A Philosophy of Comedy on Stage and Screen

You Have to be There

Author: Shaun May

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472580451

Category: Drama

Page: 192

View: 3988

As far as we know, only human beings have a sense of humour – although chimps might laugh when tickled, and dogs respond similarly in play, Seth McFarlane's fan-base is comprised exclusively of humans. Whilst animals and robots might feature as prominent characters in our favourite comic movies, shows and stand-up routines, we have no reason to suspect that their real-life brethren get the joke. Drawing on the philosophy of Martin Heidegger, Shaun May attempts to address this issue – suggesting that there is something distinctive about human beings which grounds our ability to make and comprehend jokes. Guiding the reader through a range of examples, including the films of Charlie Chaplin, the stand-up of Francesca Martinez, the TV show Family Guy and Samuel Beckett's Endgame, he demonstrates that in order to get the joke you have to 'be there'.

Left Behind: The Public Education Crisis in the United States

Author: Paul L. Jalbert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351608193

Category: Social Science

Page: 308

View: 3417

This book addresses the harmful influences that the cultural, social, economic, political and ideological dimensions, in current ‘American’ society, have upon the delivery of elementary, secondary and university education. It examines the effects of poverty, funding at the local, state and federal levels and racial and ethnic discrimination. Arguing against the continuation of standardized testing—an ill-conceived methodology to measure the performance of children—the author advocates more one-on-one teaching and evaluation. He charges that students’ rights to education are not respected and, in elementary and high school, receive little in the way of instruction that translates into life skills and proposes what some of those skills should be. A critique of the extreme ethnocentric approach to education in the United States, Left Behind advocates strong instruction in the Humanities and foreign languages and the establishment of education abroad as a permanent program in high school and university. The author identifies Capitalism as the basic influence that, in the form of employing ‘business model’ constructs, has slowly transformed our children into obedient consumers. Physical Education has waned and become a major contributor to adolescent obesity. Seeking to replace children’s complacency with critical thinking instruction, the author demonstrates how the corporate mass media occupy their minds. He also fears the erosion of the profession of teaching by an ‘online’ instruction frenzy. The book explores the possibilities for a viable nation-wide education institution, in which decision-making is in the hands of teachers, parents and education experts, instead of politicians and business people. The remedies that could be taken up by ordinary people are accessible at the commonsense level; what prevents change are the lack of political will and economic greed, bolstered by the ideological power of the mass media.

Embodiment in the Semiotic Matrix

Communicology in Peirce, Dewey, Bateson, and Bourdieu

Author: Isaac E. Catt

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1611479770

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 252

View: 1356

Communicology is widely accepted on the international scene as a new name for the study of human communication. It replaces several equivocal disciplinary conceptions such as "communication," which may fail to distinguish the science of communication from its object of investigation or the message-centered "communication studies," which often obfuscates information exchange with the experience of shared meaning in human encounters. Communicology differs from the American mainstream social science of communication not only because it is grounded in communication theory rather than information theory, but also because it advances a philosophically informed ecological perspective on human discourse. This book is intended as a contribution to the philosophy of communication and the human science of communicology. Semiotic phenomenology is thoroughly described as the synthetic logic that combines a philosophy of consciousness with a science of culture and conduct to explicate the lifeworld habitus. Consciousness is viewed as cultural-semiotic and experience as personal-phenomenological. This is a reciprocal, reflexive relationship in which culture is conceived as consciousness of communication and communication the manifest experience of culture. The book describes embodiment so conceived, including the history of the matrix idea in American pragmatism and European philosophy as they commingled in the United States to produce a unique discipline of communication, the science of embodied discourse. Important roots of this new discipline are described for the first time here in a unique synthesis of C. S. Peirce, John Dewey, Gregory Bateson, and Pierre Bourdieu. In addition, the semiotic relativity hypothesis is argued to be an important implication of this new discipline. Transcending the stale debate on language and thought, the limited conception of linguistic relativity is considerably broadened and deepened. The distinctive lifeworld of humans is argued to occur at the threshold of sign consciousness in the semiotic matrix of culture-society-person. Semiotic phenomenology is not only a synthesis of two great European philosophical movements, structuralism and phenomenology; it is also the essence of American pragmatism. This view culminates in the contemporary human science of communicology.

