Selective Incapacitation and the Serious Offender

A Longitudinal Study of Criminal Career Patterns

Author: Rudy Haapanen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146123266X

Category: Psychology

Page: 160

View: 6967

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And if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off, and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one ofthy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be cast into hell. Matthew 5. 30 The great War on Pover,ty of the 1960s focused on the root causes of crime, unemployment, lack of education, and discrimination. It was eventually agreed that the War on Poverty failed as a crime control program, and the focus of policy shifted toward more proximate causes of crime. Infact, it seems safe to say that since the 1960s, the United States has looked primarily to the criminal justice system to solve its crime problem. With the 1990s upon us, what can we say about the success of crime control policies that rely on the criminal justice system? The picture, taken one approach or program at a time, is not good. It is now generally agreed that the criminal justice system fails to rehabilitate offenders, to make them less likely to commit criminal acts as a result of treatment or training; that the system fails to deter potential offenders, to make them less likely to commit criminal acts out of fear of penal sanctions; and that such programs as increased police patrols, reinstatement of the death penalty, and modification of the exclusionary rule are unlikely to have much effect on crime, at least within the limits imposed on them by reasonable assessments of their costs.

Urban Crime, Criminals, and Victims

The Swedish Experience in an Anglo-American Comparative Perspective

Author: Per-Olof H. Wikström

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146139077X

Category: Psychology

Page: 271

View: 2800

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Crime is largely an urban phenomenon, but the specifically urban and area dimen sions of the social processes that are connected with crime have been seriously understated in much recent criminological work ... Such a claim could not have been made forty years ago. (Baldwin & Bottoms, 1976, p. 1). The above statement by Baldwin and Bottoms about the neglect in crimi nology of the urban dimension of crime was made in the mid-1970s. However, in the last decade there has been a significant upswing in theory and research on crime in the urban environment. Also, new areas oftheory and research into urban crime have come into focus. (For overviews see Brantingham & Brantingham, 1984; Davidson, 1981.) One very good example of the increasing interest in urban crime is the recent volume of Crime and Justice entitled "Communities and Crime" (Reiss & Tonry, 1986), in which Reiss makes a strong argument for the importance of the study of crime in urban communities and for the linking of the ecological and individual traditions in theory and research on crime. A review of the literature on crime in urban environments shows, not unexpectedly, that Anglo-American research heavily dominates the scene (Wikstrom, 1982; 1987b). Hence, much of the experience we have on urban crime is based on North American and British research and theory.

Handbuch der forensischen Psychiatrie

Band 4: Kriminologie und forensische Psychiatrie

Author: Hans-Ludwig Kröber,Dieter Dölling,Norbert Leygraf,Henning Saß

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3798517460

Category: Medical

Page: 697

View: 348

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Mit diesem Handbuch betreten die Autoren Neuland in der forensisch-psychiatrischen Literatur: Erstmals werden hier die kriminologischen und psychiatrischen Sachverhalte hinsichtlich des Delikttypus’ zusammengetragen. Nach einem einleitenden Kapitel zur Methodik werden Kriminologie und Psychopathologie prominenter Delinquenzformen erörtert. Schließlich wird ausführlich das kriminologische Wissen über Kriminalitätsopfer und deren rechtliche Stellung erörtert. Abgerundet wird der Band mit Beiträgen zur Soziologie und Psychologie des Strafverfahrens.

Key Issues in Criminal Career Research

New Analyses of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

Author: Alex R. Piquero,David P. Farrington,Alfred Blumstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521613095

Category: Social Science

Page: 240

View: 2012

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This book examines several contentious and under-studied criminal career issues using one of the world's most important longitudinal studies, the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), a longitudinal study of 411 South London boys followed in criminal records to age 40. The analysis reported in the book explores issues related to prevalence, offending frequency, specialization, onset sequences, co-offending, chronicity, career length, and trajectory estimation. The results of the study are considered in the context of developmental/life-course theories, and the authors outline an agenda for criminal career research generally, and within the context of the CSDD specifically.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Implications for Justice Policy

Author: John F. MacLeod,Peter Grove,David Farrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191645249

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 3229

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This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

