Sport and the Color Line

Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth-century America

Author: Patrick B. Miller,David Kenneth Wiggins

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415946117

Category: History

Page: 382

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The year 2003 marks the one-hundredth anniversary of W.E.B. Du Bois' "Souls of Black Folk," in which he declared that "the color line" would be the problem of the twentieth century. Half a century later, Jackie Robinson would display his remarkable athletic skills in "baseball's great experiment." Now, "Sport and the Color Line" takes a look at the last century through the lens of sports and race, drawing together articles by many of the leading figures in Sport Studies to address the African American experience and the history of race relations. The history of African Americans in sport is not simple, and it certainly did not begin in 1947 when Jackie Robinson first donned a Brooklyn Dodgers uniform. The essays presented here examine the complexity of black American sports culture, from the organization of semi-pro baseball and athletic programs at historically black colleges and universities, to the careers of individual stars such as Jack Johnson and Joe Louis, to the challenges faced by black women in sports. What are today's black athletes doing in the aftermath of desegregation, or with the legacy of Muhammad Ali's political stance? The essays gathered here engage such issues, as well as the paradoxes of corporate sport and the persistence of scientific racism in the athletic realm.

From Jack Johnson to LeBron James

Sports, Media, and the Color Line

Author: Chris Lamb

Publisher: U of Nebraska Press

ISBN: 0803285264

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 672

View: 7496

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The campaign for racial equality in sports has both reflected and affected the campaign for racial equality in the United States. Some of the most significant and publicized stories in this campaign in the twentieth century have happened in sports, including, of course, Jackie Robinson in baseball; Jesse Owens, Tommie Smith, and John Carlos in track; Arthur Ashe in tennis; and Jack Johnson, Joe Louis, and Muhammad Ali in boxing. Long after the full integration of college and professional athletics, race continues to play a major role in sports. Not long ago, sportswriters and sportscasters ignored racial issues. They now contribute to the public’s evolving racial attitudes on issues both on and off the field, ranging from integration to self-determination to masculinity. From Jack Johnson to LeBron James examines the intersection of sports, race, and the media in the twentieth century and beyond. The essays are linked by a number of questions, including: How did the black and white media differ in content and context in their reporting of these stories? How did the media acknowledge race in their stories? Did the media recognize these stories as historically significant? Considering how media coverage has evolved over the years, the essays begin with the racially charged reporting of Jack Johnson’s reign as heavyweight champion and carry up to the present, covering the media narratives surrounding the Michael Vick dogfighting case in a supposedly post-racial era and the media’s handling of LeBron James’s announcement to leave Cleveland for Miami.

Race and Sport

The Struggle for Equality on and Off the Field

Author: Charles K. Ross

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781578068975

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

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An examination of the connection between race and sport in America

Outside the Lines

African Americans and the Integration of the National Football League

Author: Charles K. Ross,Guy Endore

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814774962

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 5884

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Outside the Lines traces how sports laid a foundation for social change long before the judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration. Watching a football game on a Sunday evening, most sports fans do not realize the profound impact the National Football League had on the civil rights movement. Similarly, in a sport where seven out of ten players are black, few are fully aware of the history and contributions of their athletic forebears. Among the touchdowns and tackles lies a rich history of African American life and the struggle to achieve equal rights. Although the Supreme Court did not reverse their 1896 decision of "separate but equal" in the Plessy v Ferguson case until more than fifty years later, sports laid a foundation for social change long before our judicial system formally recognized the inequalities of racial separation. Integrating sports teams to include white and black athletes alike, the National Football League served as a microcosmic fishbowl of the highs and lows, the trials and triumphs, of racial integration. In this chronicle of black NFL athletes, Charles K. Ross has given us the story of the Jackie Robinsons of American football.

