCHIPELAGO—GREAT CHAGOS BANK. CHAPTER II.—BARRIER REEFS. (PLATE: UNNAMED, THREE VERTICAL SECTIONS (WOODCUT DIAGRAMS): CHAPTER III.—FRINGING OR SHORE-REEFS. CHAPTER IV.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND GROWTH OF CORAL-REEFS. SECTION 4.I.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS, AND ON THE CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO THEIR INCREASE. SECTION 4.II.—ON THE RATE OF GROWTH OF CORAL-REEFS. SECTION 4.III.—ON THE DEPTHS AT WHICH REEF-BUILDING POLYPIFERS CAN LIVE. CHAPTER V.—THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF CORAL-REEFS. (PLATE: WOODCUT NO. 4. PLATE: WOODCUT NO. 5. STEP-FORMED LEDGES ROUND CERTAIN LAGOONS. THE RING OR BASIN-FORMED REEFS OF THE NORTHERN MALDIVA ATOLLS. SUBMERGED AND DEAD REEFS. THE DISSEVERMENT OF THE LARGER MALDIVA ATOLLS. IRREGULARLY FORMED ATOLLS. THE GREAT CHAGOS BANK. OBJECTIONS TO THE THEORY OF THE FORMATION OF ATOLLS AND BARRIER-REEFS. CHAPTER VI.—ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS WITH REFERENCE TO THE THEORY OF THEIR FORMATION. (DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. PLATE III.—MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL-REEFS AND ACTIVE VOLCANOES. ON THE GROUPING OF THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF REEFS. ON THE DIRECT EVIDENCE OF THE BLUE SPACES IN THE MAP HAVING SUBSIDED DURING THE UPWARD GROWTH OF THE REEFS SO COLOURED, AND OF THE RED SPACES HAVING REMAINED STATIONARY, OR HAVING BEEN UPRAISED. ON THE ABSENCE OF ACTIVE VOLCANOES IN THE AREAS OF SUBSIDENCE, AND ON THEIR FREQUENT PRESENCE IN THE AREAS OF ELEVATION. ON THE RELATIONS OF THE AREAS OF SUBSIDENCE AND ELEVATION. RECAPITULATION. APPENDIX. CONTAINING A DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE REEFS AND ISLANDS IN PLATE III. THE LOW ARCHIPELAGO. MENDANA OR MARQUESAS GROUP. COOK OR HARVEY AND AUSTRAL ISLAND. ISLANDS BETWEEN THE LOW AND GILBERT ARCHIPELAGOES. ISLANDS SOUTH OF THE SANDWICH ARCHIPELAGO. SANDWICH ARCHIPELAGO. SAMOA OR NAVIGATOR GROUP. FRIENDLY ARCHIPELAGO. ELLICE GROUP. GILBERT GROUP. MARSHALL GROUP. NEW HEBRIDES. SANTA CRUZ GROUP. NEW CALEDONIA. AUSTRALIAN BARRIER-REEF. LOUISIADE. SOLOMON ARCHIPELAGO. NEW IRELAND. NEW BRITAIN AND THE NORTHERN SHORE OF NEW GUINEA. ADMIRALTY GROUP. WESTERN PART OF THE CAROLINE ARCHIPELAGO. PELEW ISLANDS. BONIN OR ARZOBISPO GROUP. WEST END OF NEW GUINEA. CERAM. ISLANDS NEAR TIMOR. N.W. COAST OF AUSTRALIA. JAVA. MACASSAR STRAIT. SUMATRA. NICOBAR ISLANDS. ANDAMAN ISLANDS. PHILIPPINE ARCHIPELAGO. BABUYAN ISLANDS. INDIAN OCEAN. CHAGOS, MALDIVA, AND LACCADIVE ARCHIPELAGOES. SEYCHELLES. COMORO GROUP. MADAGASCAR. EAST COAST OF AFRICA. PERSIAN GULF. RED SEA. THE WEST COAST OF THE RED SEA BETWEEN LATITUDE 19 DEG AND 22 DEG. THE WEST COAST FROM LATITUDE 22 DEG TO 24 DEG. EASTERN COAST. WEST INDIES. YUCUTAN.

The History and Sedimentology of Ancient Reef Systems

Author: George D. Stanley Jr.

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461512190

Category: Science

Page: 458

View: 8323

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From the Preface: The chapters of this book contain contributions from an international group of specialists. They address some important themes in both modern and ancient reef systems. Some chapters contain `snapshots' of reefs of particular intervals, while others touch on relevant themes of both modern and ancient reefs - themes that weave their way through reefs of all ages. This book opens and sets the stage with an introduction to both modern and ancient reefs and reef ecosystems. This chapter is also intended as a basic introduction for students, general geologists, and professionals or others who may be unfamiliar with reefs and reef ecosystems. The chapter addresses the living coral reef ecosystem, stressing among other relevant factors, the importance of ecological and physical interactions between the organisms and their environment. The chapter also addresses mass extinction and provides a general overview of the history of reefs.