PAIS Subject Headings

Author: Public Affairs Information Service

Publisher: [New York] : Public Affairs Information Service, Incorporated

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economics

Page: 536

View: 9417

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Patterns of Violent Crime

A Longitudinal Investigation

Author: Rudy A. Haapanen,Kathy Houston-Hencken,Mary Duncan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Violent crimes

Page: 35

View: 1364

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Delinquenz im Jugendalter

Erkenntnisse einer Münsteraner Längsschnittstudie

Author: Jost Reinecke

Publisher: Waxmann Verlag

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 6201

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Developmental and Life Course Studies in Delinquency and Crime

A Review of Contemporary Dutch Research

Author: Arjan Blokland,Paul Nieuwbeerta

Publisher: Eleven International Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 351

View: 2485

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This book brings together some of the best empirical studies in Dutch Development and Life Course research. Developmental and life course criminology (DLC) is an exciting and rapidly growing research area within the larger field of criminology. DLC focuses on explaining the development of anti-social, delinquent and criminal behavior from childhood to adulthood. In doing so, DLC embraces insights from a wide range of academic disciplines including behavioral genetics, developmental psychology and psychiatry, criminology, and life course sociology. Much DLC research is based on Anglo-American data. The number of longitudinal studies and researchers on DLC topics in the Netherlands however, is substantial and increasing. Based on first-rate Dutch research this book covers major topics in DLC. These include the role of individual characteristics, family environment and peers in delinquent development, as well as whether life events and interventions can act as ‘turning points’, and reroute developmental trajectories. The book’s introductory chapter briefly introduces the key points of debate within DLC. Sections introductions further place the selected readings within the larger DLC frame. The book gives an overview of contemporary Dutch DLC research. It also provides a useful introduction to DLC for researchers and students in criminology, psychology, psychiatry and related disciplines, interested in the way criminal behavior progresses over time.

Public Policy, Crime, and Criminal Justice

Author: Barry W. Hancock,Paul M. Sharp

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 9209

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Designed to provide readers with a “whole-system” view of policy, crime, and criminal justice, this unique anthology offers a collection of original works that explore the issues related to public policy and crime. . Organizes articles strategically--beginning with a general discussion of public policy to the causes of crime to the components of the criminal justice system to the implications for policy. For those in the Public Affairs, Criminology, Criminal Justice, Political Science, Police Studies, and Public Administration fields.

Criminology

theory, research, and policy

Author: Gennaro F. Vito,Ronald M. Holmes

Publisher: Wadsworth Pub Co

ISBN: 9780534148867

Category: Law

Page: 431

View: 7985

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Focusing on pure criminology (not criminal justice systems topics), this book takes a broad approach to criminological theory, incorporating sociology, psychology, biology, and ecology. The text blends the theoretical and applied aspects of criminology, incorporating timely topics such as gang violence, substance abuse, serial murder, and satanic cults. Writing from a social sciences perspective, the authors explore why and how crime occurs, and how this knowledge can guide policy development. The authors show the interplay of theory, research, and public policy throughout the text.

Juvenile justice

redeeming our children

Author: Barry Krisberg

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 236

View: 8902

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Juvenile Justice: Redeeming Our Children debunks myths about juvenile justice in order to achieve an ideal system that would protect vulnerable children and help build safer communities. Author Barry Krisberg assembles broad and up-to-date research, statistical data, and theories on the U.S. juvenile justice system to encourage effective responses to youth crime. This text gives a historical context to the ongoing quest for the juvenile justice ideal and examines how the current system of laws, policies, and practices came into place.

The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

Author: Mike Maguire,Rodney Morgan,Robert Reiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 1267

View: 7393

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Comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the subject. Useful to anyone who teaches, studies or practices criminology.

Criminal Careers and "Career Criminals,"

Author: Committee on Research on Law Enforcement and the Administration of Justice,Panel on Research on Criminal Careers,National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309036844

Category: Law

Page: 458

View: 5380

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By focusing attention on individuals rather than on aggregates, this book takes a novel approach to studying criminal behavior. It develops a framework for collecting information about individual criminal careers and their parameters, reviews existing knowledge about criminal career dimensions, presents models of offending patterns, and describes how criminal career information can be used to develop and refine criminal justice policies. In addition, an agenda for future research on criminal careers is presented.