Shanghai Cooperation Organization - Strategische Partnerschaft zwischen Russland und China

Author: Bianca Hühnerfuß

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3640989899

Category: Political Science

Page: 24

View: 6910

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Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2009 im Fachbereich Politik - Internationale Politik - Thema: Int. Organisationen u. Verbände, , Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Am 2. März jährte sich der militärische Konflikt zwischen China und Russland zum vierzigsten Mal. Die Grenzstreitigkeiten waren eskaliert und am Grenzfluss Ussuri standen sich die verfeindete Parteien gegenüber. Heute stehen Russland und China als strategische Partner Seite an Seite. So scheint es jedenfalls, denn trotz gemeinsamer Militär-Manöver und hervorragenden Wirtschaftsbeziehungen überwiegt auf beiden Seiten eine misstrauische Grundhaltung. „Die feindliche Haltung, mit der sich Sowjetunion und Volksrepublik China in den 60er und auch noch 70er Jahren gegenüberstanden, wirkt in die Gegenwart nach.“ Trotz aller Gegensätze ist Zusammenarbeit, die sich nach dem Zerfall der Sowjetunion zwischen Peking und Moskau entwickelte spektakulär. Seit 1996 wird sie von beiden Seiten als „strategische Partnerschaft“ qualifiziert. Das Symbol dieser Partnerschaft ist neben dem 2001 unterzeichneten Freundschaftsvertrag auch das gemeinsame Engagement in der Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO). Die Organisation soll im Mittelpunkt dieser Arbeit stehen und es soll geklärt werden, welche der beiden Nationen die SCO und somit auch die „strategische Partnerschaft“ dominiert und für seine Zwecke ausnutzt. In diesem Zusammenhang ist auch die amerikanische Präsenz in Zentralasien beziehungsweise das strategische Dreieck zwischen den USA, Russland und China von Interesse

Strategy for Security in East AsiaisShanghai Cooperation Organization

Author: Li Hongwei JinFeng, Li

Publisher: Paths International Ltd

ISBN: 184464393X

Category: Political Science

Page: 200

View: 1752

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organization or SCO is a Eurasian political, economic and military organization which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.This book is written by leading researchers from China and provides an overview of the SCO and examines important meetings, the regional situation and hot-spot issues. The current situation and future prospects for intra-SCO cooperation is also explored.Shanghai Cooperation Organization: Eurasian Security Status and Trend provides information on the current international and regional situations and the complex changes in the geopolitical and economic patterns faced by the SCO, plus in-depth views on the impact of regional hot-spot issues and major events in the development of the SCO. It also provides a comprehensive introduction to intra-SCO cooperation and the vigorous progress that has been achieved in the fields of security, military, economy, transportation, education and culture. It also includes a systematic and objective description of the current situation of the SCO member states and observer states, as well as their relations with the SCO. What makes this book different from others is the predictions and studies on the political and economic trends of the member states and observer states and the policy recommendations given by several experts from within the key organisations.

China's Energy Geopolitics

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Central Asia

Author: Thrassy N. Marketos

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134106017

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 5039

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China’s need for energy has become a driving factor in contemporary world politics and a precondition for sustaining China’s continuing high economic growth. Accordingly, Chinese energy policy has been a political and strategic rather than market-driven policy. This book focuses on the need of a stable and secure investment environment which is necessary for the energy provision of China from the Central Asian states. The author argues that the institutionalization of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (S.C.O.), the Friendship and Cooperation Treaty between Russia and China and Chinese bilateral agreements with individual Central Asian states present an avenue and a framework of stability in which pipeline construction can commence. With the backing of the US in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Chinese involvement in the region has now been expanding. However, in order to stabilize the region for Chinese investment in energy resources, the author states that the US needs to be present in the region and that a strategic framework of cooperation between Russia, China and the US has to be developed. The book will be of interest to academics working in the field of International Security, International Relations and Central Asian and Chinese politics.