Transformative Phenomenology

Changing Ourselves, Lifeworlds, and Professional Practice

Author: David Allan Rehorick,Valerie Malhotra Bentz

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739124116

Category: Medical

Page: 235

View: 5342

The fourteen authors in this collection used phenomenology (the study of consciousness) and hermeneutics (the interpretation of meaning) to conduct deep inquiry into perplexing and wondrous events in their work and personal lives. These seasoned scholar-practitioners gained remarkable insight into areas such as health care and illness, organ donation, intercultural communications, high-performance teams, artistic production, jazz improvisation, and the integration of Tai Chi into education. All authors were transformed by phenomenology's expanded ways of seeing and being.

Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics

Author: Kevin Hermberg,Paul Gyllenhammer

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1780937954

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 9302

The correlation between person and environment has long been a central focus of phenomenological analysis. While phenomenology is usually understood as a descriptive discipline showing how essential features of the human encounter with things and people in the world are articulated, phenomenology is also based on ethical concerns. Husserl himself, the founder of the movement, gave several lecture courses on ethics. This volume focuses on one trend in ethics-virtue ethics-and its connection to phenomenology. The essays explore how phenomenology contributes to this field of ethics and clarifies some of its central issues, such as flourishing and good character traits. The volume initiates a conversation with virtue ethicists that is underrepresented in the current literature. Phenomenology and Virtue Ethics offers contributions from prominent phenomenologists who explore the following issues: how phenomenology is connected to the ancient Greek or Christian virtue tradition, how phenomenology and its foundational thinkers are oriented toward virtue ethics, and how phenomenology is itself a virtue discipline. The focus on phenomenology and virtue ethics in a single volume is the first of its kind.

Becoming Mature

Childhood Ghosts and Spirits in Adult Life

Author: Valerie Malhotra Bentz

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202364384

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 3810

Bentz (sociology, Texas Woman's University) presents an integrated theory of development and maturation focusing on the influence of childhood experiences on adult women. Draws on the theories of Mead, Habermas, and Schutz, and on narratives and group discussions to analyze case studies. Paper edition (unseen), $19.95. Annotation(c) 2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

How to Run A Government

So that Citizens Benefit and Taxpayers Don't Go Crazy

Author: Michael Barber

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141979593

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 2387

Billions of citizens around the world are frustrated with their governments. Why is this? And what can we do about it? In this groundbreaking book Michael Barber draws on his wealth of international experience advising political leaders, to show how those in power can make good on their promises. 'Refreshingly ruthless ... has an uplifting brio to it' Economist 'Michael Barber is a source of inspiration and wisdom' Andrew Adonis, New Statesman 'Excellent ... there is a lot of common sense and practical wisdom ... a breath of fresh air' David Willetts,Standpoint 'Barber is the global overlord of public policy ... a record around the world of actually achieving change' Philip Collins, Prospect

Cosmopolitanism and the Media

Cartographies of Change

Author: M. Christensen,A. Jansson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230392261

Category: Social Science

Page: 193

View: 9006

Cosmopolitanism and the Media explores the diverse implications of today's digital media environments in relation to people's worldviews and social practices. The book presents an empirically grounded account of the relationship between cosmopolitanized lifeworlds and forces of surveillance, control and mobility.

Interaction and Everyday Life

Phenomenological and Ethnomethodological Essays in Honor of George Psathas

Author: Hisashi Nasu,Frances Chaput Waksler

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739176455

Category: Philosophy

Page: 374

View: 3979

Phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology have many adherents and practitioners throughout the world. The international character of interest in these two areas is exemplified by the papers in this book, which come from scholars in Canada, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Switzerland, and the United States. They exemplify the kinds of theoretical and research issues that arise in seeking to explore the social world in ways that respect what Edmund Husserl referred to as “the original right” of all data. The papers were inspired in various ways by the work of George Psathas, Professor Emeritus, Boston University, a renowned phenomenological sociologist and ethnomethodologist and a fundamental contributor to phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology movements both in the United States and throughout the world. The collection consists of three parts: Phenomenology Sociology as an Intellectual Movement, Phenomenological Considerations, and Ethnomethodological Explorations, reflecting areas to which Professor Psathas has made significant contributions. A phenomenological sociology movement in the US is examined as an intellectual movement in itself and as it is influenced by a leader’s participation both as scholar and as teacher. Phenomenological sociology’s efficacy and potential are discussed in terms of a broad range of theoretical and empirical issues: methodology, similarities and differences between phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology, embodied sociality, power, trust, friendship, face-to-face interaction, and interactions between children and adults.Theoretical articles addressing fundamental features of ethnomethodology, its development, and its relation to process-relational philosophy are balanced by empirical articles founded on authors’ original ethnomethodological research—activities of direction-giving and direction-following, accounts for organizational deviance, garden lessons, doing being friends, and the crafting of musical time. Through these papers readers can come to understand the theoretical development of phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology, appreciate their achievements and their promise, and find inspiration to pursue their own work in phenomenological sociology and ethnomethodology.

