principles, measurements, and applications

Author: Christopher W. Macosko

Publisher: Wiley-VCH


Category: Science

Page: 550

View: 4497



Concepts, Methods & Applications

Author: Aleksandr I͡Akovlevich Malkin,Alexander Ya Malkin,Avraam I. Isayev

Publisher: ChemTec Publishing

ISBN: 189519833X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 474

View: 2016

There are few comprehensive books on the market on the subject of rheology – the complex science dealing with flow and deformation of matter – and these are several years old. At last there is now a book that explains the meaning of a science that many scientists need to use but only a few can fully grasp. It does so by striking the balance between oversimplification and overload of theory in a very compelling and readable manner. The author's systematic presentation enables the authors to include all components of rheology in one volume. The first four chapters of this book discuss various aspects of theoretical rheology and, by examples of many studies, show how particular theory, model, or equation can be used in solving different problems. The main emphasis is on liquids, but solid materials are discussed in one full chapter as well. Methods of measurement and raw data treatment are included in one large chapter which constitutes more than one quarter of the book. Eight groups of methods are discussed giving many choices for experimentation and guidance on where and how to use them properly. The final chapter shows how to use rheological methods in different groups of products and methods of their manufacture. Usefulness of chemorheological (rheokinetical) measurements is also emphasized. This chapter continues with examples of purposeful applications in practical matters.

Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

A Practical Introduction, Second Edition

Author: Kevin P. Menard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420053135

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 1778

Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) has left the domain of the rheologist and has become a prevalent tool in the analytical laboratory. However, information on the use of this important tool is still scattered among a range of books and articles. Novices in the field have to dig through thermal analysis, rheology, and materials texts just to find the basics. Updated with new material, expanded practical explanations, and new applications, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, Second Edition continues to give chemists, engineers, and materials scientists a starting point for applying DMA to their individual fields. It imparts a clear understanding of how DMA works, its advantages, and possible limitations. Additional topics include stress/strain, data handling, experimental technology, test methods, and data analysis. One of the only references dedicated to DMA, this accessible and easy-to-read guide gathers the most pertinent information available on this important technique.

Rheology for Chemists

An Introduction

Author: James William Goodwin,Roy W. Hughes

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854048391

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 371

Rheology is primarily concerned with materials: scientific, engineering and everyday products whose mechanical behaviour cannot be described using classical theories. From biological to geological systems, the key to understanding the viscous and elastic behaviour firmly rests in the relationship between the interactions between atoms and molecules and how this controls the structure, and ultimately the physical and mechanical properties. Rheology for Chemists An Introduction takes the reader through the range of rheological ideas without the use of the complex mathematics. The book gives particular emphasis on the temporal behaviour and microstructural aspects of materials, and is detailed in scope of reference. An excellent introduction to the newer scientific areas of soft matter and complex fluid research, the second edition also refers to system dimension and the maturing of the instrumentation market. This book is a valuable resource for practitioners working in the field, and offers a comprehensive introduction for graduate and post graduates. Extracts from reviews of 1st Edition: ..". well-suited for self-study by research workers and technologists, who, confronted with technical problems in this area, would like a straightforward introduction to the subject of rheology." Chemical Educator, ..". full of valuable insights and up-to-date information." Chemistry World


Physikalische Struktur und Eigenschaften

Author: Hans-Georg Elias

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527626506

Category: Science

Page: 707

View: 2179

Längst ein Klassiker: Kein anderes deutschsprachiges Werk über Makromoleküle erscheint bereits in der sechsten Auflage! Mit Band 2 liegt nun eine zeitgemäße Behandlung der phsikalischen Eigenschaften von Makromolekülen vor. Er schildert in seinem ersten Teil die Struktur isolierter Moleküle und die zur Strukturaufklärung verwendeten Verfahren, bevor dann Mikro- und Makrokonformationen von Makromolekülen beschrieben werden. Der zweite Teil befasst sich mit der physikalischen Struktur von Molekülverbänden in amorphen Zustaänden, Schmelzen und konzentrierten Lösungen, im kristallinen Zustand, in Mesophasen sowie in und an Grenzflächen, bevor im dritten Teil Makromoleküle in Lösungen diskutiert werden. Teil vier ist dann den Schmelzen und ihren Eigenschaften gewidmet, Teil fünf behandelt die mechanischen Eigenschaften polymerer Festkörper wie Elastizität, Viskoelastizität und Bruchverhalten. Auch in diesem Band stehen eine nicht zu elementare Darstellung des Stoffes und die integrierende Behandlung von Chemie, Physik, Biologie und Technologie im Vordergrund, die von einem breiten Leserkreis geschätzt werden.