The Security Governance of Regional Organizations

Author: Emil J. Kirchner,Roberto Dominguez

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136645047

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 3448

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The Security Governance of Regional Organizations assesses the effectiveness of regional organizations as regional or global security providers, and examines how policy preferences, resources, capabilities, institutional mechanisms and economic and political cohesion link with collective action behaviour in four security policy functions. It investigates how regional organizations meet the new security threats or respond to strategic geopolitical changes and what adaptations they make in the process. Divided into three parts and using a common analytical framework, the book explains the changing security agenda in ten key regional organizations, each organizational chapter: identifies the nature of threats within the region examines the historical development and the degree of institutionalization assesses the level of governance explores the context of interaction investigates the compliance with the norms of the system of governance. This collection contributes to the ongoing reconceptualization of security and definition of security governance, and explores whether regional security governance processes are unique or similar and whether some organizational experiences can be seen as models for others to follow. It combines a coherent theoretical framework with strong comparative case studies, making it ideal reading for all students of security studies.

Der Geruch des Paradieses

Author: Elif Shafak

Publisher: Kein & Aber AG

ISBN: 3036993452

Category: Fiction

Page: 420

View: 5735

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Als Peri auf dem Weg zu einer Dinnerparty in Istanbul auf offener Straße überfallen wird, fällt ein Foto aus ihrer Handtasche ein Relikt aus ihrer Studienzeit in Oxford. Daraufhin wird sie von der Erinnerung an einen Skandal eingeholt, der ihre Welt für immer aus den Fugen gehoben hat. Elif Shafak verwebt meisterhaft Fragen der Liebe, der Schuld und des Glaubens und erzählt, wie der Kampf zwischen Tradition und Moderne die junge Frau zu zerreißen droht.

A Strategy for Security in East Asia

Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Author: Jinfeng Li,Hongwei Wu

Publisher: Paths International Limited

ISBN: 9781844643028

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 7502

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The international situation is undergoing profound and complex changes at present. Developed economies are slowing down, the United States is adjusting its 'return to Asia Pacific' strategy, the current situation in West Asia and North Africa is still uncertain, and challenges in regional security are getting more and more serious. After 12 years of development, the SCO upholds the Shanghai Spirit, continues to meet new opportunities and new challenges, and has achieved fruitful results.

U.S.-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy

Author: Shirley A. Kan

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437919367

Category: China

Page: 27

View: 8989

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After 9/11, the U.S. faced a challenge in enlisting the support of the People¿s Rep. of China (PRC) in the counterterrorism fight against Al Qaeda. This effort raised short-term policy issues about how to elicit coop¿n. and how to address PRC concerns about the U.S.-led war in Iraq. Contents: (1) Aftermath of the 9/11 Attacks; (2) Policy Analysis; (3) Options and Implications for U.S. Policy: Summits and ¿Strategic¿ Ties; Law-Enforcement Coop¿n.; Uighur People in Xinjiang and ¿Terrorist¿ Organization; Detained Uighurs at Guantanamo; Olympic Security and Violent Incidents; Sanctions on Exports of Arms and Security Equipment; Weapons Nonprolif.; Port Security; Military-to-Military Contacts; Shanghai Coop. Organization; PRC-Origin Weapons and Iran.

The Shanghai Cooperation Organization and Eurasian Geopolitics

New Directions, Perspectives, and Challenges

Author: Michael Fredholm,Birgit N. Schlyter

Publisher: Nordic Inst of Asian Studies

ISBN: 9788776941079

Category: Law

Page: 324

View: 9427

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) has developed into a key regional security group in Asia, its member states representing no less than 'half of humanity'. Alarmists believe that the SCO is making itself into a NATO of the East, thus posing a long-term threat to the West. This book looks at the SCO and Eurasion geopolitics in general.

