Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime

Author: Richard Pipes

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 030778861X

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 3433

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Pipes is a widely recognized authority on Russia and is currently Baird professor of History at Harvard University. This is the final volume in his magisterial history of the Russian Revolution, covering the period from the outbreak of the Civil War in 1918 to Lenin's death in 1924. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Russian Revolution

Author: Richard Pipes

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780307788573

Category: History

Page: 976

View: 5390

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Mr. Pipes writes trenchantly, and at times superbly....No single volume known to me even begins to cater so adequately to those who want to discover what really happened to Russia....Nor do I know any other book better designed to help Soviet citizens to struggle out of the darkness." -- Ronald Hingley, The New York Times Book Review Ground-breaking in its inclusiveness, enthralling in its narrative of a movement whose purpose, in the words of Leon Trotsky, was "to overthrow the world," The Russian Revolution draws conclusions that have already aroused great controversy in this country-and that are certain to be explosive when the book is published in the Soviet Union. Richard Pipes argues convincingly that the Russian Revolution was an intellectual, rather than a class, uprising; that it was steeped in terror from its very outset; and that it was not a revolution at all but a coup d'etat -- "the capture of governmental power by a small minority." From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Age of the Dictators

A Study of the European Dictatorships, 1918-53

Author: D.G. Williamson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317870131

Category: History

Page: 552

View: 1691

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The Age of the Dictators presents a comprehensive survey of the origins and interrelationship of the European dictatorships. All the regimes are addressed, with ample coverage of the period 1939-45, and analysis of the Soviet government up to Stalin’s death in 1953. Exploring their ideological and political roots, and the role of the First World War in their rise to power, David Williams identifies the dictatorships as products of their time. He examines the Soviet, Italian Fascist and Nazi dictatorships, as well as the authoritarian regimes in Spain, Portugal, Eastern Europe and the Balkans, providing an analysis of each as an entity, of how they evolved and related to one another, and to what extent they were a common response to life after the First World War. Mindful of historiographical issues, the textbook attends to the arguments of key historians, and includes a list of relevant sources to assist students in their study of the period. Combining an accessible, succinct writing style with a broad historical scope, The Age of the Dictators is an illuminating and thorough account of a fascinating period in world history.

Hundert Jahre Revolution

Russland und das 20. Jahrhundert

Author: Orlando Figes

Publisher: Hanser Berlin

ISBN: 3446248684

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 339

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Eine glänzend geschriebene Geschichte Sowjetrusslands – von den Wurzeln des Bolschewismus bis zum Putsch gegen Gorbatschow 1991. Laut Orlando Figes erstreckt sich die Wirkung der Russischen Revolution von 1917 über die Jahrzehnte der Diktatur bis in die Gegenwart. So waren die Sowjetführer bis zuletzt überzeugt, dass sie die von Lenin begonnene Revolution fortsetzten und auf ihre Ziele hinarbeiteten: eine kommunistische Gesellschaft des materiellen Überflusses für das Proletariat und ein neuer kollektiver Menschentyp. In einem historischen Moment, da in Russland unter Putin die autoritäre Staatstradition wiederauflebt, liefert Figes eine überzeugende Interpretation des russischen 20. Jahrhunderts.

A Concise History of the Russian Revolution

Author: Richard Pipes

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 030778858X

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 805

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Richard Pipes's authoritative history of the "violent and disruptive acts" that created the first modern totalitarian regime portrays the crisis at the heart of the tsarist empire. Drawing on archival materials newly released in Russia, he chronicles the upheaval that began as a conservative revolt but was soon captured by messianic intellectuals intent not merely on reforming Russia but on remaking the world. He provides fresh accounts of the revolution's personalities and policies, crises, and cruelties, from the murder of the royal family through civil war, famine, and state terror. Brilliantly and persuasively, Pipes shows us why the resulting system owes less to the theories of Marx than it did to the character of Lenin and Russia's long authoritarian tradition. What ensues is a path-clearing work that is indispensable to any understanding of the events of the century.