End-Use Properties and their Physical Meaning

Author: Yury V. Kissin

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 1569905215

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 140

View: 6675

The book provides a bridge between the meaning of engineering end-use parameters of polyethylene resins (HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE, VLDPE) and their molecular characteristics. The main goal is to translate common end-use characteristics of the resins (melt index, density, melting point) or properties of standard items manufactured from the resins (dart impact strength and tear strength of film, top load of a bottle, etc.) into the universal language of the polymer science, average molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of a polymer, composition and a statistical description of a copolymer, parameters of the stress-strain curve of a semi-crystalline material, etc.

Technische Rheologie in Beispielen und Berechnungen

Author: Rüdiger Worthoff

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527675566

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 198

View: 9302

In der chemisch-technischen Industrie werden zunehmend Stoffe verarbeitet, die besondere viskoelastische Eigenschaften aufweisen und sich gegenüber "normalen" Newtonschen Flüssigkeiten außergewöhnlich verhalten. Hierzu gehören u.a. Lösungen und Schmelzen polymerer Medien, hochmolekulare Öle und verschiedene Suspensionen. Diese Substanzen stellen oft eine Herausforderung für die Förderung und Verarbeitung in Apparaten und Anlagen dar. Mit diesem Praktikerbuch gibt Rüdiger Worthoff dem Leser ein Werkzeug an die Hand, das es ihm ermöglicht, das Stoffverhalten in der Praxis mittels mathematischer Berechnungen einzuschätzen. Nach einer kurzen Einführung der theoretischen Grundlagen werden anhand von konkreten Fragen und Antworten die Probleme der modernen technischen Rheologie und deren Berechenbarkeit erörtert. Das Kapitel Rheometrie behandelt die Messtechniken und Bestimmung rheologischer Parameter. Die anderen Kapitel widmen sich den Strömungen in verschiedenen Geometrien. Die Vorstellung thermischer Effekte und Wärmeübertragungsprozesse in der Rheologie runden den Inhalt ab. Ein Glossar am Buchende sowie Verständnisfragen und Lösungen zu jedem Kapitel helfen das Gelernte zu vertiefen. Unentbehrlich für jeden Chemieingenieur, Verfahrenstechniker und Kunststofftechnologen in Studium und Beruf.

Practical Food Rheology

An Interpretive Approach

Author: Ian T. Norton,Fotios Spyropoulos,Philip Cox

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444391053

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 320

View: 8307

Rheology is fundamentally important in food manufacturing in two major senses. Understanding the way in which a substance moves and behaves is essential in order to be able to transport and mix it during processing. Secondly, the rheology of a product dictates much of the consumer experience, e.g. in relation to texture and mouthfeel. This book doesn’t overwhelm the reader with complex mathematical equations but takes a simple and practically-focused approach, interpreting the implications of rheological data for use in different food systems. Through this approach industry-based food developers / rheologists, students, and academics are given clear, concise interpretation of rheological data which directly relates to actual perceived functionality in the food. The functionality may relate to texture, structure and mouthfeel, and may result as a function of temperature, pH, flocculation, concentration effects, and mixing. The interpretative view is based on the principle that the food rheologist will produce a graph, for example of viscosity or gelation profiling, and then have to extract a practical meaning from it. For example, if viscosity falls with time as a function of pH, this knowledge can be used to tell the customer that the viscosity can be followed with just a pH meter and a stopwatch. Rheological measurements have shown that once the pH has dropped 1 unit after 10 minutes, the viscosity has been halved. This is the type of practical and valuable information for customers of the industrial food rheologist which the book will enable readers to access. Key features: A uniquely practical approach to the often difficult science of food rheology Includes chapters introducing the basics of food rheology before moving on to how data can be usefully and easily interpreted by the food scientist Can be used as a teaching aid on academic or industry-based courses

Non-Newtonian Flow in the Process Industries

Fundamentals and Engineering Applications

Author: R. P. Chhabra,John Francis Richardson

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780750637701

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 436

View: 2154

Non-Newtonian materials are encountered in virtually all of the chemical and process industries and a full understanding of their nature and flow characteristics is an essential requirement for engineers and scientists involved in their formulation and handling. This book will bridge the gap between much of the highly theoretical and mathematically complex work of the rheologist and the practical needs of those who have to design and operate plants in which these materials are handled and processed. At the same time, numerous references are included for the benefit of those who need to delve more deeply into the subject. The starting point for any work on non-newtonian fluids is their characterisation over the range of conditions to which they are likely to be subjected during manufacture or utilisation, and this topic is treated early on in the book in a chapter commissioned from an expert in the field of rheological measurements. Coverage of topics is extensive and this book offers a unique and rich selection of material including the flow of single phase and multiphase mixtures in pipes, in packed and fluidised bed systems, heat and mass transfer in boundary layers and in simple duct flows, and mixing etc. An important and novel feature of the book is the inclusion of a wide selection of worked examples to illustrate the methods of calculation. It also incorporates a large selection of problems for the reader to tackle himself.

Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety

A Proceedings

Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials Advisory Board,Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems,Committee on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309174510

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 158

View: 2238

The reduction of the fire hazard of fuel is critical to improving survivability in impact-survivable aircraft accidents. Despite current fire prevention and mitigation approaches, fuel flammability can overwhelm post-crash fire scenarios. The Workshop on Aviation Fuels with Improved Fire Safety was held November 19-20, 1996 to review the current state of development, technological needs, and promising technology for the future development of aviation fuels that are most resistant to ignition during a crash. This book contains a summary of workshop discussions and 11 presented papers in the areas of fuel and additive technologies, aircraft fuel system requirements, and the characterization of fuel fires.

Craig's Restorative Dental Materials - E-Book

Author: Ronald L. Sakaguchi,John M. Powers

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0323082513

Category: Medical

Page: 416

View: 6932

Master the use of dental materials in the clinic and dental laboratory and stay current with this ever-changing field with Craig's Restorative Dental Materials, 13th Edition. From fundamental concepts to advanced skills, this comprehensive text details everything you need to know to understand the scientific basis for selecting dental materials when designing and fabricating restorations. This practical, clinically relevant approach to the selection and use of dental materials challenges you to retain and apply your knowledge to realistic clinical scenarios, giving you an authoritative advantage in dental practice. Problems and Solutions at the end of each chapter test your ability to apply chapter concepts to solve common clinical challenges. Mind Maps on the companion Evolve website condense essential chapter content into single-page overviews ideal for quick reference, study outlines, or comprehensive reviews. Comprehensive coverage reflects fundamental concepts and the latest practical knowledge all in one authoritative source. Appendix of useful resource materials provides quick, convenient access to Weights and Measurements, Conversion Tables, and Comparative Table of Troy, Avoirdupois, and Metric Weights. Content updates and links on Evolve keep you current with the latest developments in the field. NEW! Full-color design and illustrations clarify clinical detail for greater understanding. NEW! Reorganized content emphasizes scientific evidence and is organized by usage in a clinical setting to help you study more efficiently. NEW! Digital Imaging and Processing for Restorations chapter equips you with essential understanding of current imaging practices. NEW! Major revisions reflect the latest advances in the use of enamel, dental, biofilms, mechanical testing, ceramics, polymers, and composites.

The Physics of Living Processes

A Mesoscopic Approach

Author: Thomas Andrew Waigh

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118698274

Category: Science

Page: 624

View: 8987

This full-colour undergraduate textbook, based on a two semestercourse, presents the fundamentals of biological physics,introducing essential modern topics that include cells, polymers,polyelectrolytes, membranes, liquid crystals, phase transitions,self-assembly, photonics, fluid mechanics, motility, chemicalkinetics, enzyme kinetics, systems biology, nerves, physiology, thesenses, and the brain. The comprehensive coverage, featuring in-depth explanations ofrecent rapid developments, demonstrates this to be one of the mostdiverse of modern scientific disciplines. The Physics of Living Processes: A Mesoscopic Approach iscomprised of five principal sections: • Building Blocks • Soft Condensed Matter Techniques in Biology • Experimental Techniques • Systems Biology • Spikes, Brains and the Senses The unique focus is predominantly on the mesoscale —structures on length scales between those of atoms and themacroscopic behaviour of whole organisms. The connections betweenmolecules and their emergent biological phenomena provide a novelintegrated perspective on biological physics, making this animportant text across a variety of scientific disciplines includingbiophysics, physics, physical chemistry, chemical engineering andbioengineering. An extensive set of worked tutorial questions are included,which will equip the reader with a range of new physical tools toapproach problems in the life sciences from medicine,pharmaceutical science and agriculture.

Selected Topics of Computational and Experimental Fluid Mechanics

Author: Jaime Klapp,Gerardo Ruíz Chavarría,Abraham Medina Ovando,Abel López Villa,Leonardo Di G. Sigalotti

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319114875

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 7611

This book contains invited lectures and selected contributions presented at the Enzo Levi and XIX Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamic Division of the Mexican Physical Society in 2013. It is aimed at fourth year undergraduate and graduate students, and scientists in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry who are interested in fluid dynamics from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The invited lectures are introductory and avoid the use of complicated mathematics. The fluid dynamics applications include multiphase flow, convection, diffusion, heat transfer, rheology, granular material, viscous flow, porous media flow, geophysics and astrophysics. The material contained in the book includes recent advances in experimental and theoretical fluid dynamics and is suitable for both teaching and research.


