Semantics

Author: Frank Robert Palmer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521283762

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 221

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When the first edition of Semantics appeared in 1976, the developments in this aspect of language study were exciting interest not only among linguists, but among philosophers, psychologists and logicians. Professor Palmer's straightforward and comprehensive book was immediately welcomed as one of the best introductions to the subject. Interest in Semantics has been further stimulated recently by a number of significant, and often contriversial, theoretical advances; and the publication of this second edition has enabled Professor Palmer to bring his survey thoroughly up to date. There is also an important new chapter on 'Semantics and logic', showing clearly and simply the influence that logical models have had on the study of meaning. Professor Palmer always illustrates his argument with helpful examples, and his non-technical explanations will be readily intelligible to the interested layman as well as to beginning students of language and linguistics.

Lexical Semantics

Author: D. A. Cruse

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521276436

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 310

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Lexical Semantics is about the meaning of words. Although obviously a central concern of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of words has been unduly neglected in the current literature, which has tended to emphasize sentential semantics and its relation to formal systems of logic. In this textbook D. A. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will have to encompass. Among the topics covered in depth are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical relations such as hyponymy and meronymy, and various types of oppositeness. Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail. The discussions are richly illustrated by examples drawn almost entirely from English. Although a familiarity with traditional grammar is assumed, readers with no technical linguistic background will find the exposition always accessible. All readers with an interest in semantics will find in this original text not only essential background but a stimulating new perspective on the field.

Semantik / Semantics

Ein internationales Handbuch der zeitgenössischen Forschung. An International Handbook of Contemporary Research

Author: Arnim von Stechow,Dieter Wunderlich

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110203367

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 935

View: 3089

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During the past 20 years the investigation into meaning of natural languages has emerged into one of the most active disciplines in theoretical linguistics. The different traditions of linguistics, philosophy of language and philosophical logic converged in the paradigm of truth conditional semantics, which now plays a central role in the cognitive sciences. From empirical research in particular languages more principal questions arise of how the speaker succeeds in expressing particular types of meaning by use of formal combination of signs. The theories developed to cope with the question assume that for a hearer, the meaning of a complex expression must be "computable", and therefore, modern theoretical semantics uses formal algebraic methods to construct the meaning compositionally in view of syntactic structur. Furthermore, meaning need to be "anchored" in the experience available to hearer. In order to deal with this, theoretical semantics extensivly uses the concept of truth conditions, which roughly explain how a world must be structured in order to be matched by certain linguistic expressions. Semantic analyses are complemented by context theory and the theory of speech acts. Thus, linguistic meaning must be related to human cognitive capacities, and therefore, theoretical semantics is tightly connected with philosophical logic as well as cognitive sciences in general. The aim of this handbook is to represent the body of theoretical knowledge which has evolved in the international research of the last two decades. Some of the theories can now be termed "classical" in that they belong to the commonly accepted base of theoretical semantics. Other theories are still disputed, and there areproblems still to be solved - as normal in a more developed science. The authors, who are leading experts in the field of semantics, try to balance the accepted and the questionable results. It goes without saying that each author hold a particular position in this respect. Some articles are written in English, some in German. Since semantics is considered to be a subfield of linguistics, the articles are arranged due to linguistic points of view. In the first 5 chapters (comprising 15 articles) the common principles of semantics are presented: ontological foundations of semantics, composition of meaning, problems of use (context, speech acts, and lexical base of meaning. The next 5 chapters (comprising 25 articles) are concerned with semantic phenomena, theories and problems which are specific for a particular class of linguistic expressions. These are arranged according to parts of speech: nouns, functional categories, verbs, adjectives and so on.This division does not reflect a theoretical position by itself, however it allows one to recognize problems connected with one another. Some more general questions are discussed in more than one article, in different perspective and vicinity. The Handbook is complemented by a service article on formal methods in semantics, followed by a comprehensive bibliography including about 1700 entries, and both a subject and a name index. This handbook is indispensable for all research in linguistics and neighboring disciplines (philosophy of language, cognitive sciences). Some of the articles can serve as basic literature for classes of advanced students.