Geschichte der Russischen Revolution

Februarrevolution und Oktoberrevolution

Author: Leo Trotzki

Publisher: MEHRING Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3886347877

Category: History

Page: 1097

View: 7130

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80 Jahre nach dem Erscheinen von Trotzkis Buch über die Februarrevolution und 30 Jahre nach dem Erscheinen der letzten vollständigen Ausgabe der 'Geschichte der Russischen Revolution' ist mit dieser Neuausgabe eines der bedeutendsten historischen Werke des 20. Jahrhunderts jetzt dem Lesepublikum wieder zugänglich. Auch 20 Jahre nach dem Zusammenbruch der Sowjetunion sind trotz zahlreicher historischer Detailstudien weder der Charakter der Oktoberrevolution noch die Degeneration und das Scheitern des aus ihr hervorgegangenen Arbeiterstaates einer breiteren Öffentlichkeit klar, obwohl die Existenz der Sowjetunion die gesamte Geschichte des 20. Jahrhunderts in einem hohen Ausmaß geprägt hat. Nur die Schriften Trotzkis – das gilt vor allem für die beiden Bände zur 'Geschichte der Russischen Revolution', die 'Permanente Revolution' und die 'Verratene Revolution'– ermöglichen ein grundlegendes Verständnis des Aufstiegs, der Degeneration und des Zusammenbruchs der Sowjetunion und damit der Weltlage des gesamten vorigen Jahrhunderts. Aber Trotzkis Geschichte der Russischen Revolution ist nicht nur ein geniales Werk der marxistischen Geschichtsschreibung, sondern gleichzeitig ein Stück Weltliteratur, das so manches fiktive Werk in den Schatten stellt. Der Autor beschreibt vom heutigen Standpunkt aus lange zurückliegende Ereignisse und Personen, aber seine Beschreibungen sind ungeheuer spannend und kurzweilig. In vielen Artikeln, Büchern oder Briefen finden sich Würdigungen von Trotzki als Schriftsteller. Das Werk liegt in der hervorragenden Übersetzung von Alexandra Ramm-Pfemfert vor.

A Short History Of Soviet Socialism

Author: Mark Sandle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113536639X

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 3194

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Mark Sandle is Lecturer in Russian and East European History at De Montfort University.; This book is intended for undergraduate courses on 20th century Soviet history/the Cold War/European history/Soviet studies/History of political thought/Marxism-Leninism. The Left.

Three "whys" of the Russian Revolution

Author: Richard Pipes

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780712673624

Category: Soviet Union

Page: 84

View: 4876

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'It is my considered judgement that, had it had not been for the Russian Revolution, there would very likely have been no National Socialism; probably no Second World War and no decolonization; and certainly no Cold War, which once dominated our lives. I will attempt here to distill the essence of my books THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION and RUSSIA UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK REGIME by raising the three central questions addressed in those volumes: Why did tsarism fall? Why did the Bolsheviks gain power? Why did Stalin succeed Lenin? Richard Pipes, from THREE WHYS OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION. Arguably the most important event of the twentieth century, the Russian Revolution changed forever the course of modern history. Due to the Soviet clampdown on archives regarding the Revolution, many aspects of the event have been shrouded in mystery for over seventy years. However, since the collapse of Communism the archival despositories have been thrown open to interested parties. 'One of America's great histories'. WASHINGTON POST BOOK WORLD. 'Pipes is not a mere communicator of facts but a philosopher examining the deeper, broader trends beneath the surface of history. ' SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE.

The Russian Revolution

A Beginner's Guide

Author: Abraham Ascher

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780743882

Category: History

Page: 218

View: 4440

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1917: the year a series of rebellions toppled three centuries of autocratic rule and placed a group of political radicals in charge of a world power. Here, suddenly, was the first modern socialist state, “a kingdom more bright that any heaven had to offer”. But the dream was short-lived, bringing in its wake seventy years of conflict and instability that nearly ended in nuclear war. How could such a revolution take place and what caused it to go so very wrong? Presenting a uniquely long view of events, Abraham Ascher takes readers from the seeds of revolution in the 1880s right through to Stalin’s state terror and the power of the communist legacy in Russia today. Original and shrewd, Ascher’s analysis offers an unparalled introduction to this watershed period in world history