Physikalische Kenngrößen - Messung und Anwendung

Author: L.O. Figura

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540349901

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 444

View: 9587

Die Lebensmittelphysik befasst sich mit den physikalischen Eigenschaften der Lebensmittel und deren Erfassung. Die physikalischen Eigenschaften von Lebensmitteln spielen überall dort eine wesentliche Rolle, wo moderne lebensmitteltechnologische Verfahren für die Gewinnung der Rohstoffe oder die Herstellung eines Lebensmittels angewandt werden. Die Bestimmung physikalischer Größen von Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen sind aus der Planung, Steuerung und Automatisierung der Herstellungsprozesse in der Lebensmittel-, Pharma- und Kosmetikindustrie und angrenzenden Bereichen nicht mehr wegzudenken. Neben der chemischen Qualitätskontrolle spielt die Bestimmung physikalischer Eigenschaften darüber hinaus eine wichtige Rolle bei der Bestimmung und Sicherung der Qualität unserer Lebensmittel. Der Konsument fordert zunehmend "weniger Chemie" in der Lebensmittelproduktion und große Bereiche der Lebensmittelindustrie werden diesen Wünschen in steigendem Maße entgegenkommen müssen, indem sie moderne physikalische Verfahren in der Produktion einsetzen. Auch hierfür ist ein grundlegendes Verständnis der physikalischen Eigenschaften von Lebensmitteln und den Möglichkeiten und Grenzen ihrer messtechnischen Erfassung eine unabdingbare Voraussetzung. Dieses Buch beschreibt die Lebensmittelphysik von Grund auf und orientiert sich hierbei ausschließlich an den Erfordernissen der Lebensmittelpraxis, ohne auf die wichtigen Grundlagen zu verzichten. Das Buch ist daher für Studenten der Lebensmittelchemie und -technologie an Universitäten und Fachhochschulen eine wichtige Quelle für die zukünftige Ausbildung. Auch Ingenieure, Technologen und Techniker in der Lebensmittelindustrie werden dieses Buch benutzen, um ihre Kenntnisse zu vertiefen oder grundlegendes Verständnis für neue physikalische Verfahren zu erwerben.

Rheology of Fluid, Semisolid, and Solid Foods

Principles and Applications

Author: M. Anandha Rao

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461492300

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 461

View: 9868

This revised third edition of Rheology of Fluid, Semisolid, and Solid Foods includes the following important additions: · A section on microstructure · Discussion of the quantitative characterization of nanometer-scale milk protein fibrils in terms of persistence and contour length. · A phase diagram of a colloidal glass of hard spheres and its relationship to milk protein dispersions · Microrheology, including detailed descriptions of single particle and multi-particle microrheological measurements · Diffusive Wave Spectroscopy · Correlation of Bostwick consistometer data with property-based dimensionless groups · A section on the effect of calcium on the morphology and functionality of whey protein nanometer-scale fibrils · Discussion of how tribology and rheology can be used for the sensory perception of foods

Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings

Author: Piet M. Lugt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118483979

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 1308

The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication forroller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicleengineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides anoverview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of greaselubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of theart models that exist today. The book reviews the physical andchemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towardslubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, propertiesand rheology, including thermal and dynamics properties. Laterchapters cover the dynamics of greased bearings, including greaselife, bearing life, reliability and testing. The final chaptercovers lubrications systems – the systems that deliver greaseto the components requiring lubrication. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings: Describes the underlying physical and chemical properties ofgrease. Discusses the effect of load, speed, temperature, bearinggeometry, bearing materials and grease type on bearing wear. Covers both bearing and grease performance, includingthermo-mechanical ageing and testing methodologies. It is intended for researchers and engineers in thepetro-chemical and bearing industry, industries related to this(e.g. wind turbine industry, automotive industry) and forapplication engineers. It will also be of interest for teaching inpost-graduate courses.

Rheology of Dispersions

Principles and Applications

Author: Tharwat F. Tadros

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527632395

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 7610

A dispersion is a system of unmixable phases in which one phase is continuous and at least one is finely distributed. Examples are found in many industrial applications, including emulsions, suspensions, foams, and geld. The control of their flow characteristics - rheology - is essential in their preparation, long-term physical stability and application. Filling the need for a practical, up-to-date book connecting the stability/instability of the dispersion to its rheological behavior, this title aids in understanding the principles of rheology and the techniques that can be applied. From the contents: * General Introduction * Interparticle Interactions and Their Combination * Principles of Viscoelastic Behavior * Rheology of Suspensions * Rheology of Emulsions * Rheology of Modifiers, Thickeners, and Gels * Use of Rheological Measurements for Assessment and Prediction of the Long-Term Physical Stability of Formulations (Creaming and Sedimentation)