The Geomorphology of the Great Barrier Reef

Development, Diversity and Change

Author: David Hopley,Scott G. Smithers,Kevin Parnell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139463926

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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This 2007 book reviews the history of geomorphological studies of the Great Barrier Reef and assesses the influences of sea-level change and oceanographic processes on the development of reefs over the last 10,000 years. It presents analyses of recently attained data from the Great Barrier Reef and reconstructions of the sequence of events which have led to its more recent geomorphology. The authors emphasise the importance of the geomorphological time span and its applications for present management applications. This is a valuable reference for academic researchers in geomorphology and oceanography, and will also appeal to graduate students in related fields.

Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs

Structure, Form and Process

Author: David Hopley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 904812638X

Category: Science

Page: 1236

View: 3535

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Coral reefs are the largest landforms built by plants and animals. Their study therefore incorporates a wide range of disciplines. This encyclopedia approaches coral reefs from an earth science perspective, concentrating especially on modern reefs. Currently coral reefs are under high stress, most prominently from climate change with changes to water temperature, sea level and ocean acidification particularly damaging. Modern reefs have evolved through the massive environmental changes of the Quaternary with long periods of exposure during glacially lowered sea level periods and short periods of interglacial growth. The entries in this encyclopedia condense the large amount of work carried out since Charles Darwin first attempted to understand reef evolution. Leading authorities from many countries have contributed to the entries covering areas of geology, geography and ecology, providing comprehensive access to the most up-to-date research on the structure, form and processes operating on Quaternary coral reefs.

Pangea: Paleoclimate, Tectonics, and Sedimentation During Accretion, Zenith, and Breakup of a Supercontinent

Author: George O. Klein

Publisher: Geological Society of America

ISBN: 0813722888

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 9280

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Summarizes invited and contributed papers from the May 1992 Project pangea workshop in Lawrence, Kansas. Topics include the climatic evolution of India and Australia, pangean orogenic and epeirogenic uplifts, permian climatic cooling in the Canadian Arctic, and pangean shelf carbonates. Annotation c

Carbonate Systems During the Olicocene-Miocene Climatic Transition

Author: Maria Mutti,Werner E. Piller,Christian Betzler

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444348353

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 4137

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The Oligocene and Miocene Epochs comprise the most important phases in the Cenozoic global cooling that led from a greenhouse to an icehouse Earth. Recent major advances in the understanding and time-resolution of climate events taking place at this time, as well as the proliferation of studies on Oligocene and Miocene shallow-water/neritic carbonate systems, invite us to re-evaluate the significance of these carbonate systems in the context of changes in climate and Earth surface processes. Carbonate systems, because of a wide dependence on the ecological requirements of organisms producing the sediment, are sensitive recorders of changes in environmental conditions on the Earth surface. The papers included in this Special Publication address the dynamic evolution of carbonate systems deposited during the Oligocene and Miocene in the context on climatic and Earth surfaces processes focusing on climatic trends and controls over deposition; temporal changes in carbonate producers and palaeoecology; carbonate terminology; facies; processes and environmental parameters (including water temperature and production depth profiles); carbonate producers and their spatial and temporal variability; and tectonic controls over architecture. This book is part of the International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS) Special Publications. The Special Publications from the IAS are a set of thematic volumes edited by specialists on subjects of central interest to sedimentologists. Papers are reviewed and printed to the same high standards as those published in the journal Sedimentology and several of these volumes have become standard works of reference.

The Evolution of Reef Communities

Author: J. A. Fagerstrom

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 600

View: 842

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Discusses the composition, structure, occurrence, and changes in reefs during the past 2 billion years. This is the only fully integrated treatment of these factors and processes with the evolutionary history of the organisms that have built reefs. Emphasizes the functional roles of major groups (guilds) of reef-building, reef-destroying, and reef-dwelling organisms in the most complex of all marine communities. A structural model, based on modern reef guilds, is developed. Then the functional roles of each major reef-building higher biologic taxon (algae, sponges, coral, etc.) is determined, and, on this basis, each such taxon is assigned to a reef community guild. Next, the author traces the geologic history and guild assignment of each major taxon through geologic time. The final chapter establishes a succession of ten major reef community types, and considers their extinction and recovery in the light of modern theories of cosmic and earthly events. Profusely illustrated.