Time Matters

On Theory and Method

Author: Andrew Abbott

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226001029

Category: Political Science

Page: 318

View: 8795

What do variables really tell us? When exactly do inventions occur? Why do we always miss turning points as they transpire? When does what doesn't happen mean as much, if not more, than what does? Andrew Abbott considers these fascinating questions in Time Matters, a diverse series of essays that constitutes the most extensive analysis of temporality in social science today. Ranging from abstract theoretical reflection to pointed methodological critique, Abbott demonstrates the inevitably theoretical character of any methodology. Time Matters focuses particularly on questions of time, events, and causality. Abbott grounds each essay in straightforward examinations of actual social scientific analyses. Throughout, he demonstrates the crucial assumptions we make about causes and events, about actors and interaction and about time and meaning every time we employ methods of social analysis, whether in academic disciplines, market research, public opinion polling, or even evaluation research. Turning current assumptions on their heads, Abbott not only outlines the theoretical orthodoxies of empirical social science, he sketches new alternatives, laying down foundations for a new body of social theory.

Deliverology 101

A Field Guide For Educational Leaders

Author: Michael Barber,Andy Moffit,Paul Kihn

Publisher: Corwin Press

ISBN: 1412989507

Category: Education

Page: 281

View: 869

Michael Barber, former chief advisor on delivery to British Prime Minister Tony Blair, provides steps to achieving public education reform in this practical field guide.

Mindful Inquiry in Social Research

Author: Valerie Malhotra Bentz,Jeremy J. Shapiro

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761904090

Category: Education

Page: 216

View: 7506

This innovative introduction to research in the social sciences guides students and new researchers through the maze of research traditions, cultures of inquiry and epistemological frameworks. It introduces the underlying logic of ten cultures of inquiry: ethnography; quantitative behavioral science; phenomenology; action research; hermeneutics; evaluation research; feminist research; critical social science; historical-comparative research; and theoretical research. It clarifies conceptual and intellectual traditions in research, and puts researchers firmly in the investigative saddle - able to choose, justify, and explain the intellectual framework and personal rationale of their research.

Deliverology in Practice

How Education Leaders Are Improving Student Outcomes

Author: Michael Barber,Nick Rodriguez,Ellyn Artis

Publisher: Corwin Press

ISBN: 148333290X

Category: Education

Page: 384

View: 4512

Everything you need to implement school change that gets results! Internationally recognized education expert Michael Barber provides proven methods and clear steps to achieve successful policy implementation and offers practical solutions for reviving stalled reform efforts. You will learn to: Set clear, measureable goals and build a reform coalition Understand and drive delivery through data analysis, progress monitoring, and course corrections Plan for delivery with explicit, day-to-day implementation planning, updated with proven methods from years of practice Identify and address challenges Includes new case studies and embedded links. Use this new field guide to get your implementation on the right track today!

Phenomenology of Consciousness and Sociology of the Life-world

An Introductory Study

Author: Helmut R. Wagner

Publisher: University of Alberta

ISBN: 9780888640321

Category: Philosophy

Page: 225

View: 3388

A method of inquiry largely formulated by the German Edmund Husserl and later adapted by Alfred Schutz, phenomenological psychology is explained in this introductory study. It shows how phenomenology can be used in examining the reality of the world of everyday life, and how it provides an antidote to behaviorism, symbolic logic and other positivist systems.


A Novel

Author: Jamaica Kincaid

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 1466828854

Category: Fiction

Page: 164

View: 2536

Lucy, a teenage girl from the West Indies, comes to America to work as an au pair for a wealthy couple. She begins to notice cracks in their beautiful façade at the same time that the mysteries of own sexuality begin to unravel. Jamaica Kincaid has created a startling new heroine who is destined to win a place of honor in contemporary fiction.

Extraordinary Anthropology

Transformations in the Field

Author: Jean-Guy Goulet,Bruce Granville Miller

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 9780803206984

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 2474

What happens when anthropologists lose themselves during fieldwork while attempting to understand divergent cultures? When they stray from rigorous agendas and are forced to confront radically unexpected or unexplained experiences? In Extraordinary Anthropology leading ethnographers from across the globe discuss the importance of the deeply personal and emotionally volatile ?ecstatic? side of fieldwork. ø Anthropologists who have worked in communities in Central America, North America, Australia, Africa, and Asia share their intimate experiences of tranformations in the field through details of significant dreams, haunting visions, and their own conflicting emotional tensions. Their experiences demonstrate the necessary fluidity of research agendas, the value of going beyond an accepted (and safe) cultural and academic vantage point, and the inevitability of wrestling with tension and unhappiness when faced with irreconcilable cultural and psychological dichotomies. The contributors explore ways in which conventional research methods can be adapted to creatively engage the intellectual, ethical, and practical dimensions of these dislocations and capitalize on them. Unsettling and revealing, Extraordinary Anthropology will spark debate and reflection among anthropologists for years to come.