Semantics

An International Handbook of Natural Language Meaning

Author: Claudia Maienborn,Klaus von Heusinger,Paul Portner

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3110184702

Category: Semantics

Page: 969

View: 1861

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Semantics

Author: John I. Saeed

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444358758

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 480

View: 2403

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The third edition of this popular textbook provides an engaging and accessible introduction to semantics for students new to the field. Explores the basic concepts and methods of the field and discusses some of the most important contemporary lines of research Contains new solutions to chapter exercises in order to familiarize the student with the practice of semantic description Completely revised and updated to reflect recent theoretical developments Includes new sections on classifiers and noun classes, as well as conceptual integration

Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics

Author: Alan Cruse

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748626891

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 208

View: 2491

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This alphabetic guide introduces terms referring to key concepts in semantics and pragmatics. The study of meaning as it is conveyed through language - the domain of semantics and pragmatics--is one of the central concerns of linguistics, and its importance cannot be exaggerated. Written by an author well-known in the field of semantics, the glossary provides clear and accessible explanations of terms drawn from a wide range of theoretical approaches.

Semantics

An Interdisciplinary Reader in Philosophy, Linguistics and Psychology

Author: Danny D. Steinberg

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521078221

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 603

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Includes contributions by R.M.W. Dixon - A method of semantic description; K.L. Hale - A note on a Walbiri tradition of antonymy, both listed separetely in bibliography.

Semantics

The Study of Meaning

Author: Geoffrey N. Leech

Publisher: Penguin Uk

ISBN: 9780140134872

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 383

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Geoffrey Leech stresses the contribution of semantics to the understanding of practical problems of communication and concept-manipulation in modern society.

Treatise on Basic Philosophy

Semantics I: Sense and Reference

Author: Mario BUNGE

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789027705341

Category: Science

Page: 186

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In this Introduction we shall sketch a profile of our field of inquiry. This is necessary because semantics is too often mistaken for lexicography and therefore dismissed as trivial, while at other times it is disparaged for being concerned with reputedly shady characters such as meaning and allegedly defunct ones like truth. Moreover our special concern, the semantics of science, is a newcomer - at least as a systematic body - and therefore in need of an introduction. l. GOAL Semantics is the field of inquiry centrally concerned with meaning and truth. It can be empirical or nonempirical. When brought to bear on concrete objects, such as a community of speakers, semantics seeks to answer problems concerning certain linguistic facts - such as disclosing the interpretation code inherent in the language or explaning the speakers' ability or inability to utter and understand new sentences ofthe language. This kind of semantics will then be both theoretical and experimental: it will be a branch of what used to be called 'behavioral science'.

Semantics

Author: Kate Kearns

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 0230356095

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 288

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'Kearns' book provides a lively and engaging introduction to formal semantics. This new edition extends the scope of the first edition by providing additional material on formalization in a very accessible manner. The presentation is clear and user-friendly throughout, making this a really useful resource for use with undergraduates and beginning graduate students alike' – Professor Louisa Sadler, University of Essex Semantics is the study of the literal meaning of words and the meaning of the way words are combined. This engaging introduction to formal semantics assumes no prior knowledge, providing a solid understanding of a range of semantic phenomena. Truly wide-ranging in coverage, no other introductory textbook discusses a comparable range of topics. Areas covered include: • a beginner's introduction to type theory and the lambda calculus • generalized quantifier theory • referential opacity • thematic roles and lexical conceptual structure • aktionsarten • tense and aspect, including Discourse Representation Theory • event semantics Illustrated throughout with numerous practical examples, each chapter also contains exercises, graded to three different levels of difficulty, as well as suggestions for further reading. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this second edition includes entirely new material on type theory, lambda calculus, semantic composition and discussion of time within a narrative. Comprehensive and accessible, Semantics is ideal for both undergraduate and postgraduate students working at a variety of levels.

Cross-linguistic Semantics

Author: Cliff Goddard

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027205698

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 356

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Cross-linguistic semantics – investigating how languages package and express meanings differently – is central to the linguistic quest to understand the nature of human language. This set of studies explores and demonstrates cross-linguistic semantics as practised in the natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) framework, originated by Anna Wierzbicka. The opening chapters give a state-of-the-art overview of the NSM model, propose several theoretical innovations and advance a number of original analyses in connection with names and naming, clefts and other specificational sentences, and discourse anaphora. Subsequent chapters describe and analyse diverse phenomena in ten languages from multiple families, geographical locations, and cultural settings around the globe. Three substantial studies document how the metalanguage of NSM semantic primes can be realised in languages of widely differing types: Amharic (Ethiopia), Korean, and East Cree. Each constitutes a lexicogrammatical portrait in miniature of the language concerned. Other chapters probe topics such as inalienable possession in Koromu (Papua New Guinea), epistemic verbs in Swedish, hyperpolysemy in Bunuba (Australia), the expression of "momentariness" in Berber, ethnogeometry in Makasai (East Timor), value concepts in Russian, and “virtuous emotions” in Japanese. This book will be valuable for linguists working on language description, lexical semantics, or the semantics of grammar, for advanced students of linguistics, and for others interested in language universals and language diversity.