Biotic Evolution and Environmental Change in Southeast Asia

Author: David Gower,Kenneth Johnson,James Richardson,Brian Rosen,Lukas Rüber,Suzanne Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139536222

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The flora and fauna of Southeast Asia are exceptionally diverse. The region includes several terrestrial biodiversity hotspots and is the principal global hotspot for marine diversity, but it also faces the most intense challenges of the current global biodiversity crisis. Providing reviews, syntheses and results of the latest research into Southeast Asian earth and organismal history, this book investigates the history, present and future of the fauna and flora of this bio- and geodiverse region. Leading authorities in the field explore key topics including palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, biogeography, population genetics and conservation biology, illustrating research approaches and themes with spatially, taxonomically and methodologically focused case studies. The volume also presents methodological advances in population genetics and historical biogeography. Exploring the fascinating environmental and biotic histories of Southeast Asia, this is an ideal resource for graduate students and researchers as well as environmental NGOs.

Reef Fish Spawning Aggregations: Biology, Research and Management

Author: Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson,Patrick L. Colin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400719809

Category: Science

Page: 622

View: 858

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Reef fish spawning aggregations, ranging from small groups to many tens of thousands of individuals, are spectacular but poorly known natural phenomena whereby fish assemble at specific times and locations to spawn. For some species these large groups may be the only form of reproduction, the high fish numbers briefly giving a false impression of stability and abundance—an ‘illusion of plenty’. They are often a focus for intensive seasonal fishing because of their predictability and because many important commercial fishes form them. Highly vulnerable to overexploitation, many aggregations and their associated fisheries, have disappeared or are in decline. Few are effectively managed or incorporated into protected areas. Aggregations are not well understood by fishery scientists, managers and conservationists and their significance little appreciated by fishers or the wider public. To ensure their persistence to replenish important fisheries in coral ecosystems, maintain their ecosystem function and continue to delight divers, a significant change in perspective is needed to foster protection and management. This book provides comprehensive and practical coverage of the biology, study and management of reef fish aggregations, exploring their how, when, where, and why. It explores ways to better protect, study, manage and conserve them, while identifying key data gaps and questions. The text is extensively illustrated with many unique, never before published, photographs and graphics. Case studies on over 20 interesting and important fishes are included, outlining their biology and fisheries and highlighting major concerns and challenges.

Devonian Change

Case Studies in Palaeogeography and Palaeoecology

Author: Peter Königshof

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862392731

Category: Science

Page: 298

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The Devonian was a critical period with respect to the diversification of early terrestrial ecosystems. The geotectonic setting was characterized by the switch from the post-Caledonian to the pre-Variscan situation. Plant life on land evolved from tiny tracheophytes to trees of considerable size in combination with a global increase in terrestrial biomass, and vertebrates started to conquer the land. Extensive shallow-marine areas and continental lowlands with a wide range of different habitats existed. These are preserved in a large number of basins all around the world. Climate change finally led from greenhouse to icehouse conditions towards the end of the Devonian. Rapid evolution of terrestrial ecosystems and climate change had a pronounced influence on sedimentation and biodiversity, not only in the terrestrial, but also in the marine realm. This volume contains case studies from Australia, China, Europe, South America and North America, and individual palaeoecosystems and their components have been investigated in different palaeogeographic settings that contribute to a much better understanding of the Devonian Period. This is a contribution to the IGCP 499 project on "Devonian land-sea interaction: evolution of ecosystems and climate".

Quaternary Coral Reef Systems

History, development processes and controlling factors

Author: Lucien F. Montaggioni,Colin J.R. Braithwaite

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080932767

Category: Science

Page: 550

View: 7786

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This book presents both state-of-the art knowledge from Recent coral reefs (1.8 million to a few centuries old) gained since the eighties, and introduces geologists, oceanographers and environmentalists to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystem encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. Scleractinian reefs first appeared about 300 million years ago. Today coral reef systems provide some of the most sensitive gauges of environmental change, expressing the complex interplay of chemical, physical, geological and biological factors. The topics covered will include the evolutionary history of reef systems and some of the main reef builders since the Cenozoic, the effects of biological and environmental forces on the zonation of reef systems and the distribution of reef organisms and on reef community dynamics through time, changes in the geometry, anatomy and stratigraphy of reef bodies and systems in relation to changes in sea level and tectonics, the distribution patterns of sedimentary (framework or detrital) facies in relation to those of biological communities, the modes and rates of reef accretion (progradation, aggradation versus backstepping; coral growth versus reef growth), the hydrodynamic forces controlling water circulation through reef structures and their relationship to early diagenetic processes, the major diagenetic processes affecting reef bodies through time (replacement and diddolution, dolomitization, phosphatogenesis), and the record of climate change by both individual coral colonies and reef systems over the Quaternary. * state-of-the-art knowledge from Recent corals reefs * introduction to sedimentological and paleoecological studies of an ecosystems encompassing some of the world's richest biodiversity. * authors are internationally regarded authorities on the subject * trustworthy information

Genetics and Evolution of Aquatic Organisms

Author: A. Beaumont

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780412493706

Category: Science

Page: 539

View: 9099

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This volume brings together, for the first time, a wide range of up-to-the-minute and traditional techniques and approaches to the study of genetics of organisms living in freshwater or marine habitats. Carefully edited chapters are headed by broad review articles against which are set a number of more specific experience papers which demonstrate the breadth and range of approaches currently being undertaken.