Husserl's Crisis of the European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology

An Introduction

Author: Dermot Moran

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139560360

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 4527

The Crisis of the European Sciences is Husserl's last and most influential book, written in Nazi Germany where he was discriminated against as a Jew. It incisively identifies the urgent moral and existential crises of the age and defends the relevance of philosophy at a time of both scientific progress and political barbarism. It is also a response to Heidegger, offering Husserl's own approach to the problems of human finitude, history and culture. The Crisis introduces Husserl's influential notion of the 'life-world' – the pre-given, familiar environment that includes both 'nature' and 'culture' – and offers the best introduction to his phenomenology as both method and philosophy. Dermot Moran's rich and accessible introduction to the Crisis explains its intellectual and political context, its philosophical motivations and the themes that characterize it. His book will be invaluable for students and scholars of Husserl's work and of phenomenology in general.

The sociology of Anthony Giddens

Author: Steven Loyal

Publisher: Pluto Pr

ISBN: 9780745317809

Category: Social Science

Page: 243

View: 6689

A rigorous but accessible introduction to Giddens’ work, including a critical assessment of his writings on the Third Way.

Inequality and the State

Author: John Hills

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191534867

Category: Political Science

Page: 312

View: 3342

This book is about inequality, how the State affects distribution through its spending programmes and through taxation, and what the public thinks of these three issues. It describes and analyses one of the biggest social changes in Britain since the Second World War: the dramatic widening of the income distribution since the end of the 1970s, the growth of poverty, and the factors that have driven them. And it examines how government social spending and the taxes that pay for it affect this distribution, and why they take the forms they do. Each part of the discussion is set in the context of public attitudes as revealed by the rigorous and long-running British Social Attitudes survey, and of Britain's position by comparison with other countries. Against this background, the book analyses changes in policy since New Labour came to government in 1997, discusses the impacts of these changes, and looks at the constraints and pressures on future policies, before concluding with a discussion of the dilemmas facing policy-makers as they try to meet competing aims in reducing poverty and inequality, growing demands on social spending, and the constraints and opportunities created by public attitudes.

Contemplative Social Research

Caring for Self, Being, and Lifeworld

Author: Valerie Bentz,Vincenzo M. B. Giorgino

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781541119147


Page: 336

View: 4192

Contemplative Social Research brings together research and insights from scholars throughout Europe and North America, and from a variety of social science disciplines. The book argues that contemplative-based inquiry is unique in recognizing the deep oneness of humanity, since it requires embodied awareness as well as openness to the transpersonal dimensions of the human experience. No single discipline can deal with such vitally important issues as climate change, growing social inequalities, or the social impact of new digital technologies. Consequently, the book argues that only a contemplative vision that pushes the boundaries between disciplines and cultures can extend and broaden the social and human sciences. Part One focuses on conceptualizations of knowing and being. First, Zachary Walsh broadens mindfulness practice beyond various cultural, religious, and disciplinary perspectives. Valerie Bentz addresses the essentially contemplative nature of phenomenological inquiry, which is a way of being, as well as a way of knowing. Doug Porpora's "critical realism" reclaims the spiritual realm as necessary to ground moral and ethical action. Donald McCown recaps the benefits of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs), structured as nonhierarchical groups of friends. Xavier Renteria-Uriarte views contemplation as the basis for all knowledge systems throughout human history. And Vincenzo Giorgino argues in favor of a balanced point of encounter between contemplative knowledge and social sciences. Part Two presents applications of contemplative research and practice. Krzysztof Konecki maintains that consistent meditative practices enhance the ability of social scientists to see beyond the concepts and categories that may constrain their research. Annabelle Nelson shows that contemplative psychology, along with advancements in knowledge of the brain, allow for a fundamental transformation of the mind. Luann Fortune describes her experience using the somatic and meditative practice of labyrinth-walking as a tool for opening up her interpretation of data about her participants' experiences. David Casacuberta demonstrates that the current software design for smartphones and computers-now pervasive ways of connecting-developed from a hierarchical and power-based mode of connectivity. And finally, Christopher Mare takes contemplative practice deeper into neuroscience and broader into environmental design.