Strategic Implications of the Evolving Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Author: Henry Plater-zyberk

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781508436171

Category: Political Science

Page: 80

View: 8032

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The role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in regional politics and the significance of the organization for U.S. interests are widely misunderstood. The organization is emphatically not a military bloc, and yet engages in joint activities which resemble military cooperation to U.S. eyes. It is, in theory, open to new members; but at present is highly unlikely to accept any. Its rhetoric firmly opposes U.S. presence and activity on the territory of member states, and yet individual member states leverage basing agreements with the U.S. to their advantage. The author reviews SCO's history and stated aspirations, and measures these against actual achievements. He concludes that, with the notable exception of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure(RATS), the great majority of SCO accomplishments are of little significance other than to provide an additional multinational vehicle through which China and in particular Russia can seek to counter U.S. and Western activity in Central Asia.

Eurasian Regionalism

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

Author: Stephen Aris

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 9780230285279

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 9136

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The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) is attracting significant attention from governments and scholars. This study examines the evolution of the SCO as a regional security provider and a framework for cooperation, drawing on fieldwork interviews with officials and experts from its member-states.

China's Approach to Central Asia

The Shanghai Co-operation Organisation

Author: Weiqing Song

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317672526

Category: Social Science

Page: 172

View: 986

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This book examines, comprehensively, the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation, the regional organisation which consists of China, Russia and most of the Central Asian countries. It charts the development of the Organisation from the establishment of its precursor, the Shanghai Five, in 1996, through its own foundation in 2001 to the present. It considers the foreign policy of China and of the other member states, showing how the interests and power of the member states determine the Organisation’s institutions, functional development and relations with non-members. It explores the Organisation’s activities in the fields of politics and security co-operation, economic and energy co-operation, and in culture and education, and concludes with a discussion of how the Organisation is likely to develop in future. Throughout, the book sets the Shanghai Co-operation Organisation in the context of China’s overall strategy towards Central Asia.