Macroecology: Concepts and Consequences

43rd Symposium of the British Ecological Society

Author: Tim M. Blackburn,Kevin J. Gaston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521549325

Category: Nature

Page: 442

View: 8218

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Provides an overview of current thinking about macroecological patterns.

Describing Species

Practical Taxonomic Procedure for Biologists

Author: Judith E. Winston

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231506651

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 9566

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New species are discovered every day—and cataloguing all of them has grown into a nearly insurmountable task worldwide. Now, this definitive reference manual acts as a style guide for writing and filing species descriptions. New collecting techniques and new technology have led to a dramatic increase in the number of species that are discovered. Explorations of unstudied regions and new habitats for almost any group of organisms can result in a large number of new species discoveries—and hence the need to be described. Yet there is no one source a student or researcher can readily consult to learn the basic practical aspects of taxonomic procedures. Species description can present a variety of difficulties: Problems arise when new species are not given names because their discoverers do not know how to write a formal species description or when these species are poorly described. Biologists may also have to deal with nomenclatural problems created by previous workers or resulting from new information generated by their own research. This practical resource for scientists and students contains instructions and examples showing how to describe newly discovered species in both the animal and plant kingdoms. With special chapters on publishing taxonomic papers and on ecology in species description, as well as sections covering subspecies, genus-level, and higher taxa descriptions, Describing Species enhances any writer's taxonomic projects, reports, checklists, floras, faunal surveys, revisions, monographs, or guides. The volume is based on current versions of the International Codes of Zoological and Botanical Nomenclature and recognizes that systematics is a global and multicultural exercise. Though Describing Species has been written for an English-speaking audience, it is useful anywhere Taxonomy is spoken and will be a valuable tool for professionals and students in zoology, botany, ecology, paleontology, and other fields of biology.

When the Invasion of Land Failed

The Legacy of the Devonian Extinctions

Author: George R. McGhee Jr.

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231536364

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 6252

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The invasion of land by ocean-dwelling plants and animals was one of the most revolutionary events in the evolution of life on Earth, yet the animal invasion almost failed—twice—because of the twin mass extinctions of the Late Devonian Epoch. Some 359 to 375 million years ago, these catastrophic events dealt our ancestors a blow that almost drove them back into the sea. If those extinctions had been just a bit more severe, spiders and insects—instead of vertebrates—might have become the ecologically dominant forms of animal life on land. This book examines the profound evolutionary consequences of the Late Devonian extinctions and the various theories proposed to explain their occurrence. Only one group of four-limbed vertebrates exists on Earth, while other tetrapod-like fishes are extinct. This gap is why the idea of "fish with feet" seems so peculiar to us, yet such animals were once a vital part of our world, and if the Devonian extinctions had not happened, members of these species, like the famous Acanthostega and Ichthyostega, might have continued to live in our rivers and lakes. Synthesizing decades of research and including a wealth of new discoveries, this accessible, comprehensive text explores the causes of the Devonian extinctions, the reasons vertebrates were so severely affected, and the potential evolution of the modern world if the extinctions had never taken place.

Evolution and Environment in Tropical America

Author: Jeremy B. C. Jackson,Ann F. Budd,Anthony G. Coates

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226389448

Category: Science

Page: 425

View: 4884

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How were the tropical Americas formed? This ambitious volume draws on extensive, multidisciplinary research to develop new views of the geological formation of the isthmus linking North and South America and of the major environmental changes that reshaped the Neotropics to create its present-day marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Recent discoveries show that dramatic changes in climate and ocean circulation can occur very quickly, and that ecological communities respond just as rapidly. Abrupt changes in the composition of fossil assemblages, formerly dismissed as artifacts of a poor fossil record, now are seen as accurate records of swift changes in the composition of ocean communities. The twenty-four contributors use current work in paleontology, geology, oceanography, anthropology, ecology, and evolution to paint this challenging portrait of rapid environmental and evolutionary change. Their conclusions argue for a revision of existing interpretations of the fossil record and the processes—including invading Eurasian peoples—that have produced it.