Linguistic Semantics

An Introduction

Author: John Lyons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521438773

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 376

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This successor to Language, Meaning and Context provides an invaluable introduction to linguistic semantics.

Semantics

A Coursebook

Author: James R. Hurford,Brendan Heasley,Michael B. Smith

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139463322

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 361

View: 4153

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This practical coursebook introduces all the basics of semantics in a simple, step-by-step fashion. Each unit includes short sections of explanation with examples, followed by stimulating practice exercises to complete in the book. Feedback and comment sections follow each exercise to enable students to monitor their progress. No previous background in semantics is assumed, as students begin by discovering the value and fascination of the subject and then move through all key topics in the field, including sense and reference, simple logic, word meaning and interpersonal meaning. New study guides and exercises have been added to the end of each unit to help reinforce and test learning. A completely new unit on non-literal language and metaphor, plus updates throughout the text significantly expand the scope of the original edition to bring it up-to-date with modern teaching of semantics for introductory courses in linguistics as well as intermediate students.

Semantics:

Author: John Lyons

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521291866

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 897

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This book, which can be read independently, deals with more specifically linguistic problems in semantics and contains substantial original material.

Semantics

Author: Howard Gregory

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134606664

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 104

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Semantics is an accessible and practical introduction to formal semantics, the study of linguistic meaning, for students new to the subject. Semantics: * shows how meanings are built up and interrelated * presupposes very little prior knowledge of grammar or linguistic terminology * includes a glossary of technical terms * provides a progression of exercises with answers given at the back * backs up the activities with short, clear explanations * includes an appendix on sets and functions.

Semantics

From meaning to text

Author: Igor Mel’čuk

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027271658

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 400

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This book presents an innovative approach to linguistic semantics, starting from the idea that language is a mechanism for the expression of linguistic meanings as particular surface forms (texts). Semantics is that system of rules that ensures a transition from a Semantic Representation of the meaning of a family of synonymous sentences to the Deep-Syntactic Representation of a particular sentence. Framed in terms of Meaning-Text linguistics, this volume discusses the Deep-Syntactic Representation and the transition from Semantics to Deep-Syntax via Semantic paraphrasing (the equivalence amongst Semantic Representations), Deep-Syntactic paraphrasing (the equivalence amongst Deep-Syntactic Representations), and the passage between the two. A chapter is dedicated to the Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary, a semantically based and co-occurrence-centered lexicon. Reflecting the author’s life-long dedication to semantics and syntax, this book is a paradigm-shifting contribution to language studies whose originality and daring will make it essential reading for linguists, anthropologists, semioticians, and computational linguists.

The Semantics of Grammar

Author: Anna Wierzbicka

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027230196

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 617

View: 5987

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"The semantics of grammar" presents a radically semantic approach to syntax and morphology. It offers a methodology which makes it possible to demonstrate, on an empirical basis, that syntax is neither "autonomous" nor "arbitrary," but that it follows from "semantics." It is shown that every grammatical construction encodes a certain semantic structure, which can be revealed and rigorously stated, so that the meanings encoded in grammar can be compared in a precise and illuminating way, within one language and across language boundaries. The author develops a semantic metalanguage based on lexical universals or near-universals (and, ultimately, on a system of universal semantic primitives), and shows that the same semantic metalanguage can be used for explicating lexical, grammatical and pragmatic aspects of language and thus offers a method for an integrated linguistic description based on semantic foundations. Analyzing data from a number of different languages (including English, Russian and Japanese) the author explores the notion of ethnosyntax and, via semantics, links syntax and morphology with culture. She attemps to demonstrate that the use of a semantic metalanguage based on lexical universals makes it possible to rephrase the Humboldt-Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in such a way that it can be tested and treated as a program for empirical research.

Semantics and Cognition

Author: Ray Jackendoff,Ray S. Jackendoff

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262600132

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 283

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This book emphasizes the role of semantics as a bridge between the theory of language and the theories of other cognitive capacities such as visual perception and motor control. It develops the position that the study of semantics of natural language is the study of the structure of thought, and that grammatical structure offers a much more important source of evidence for the theory of cognition than is often supposed by linguists, philosophers, psychologists, or computer scientists.Ray Jackendoff is Professor of Linguistics and Chairman of the Linguistics and Cognitive Science Program at Brandeis University. His most recent book, coauthored with Fred Lerdahl, is A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (MIT Press paperback). Semantics and Cognition is included in the series, Current Studies in Linguistics.