The Deluge

The Great War and the Remaking of Global Order 1916-1931

Author: Adam Tooze

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0241006112

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 7437

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WINNER OF THE LOS ANGELES TIMES PRIZE FOR HISTORY FINANCIAL TIMES AND NEW STATESMAN BOOKS OF THE YEAR 2014 On the centenary of the outbreak of the First World War, Deluge is a powerful explanation of why the war's legacy continues to shape our world - from Adam Tooze, the Wolfson Prize-winning author of The Wages of Destruction In the depths of the Great War, with millions of dead and no imaginable end to the conflict, societies around the world began to buckle. As the cataclysmic battles continued, a new global order was being born. Adam Tooze's panoramic new book tells a radical, new story of the struggle for global mastery from the battles of the Western Front in 1916 to the Great Depression of the 1930s. The war shook the foundations of political and economic order across Eurasia. Empires that had lasted since the Middle Ages collapsed into ruins. New nations sprang up. Strikes, street-fighting and revolution convulsed much of the world. And beneath the surface turmoil, the war set in motion a deeper and more lasting shift, a transformation that continues to shape the present day: 1916 was the year when world affairs began to revolve around the United States. America was both a uniquely powerful global force: a force that was forward-looking, the focus of hope, money and ideas, and at the same time elusive, unpredictable and in fundamental respects unwilling to confront these unwished for responsibilities. Tooze shows how the fate of effectively the whole of civilization - the British Empire, the future of peace in Europe, the survival of the Weimar Republic, both the Russian and Chinese revolutions and stability in the Pacific - now came to revolve around this new power's fraught relationship with a shockingly changed world. The Deluge is both a brilliantly illuminating exploration of the past and an essential history for the present.

Lenin

Author: Beryl Williams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131787448X

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 4896

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Drawing on the flood of new material to emerge from Russian and Western sources in recent years, Beryl Williams focuses on Lenin's years in power and provides first-rate introduction to the life, ideology and impact of one of the formative figures of the 20th-century. Within an overall chronological framework, Williams examines topics such as cultural revolution, foreign policy and expansion. As well as being an examination of Lenin’s life and work, this is an up-to-date evaluation of recent historiographical debates and literature in the context of the period.

States of Obligation

Taxes and Citizenship in the Russian Empire and Early Soviet Republic

Author: Yanni Kotsonis

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442696338

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 504

View: 5166

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Beginning in the 1860s, the Russian Empire replaced a poll tax system that originated with Peter the Great with a modern system of income and excise taxes. Russia began a transformation of state fiscal power that was also underway across Western Europe and North America. States of Obligation is the first sustained study of the Russian taxation system, the first to study its European and transatlantic context, and the first to expose the essential continuities between the fiscal practices of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Using a wealth of materials from provincial and local archives across Russia, Yanni Kotsonis examines how taxation was simultaneously a revenue-raising and a state-building tool, a claim on the person and a way to produce a new kind of citizenship. During successive political, wartime, and revolutionary crises between 1855 and 1928, state fiscal power was used to forge social and financial unity and fairness and a direct relationship with individual Russians. State power eventually overwhelmed both the private sector economy and the fragile realm of personal privacy. States of Obligation is at once a study in Russian economic history and a reflection on the modern state and the modern citizen.

Access to History: Bolshevik and Stalinist Russia 1917-64 for AQA Fifth Edition

Author: Michael Lynch

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1471838161

Category: Study Aids

Page: 192

View: 8119

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Give your students the best chance of success with this tried and tested series, combining in-depth analysis, engaging narrative and accessibility. Access to History is the most popular, trusted and wide-ranging series for A-level History students. This title: - Supports the content and assessment requirements of the 2015 A-level History specifications - Contains authoritative and engaging content - Includes thought-provoking key debates that examine the opposing views and approaches of historians - Provides exam-style questions and guidance for each relevant specification to help students understand how to apply what they have learnt This title is suitable for a variety of courses including: - AQA: Revolution and Dictatorship: Russia and the Soviet Union, 1917-1953