Insight Turkey / Fall 2018 - The Struggle Over Central Asia

Author: N.A

Publisher: SET Vakfı İktisadi İşletmesi

ISBN: N.A

Category: Antiques & Collectibles

Page: N.A

View: 9628

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This issue of Insight Turkey comes with a different format and brings to its readers two different topics that require special attention when we consider the latest regional and global affairs. The planned topic was Central Asia; however, the early presidential and parliamentarian elections in Turkey led us to cover a second topic in the issue. First, the current issue focuses on a forgotten but very important region of Central Asia. The second section of the journal comprises commentaries and articles on the latest elections in Turkey, how to understand them and what could be the future of the presidential system. Central Asia is one of the most geostrategic and penetrated regions in the world. The founding father of geopolitics, the British geographer Sir Halford John Mackinder, considers Central Asia as a part of the “heartland.” The control of Central Asia, a region stretching from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east, is a precondition of the world hegemony. Throughout the 20th century, the Central Asian countries were under the rule of the Soviet Union. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the republics of Central Asia re-emerged as independent actors of international politics. Later, they were declared as “near abroad” by Russia; that is, they were kept close to Russia through several multilateral platforms. Nowadays, Central Asian countries, namely Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, face many challenges such as underdevelopment, poor governance and corruption, mutual mistrust between neighbors, fear of radicalism, and threats from neighboring global powers. The governments of the regional countries must work together in order to be able to overcome these challenges. They need to increase intra-regional trade and to de-securitize their relations with other countries. Central Asian countries are squeezed between two heavyweight powers, Russia and China. With the revitalization of the historical Silk Road by China, many observers began to discuss the increasing importance and role of the Central Asian countries. Central Asia will be the main ground for intra-East regional and global competition. The mostly Turkic and Muslim countries can play the role of game changers at least, between the two global actors. Turkey, a country which shares the same language, history and culture with the Central Asian countries, is also one of the effective actors in the region. After an unprepared and unsuccessful attempt to forge links, in the wake of their independence in the 1990s, Turkey has improved its relations with the Turkic states and now has multi-dimensional relations (economic, cultural, political, and security) with these countries. The transformation of the Turkish political system into a presidential one, after the April 16, 2017 referendum, was finalized with the June 24, 2018 elections, when Recep Tayyip Erdoğan was elected as the first Turkish president in the context of the new presidential system. Naturally, many questions have risen in terms of the transformation of the new system and its impact on Turkey’s foreign policy. This issue of Insight Turkey aims to discuss this political transformation. Turkey has been governed by a multi-party parliamentarian system for decades. The country has experienced several chaotic periods due to political instabilities, mainly as a result of coalition or weak governments. Since Turkey could not end the bureaucratic (especially military and judiciary) tutelage, it could not consolidate its democracy under the parliamentarian system. Therefore, many politicians such as Necmettin Erbakan and Süleyman Demirel asked for the transformation of the system into a presidential one. At a time when the whole world has been experiencing a transformation, Turkey has also decided to consolidate its political authority; and therefore, it has decided to transform its political system into a unified and strong executive power in order to be able to struggle against emerging threats. Ultimately, as a regional power and global actor, Turkey now has a strong political leadership, who plays an effective role in international politics. In this issue, we bring four manuscripts which analyze in detail the June 2018 elections and the new presidential system in Turkey. On the verge of the reorganization process in Turkey, Zahid Sobacı, Özer Köseoğlu, and Nebi Miş in their article provide a legal and institutional analysis of how the public policy process and the roles and responsibilities of policy actors have changed with the new system. Understanding the actual elections of June 24 is also very important. In the light of this, the detailed election analyses of Ali Çarkoğlu and Kerem Yıldırım provide an exemplary source. Furthermore, Hüseyin Alptekin’s article deals specifically with the patterns of Kurdish votes in 24 eastern Turkish cities and contends that intra-Kurdish and intra-regional differences have prevailed in the June 24 elections. The last piece on the elections is the commentary written by Ali Yaşar Sarıbay which addresses the factors that led to the new system in Turkey through historical and sociological processes. Six other manuscripts bring a general perspective on the regional and global affairs in Central Asia. Experts in this area analyze the Russian-Chinese competition in the region, the responses of the Central Asian states and Turkey’s comeback in Central Asia. Morena Skalamera, focusing on the rivalry between global and regional powers in Central Asia, i.e. Russia, China, the U.S., Turkey, etc., intends to explain the Central Asian governments’ failure to capitalize on these developments. Mariya Omelicheva and Ruoxi Du, on the other hand, shed light on why Russia has abstained from a possible conflict with China when it comes to the Central Asian energy and transportation networks by arguing that Kazakhstan’s multi-vector foreign policy has played a crucial role in this regard. This issue places a special emphasis on Kazakhstan, considering that it is one of the most important regional states. In the light of this, the articles of Azhar Serikkaliyeva et al. and Aidar Kurmashev et al. focus on the China-Kazakhstan strategic partnership and Kazakhstan’s example of fighting terrorism respectively. Lastly, as the title of this issue suggests, Turkey is redirecting its attention to Central Asia as a part of its recent foreign policy strategies. In this regards, Bayram Balcı and Thomas Liles provide a brief analysis of Turkey’s relations with Central Asian states in the political, economic, and cultural areas. Furthermore, Eşref Yalınkılıçlı focuses especially on Turkey’s relationship and cooperation with Uzbekistan, which in the new era seems indispensable for the sake of the former’s interests and influences in the region. Three off-topic manuscripts conclude this issue of Insight Turkey. As Trump directs the U.S. towards isolation and continues Obama’s policy of retrenchment in the Middle East, other actors such as the UK will attempt to fill the void. Within this context, Gareth Stansfield, Doug Stokes, and Saul Kelly in their article analyze the UK’s return to the region and its implication for the balance of power in the region. Vladimir Bobrovnikov brings attention to the making of the intolerant discourse on Islam in Soviet and Imperial Russia and the attempts to integrate applied Oriental studies into the general debates on Orientalism. Written by Emrah Kekilli, the last commentary focuses on the ongoing Libya crisis and its forthcoming elections. Placing the main fault upon UAE’s intervention, Kekilli contends that the crisis in Libya reflects the regional interests. With one more year coming to an end, we are pleased to present to our readers another insightful issue which aims to bring attention to the largely ignored region of Central Asia. Furthermore, the latest transformations in Turkey deserve to be analyzed thoroughly and presented to those readers interested in Turkey’s politics. With the trust that you will find this issue illuminating and interesting, we look forward to meeting you in the next year’s issues.