The Siberian Curse

How Communist Planners Left Russia Out in the Cold

Author: Fiona Hill,Clifford G. Gaddy

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815796188

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 4144

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Can Russia ever become a normal, free-market, democratic society? Why have so many reforms failed since the Soviet Union's collapse? In this highly-original work, Fiona Hill and Clifford Gaddy argue that Russia's geography, history, and monumental mistakes perpetrated by Soviet planners have locked it into a dead-end path to economic ruin. Shattering a number of myths that have long persisted in the West and in Russia, The Siberian Curse explains why Russia's greatest assets––its gigantic size and Siberia's natural resources––are now the source of one its greatest weaknesses. For seventy years, driven by ideological zeal and the imperative to colonize and industrialize its vast frontiers, communist planners forced people to live in Siberia. They did this in true totalitarian fashion by using the GULAG prison system and slave labor to build huge factories and million-person cities to support them. Today, tens of millions of people and thousands of large-scale industrial enterprises languish in the cold and distant places communist planners put them––not where market forces or free choice would have placed them. Russian leaders still believe that an industrialized Siberia is the key to Russia's prosperity. As a result, the country is burdened by the ever-increasing costs of subsidizing economic activity in some of the most forbidding places on the planet. Russia pays a steep price for continuing this folly––it wastes the very resources it needs to recover from the ravages of communism. Hill and Gaddy contend that Russia's future prosperity requires that it finally throw off the shackles of its Soviet past, by shrinking Siberia's cities. Only by facilitating the relocation of population to western Russia, closer to Europe and its markets, can Russia achieve sustainable economic growth. Unfortunately for Russia, there is no historical precedent for shrinking cities on the scale that will be required. Downsizing Siberia will be a costly and wrenching process. But there is no alternative. Russia cannot afford to keep the cities communist planners left for it out in the cold.

New Myth, New World

From Nietzsche to Stalinism

Author: Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 9780271046587

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 5759

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The Nazis' use and misuse of Nietzsche is well known. The Superman, the "will to power," Nietzsche's equation of bourgeois democracy and decadence, and his denigration of reason were staples of Nazi propaganda. Communists also used and misused Nietzsche, but that fact is largely unknown because Soviet propagandists invoked reason and labeled Nietzsche the "philosopher of fascism," even while covertly appropriating his ideas. In this pioneering book, Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal excavates the trail of long-obscured Nietzschean ideas that took root in late Imperial Russia, intertwining with other elements in the culture to become a vital ingredient of Bolshevism and Stalinism. Nietzsche made a difference. He furnished intellectual ammunition for a prolonged conflict about culture, society, and politics that began around the turn of the century. His first Russian admirers were poets, philosophers, and political activists. They responded to the changes transforming their society by espousing new values and seeking a new faith by which to live and work. This response resulted in new aesthetic and political amalgams, such as Symbolism, Futurism, Nietzschean Christianity, and Nietzschean Marxism. The ensuing debates between and among their partisans reverberated throughout the wider culture and therefore also into Bolshevism, becoming the subject of an uninterrupted polemic between Bolsheviks and non-Bolsheviks, and among Bolsheviks, that continued into the 1930s. In Stalin's time, unacknowledged Nietzschean ideas were used to mobilize the masses for the great tasks of the first Five-Year Plan and the Cultural Revolution, which was intended to eradicate "bourgeois" values and attitudes from Soviet life and to construct a distinctly Socialist culture. Nietzsche's belief that people need illusions to shield them from reality underlay Socialist Realism, the official Soviet aesthetic from 1934 on. In the aftermath of de-Stalinization, the government cast Nietzsche as the personification of "bourgeois" nihilism and "bourgeois" individualism. Soviet intellectuals wishing to reappropriate their lost cultural heritage discovered the Nietzsche-influenced intellectuals of late Imperial Russia and reopened discussion on the issues they had posed. More than an exercise in historical rediscovery, New Myth, New World offers a new interpretation of modern Russian history. By uncovering the buried influence of Nietzschean ideas on Soviet culture and politics, Rosenthal opens new avenues for understanding Soviet ideology and its influence on the twentieth century.

Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920

Author: Oleg Budnitskii

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812208145

Category: Religion

Page: 544

View: 9260

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In the years following the Russian Revolution, a bitter civil war was waged between the Bolsheviks, with their Red Army of Workers and Peasants on the one side, and the various groups that constituted the anti-Bolshevik movement on the other. The major anti-Bolshevik force was the White Army, whose leadership consisted of former officers of the Russian imperial army. In the received—and simplified—version of this history, those Jews who were drawn into the political and military conflict were overwhelmingly affiliated with the Reds, while from the start, the Whites orchestrated campaigns of anti-Jewish violence, leading to the deaths of thousands of Jews in pogroms in the Ukraine and elsewhere. In Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920, Oleg Budnitskii provides the first comprehensive historical account of the role of Jews in the Russian Civil War. According to Budnitskii, Jews were both victims and executioners, and while they were among the founders of the Soviet state, they also played an important role in the establishment of the anti-Bolshevik factions. He offers a far more nuanced picture of the policies of the White leadership toward the Jews than has been previously available, exploring such issues as the role of prominent Jewish politicians in the establishment of the White movement of southern Russia, the "Jewish Question" in the White ideology and its international aspects, and the attempts of the Russian Orthodox Church and White diplomacy to forestall the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. The relationship between the Jews and the Reds was no less complicated. Nearly all of the Jewish political parties severely disapproved of the Bolshevik coup, and the Red Army was hardly without sin when it came to pogroms against the Jews. Budnitskii offers a fresh assessment of the part played by Jews in the establishment of the Soviet state, of the turn in the policies of Jewish socialist parties after the first wave of mass pogroms and their efforts to attract Jews to the Red Army, of Bolshevik policies concerning the Jewish population, and of how these stances changed radically over the course of the Civil War.

Russian San Francisco

Author: Lydia B. Zaverukha,Nina Bogdan

Publisher: Arcadia Publishing

ISBN: 9780738571676

Category: History

Page: 127

View: 3022

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Even before San Francisco was founded as a city, Russian visitors, explorers, and scientists sailed to the area and made contact with both the indigenous people and representatives of the Spanish government. Although the Russian commercial colony of Fort Ross closed in 1842, the Russian presence in San Francisco continued and the community expanded to include churches, societies, businesses, and newspapers. Some came seeking opportunity, while others were fleeing religious or political persecution. In the 1920s, San Franciscoas Russian population grew exponentially as refugees of the Russian Revolution and civil war arrived, and by the 1950s, a vibrant and culturally rich Russian A(c)migrA(c) community was thriving in San Francisco. Today the 75,000 Russian speakers who live in the San Francisco Bay Area continue to pass on their heritage to their children.

Communism

A History

Author: Richard Pipes

Publisher: Modern Library

ISBN: 9781588360960

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 6237

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From one of our greatest historians, a magnificent reckoning with the modern world's most fateful idea. With astonishing authority and clarity, Richard Pipes has fused a lifetime's scholarship into a single focused history of Communism, from its hopeful birth as a theory to its miserable death as a practice. At its heart, the book is a history of the Soviet Union, the most comprehensive reorganization of human society ever attempted by a nation-state. Drawing on much new information, Richard Pipes explains the countryís evolution from the 1917 revolution to the Great Terror and World War II, global expansion and the Cold War chess match with the United States, and the regime's decline and ultimate collapse. There is no more dramatic story in modern history, nor one more crucial to master, than that of how the writing and agitation of two mid-nineteenth-century European thinkers named Marx and Engels led to a great and terrible world religion that brought down a mighty empire, consumed the world in conflict, and left in its wake a devastation whose full costs can only now be tabulated. From the Hardcover edition.

Lenin

A Biography

Author: Robert Service

Publisher: Pan Macmillan

ISBN: 0330476335

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: N.A

View: 1176

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Lenin is a colossal figure whose influence on twentieth-century history cannot be underestimated. Robert Service has written a calmly authoritative biography on this seemingly unknowable figure. Making use of recently opened archives, he has been able to piece together the private as well as the public life, giving the first complete picture of Lenin. This biography simultaneously provides an account of one of the greatest turning points in modern history. Through the prism of Lenin's career, Service examines events such as the October Revolution and the ideas of Marxism-Leninism, the one-party state, economic modernisation, dictatorship, and the politics of inter-war Europe. In discovering the origins of the USSR, he casts light on the nature of the state and society which Lenin left behind and which have not entirely disappeared after the collapse of the Soviet regime in 1991. 'Immensely scholarly but also vivid and readable. This is a splendid book, much the best that I have ever read about Lenin ...I was overwhelmed by the power and vividness of this portrait.' Dominic Lieven, Sunday Telegraph 'He has managed skilfully to depict the surreal life of an obsessive, brilliant and stubborn individual' Guardian 'Lenin's life was politics, but Service has succeeded in keeping Lenin the man in focus throughout . . . This book deserves a place among the best studies of one of the most fascinating figures in modern history' Harold Shukman, The Times