Strategic Implications of the Evolving Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Author: Henry Plater-Zyberk,Strategic Studies Institute,Andrew Monaghan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781312431454

Category: Education

Page: 78

View: 1529

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The role of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) in regional politics, and the significance of the organization for U.S. interests, is widely misunderstood. The organization is emphatically not a military bloc, and yet engages in joint activities which resemble military cooperation to U.S. eyes. It is, in theory, open to new members; but at present is highly unlikely to accept any. Its rhetoric firmly opposes U.S. presence and activity on the territory of member states, and yet individual member states leverage basing agreements with the United States to their advantage. This monograph by Mr. Henry Plater-Zyberk seeks to explain the SCO through reviewing its history and stated aspirations, and measuring these against actual achievements. It concludes that with the notable exception of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS), the great majority of SCO accomplishments are of little significance other than to provide an additional multinational vehicle through which China, and in particular Russia...

Axis of Convenience

Moscow, Beijing, and the New Geopolitics

Author: Bobo Lo

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 9780815701460

Category: Political Science

Page: 277

View: 5417

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Few relationships have been as misunderstood as the "strategic partnership" between Russia and China. Official rhetoric portrays it as the very model of international cooperation: Moscow and Beijing claim that ties are closer and warmer than at any time in history. In reality, however, the picture is highly ambiguous. While both sides are committed to multifaceted engagement, cooperation is complicated by historical suspicions, cultural prejudices, geopolitical rivalries, and competing priorities. For Russia, China is at once the focus of a genuine convergence of interests and the greatest long-term threat to its national security. For China, Russia is a key supplier of energy and weapons, but is frequently dismissed as a self-important power whose rhetoric far outstrips its real influence. A xis of Convenience cuts through the mythmaking and examines the Sino-Russian partnership on its own merits. It steers between the overblown interpretation of an anti-Western (particularly, anti-American) alliance and the complacent assumption that past animosities and competing agendas must always divide the two nations. Their relationship reflects a new geopolitics, one that eschews formal alliances in favor of more flexible and opportunistic arrangements. Ultimately, it is an axis of convenience driven by cold-eyed perceptions of the national interest. In evaluating the current state and future prospects of the relationship, Bobo Lo assesses its impact on the evolving strategic environments in Central and East Asia. He also analyzes the global implications of rapprochement between Moscow and Beijing, focusing in particular on the geopolitics of energy and Russia-China-U.S. triangularism.

Strategic Implications of the Evolving Shanghai Cooperation Organization

Author: U. S. Army U.S. Army War College Press,Strategic Studies Strategic Studies Institute

Publisher: CreateSpace

ISBN: 9781505875041

Category:

Page: 76

View: 6586

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Key points from this analysis include: The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an enduring association which was originally brought together by the short-term border security interests of its first five members. Russia believes it plays a leading role in the SCO; in fact, however, the organization is and always has been driven by China, and Moscow's role is vital but secondary. The other member states, former Central Asian Soviet republics with no history of modern statehood or governance, are not equal partners-but their geostrategic location and, in some cases, natural resources make them potentially valuable allies for the United States and other major powers. The SCO is unlikely to enlarge further. Since its inception, the SCO has received several applications for membership. However, any enlargement of the organization could be fraught with difficulties, mainly because of conflicts of interest between China and Russia and the fear by member states that some new candidates are potential international liabilities and may create further conflict within the organization.