Benching Jim Crow

The Rise and Fall of the Color Line in Southern College Sports, 1890-1980

Author: Charles H. Martin

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252077504

Category: Social Science

Page: 374

View: 8464

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"Historians, sports scholars, and students will refer to Benching Jim Crow for many years to come as the standard source on the integration of intercollegiate sport."ùMark S. Dyreson, author of Making the American Team: Sport, Culture, and the Olympic Experience --

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 1538114984

Category:

Page: N.A

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A Spectacular Leap

Black Women Athletes in Twentieth-Century America

Author: Jennifer H. Lansbury

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 1610755421

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 300

View: 650

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When high jumper Alice Coachman won the high jump title at the 1941 national championships with "a spectacular leap," African American women had been participating in competitive sport for close to twenty-five years. Yet it would be another twenty years before they would experience something akin to the national fame and recognition that African American men had known since the 1930s, the days of Joe Louis and Jesse Owens. From the 1920s, when black women athletes were confined to competing within the black community, through the heady days of the late twentieth century when they ruled the world of women's track and field, African American women found sport opened the door to a better life. However, they also discovered that success meant challenging perceptions that many Americans--both black and white--held of them. Through the stories of six athletes--Coachman, Ora Washington, Althea Gibson, Wilma Rudloph, Wyomia Tyus, and Jackie Joyner-Kersee--Jennifer H. Lansbury deftly follows the emergence of black women athletes from the African American community; their confrontations with contemporary attitudes of race, class, and gender; and their encounters with the civil rights movement. Uncovering the various strategies the athletes use to beat back stereotypes, Lansbury explores the fullness of African American women's relationship with sport in the twentieth century.

Race, Sport and Politics

The Sporting Black Diaspora

Author: Ben Carrington

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1849204292

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

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Written by one of the leading international authorities on the sociology of race and sport, this is the first book to address sport's role in 'the making of race', the place of sport within black diasporic struggles for freedom and equality, and the contested location of sport in relation to the politics of recognition within contemporary multicultural societies. Race, Sport and Politics shows how, during the first decades of the twentieth century, the idea of 'the natural black athlete' was invented in order to make sense of and curtail the political impact and cultural achievements of black sportswomen and men. More recently, 'the black athlete' as sign has become a highly commodified object within contemporary hyper-commercialized sports-media culture thus limiting the transformative potential of critically conscious black athleticism to re-imagine what it means to be both black and human in the twenty-first century. Race, Sport and Politics will be of interest to students and scholars in sociology of culture and sport, the sociology of race and diaspora studies, postcolonial theory, cultural theory and cultural studies.

Crossing the Line

Racial Passing in Twentieth-Century U.S. Literature and Culture

Author: Gayle Wald

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822325154

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 251

View: 8895

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DIVExamines constructions of racial identity through the exploration of passing narratives including Black Like Me and forties jazz musician Mezz Mezzrow’s memoir Really the Blues./div

Globetrotting

African American Athletes and Cold War Politics

Author: Damion L. Thomas

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 0252094298

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

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Throughout the Cold War, the Soviet Union deplored the treatment of African Americans by the U.S. government as proof of hypocrisy in the American promises of freedom and equality. This probing history examines government attempts to manipulate international perceptions of U.S. race relations during the Cold War by sending African American athletes abroad on goodwill tours and in international competitions as cultural ambassadors and visible symbols of American values. Damion L. Thomas follows the State Department's efforts from 1945 to 1968 to showcase prosperous African American athletes including Jackie Robinson, Jesse Owens, and the Harlem Globetrotters as the preeminent citizens of the African Diaspora rather than as victims of racial oppression. With athletes in baseball, track and field, and basketball, the government relied on figures whose fame carried the desired message to countries where English was little understood. However, eventually African American athletes began to provide counter-narratives to State Department claims of American exceptionalism, most notably with Tommie Smith and John Carlos's famous black power salute at the 1968 Mexico City Olympics.

When Race, Religion, and Sport Collide

Black Athletes at BYU and Beyond

Author: Darron T. Smith

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442217901

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 230

View: 8843

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This book tells the story of Brandon Davies’ dismissal from BYU’s NCAA playoff basketball team to illustrate the thorny intersection of religion, race, and sport in college athletics. Weaving together the history of black athletes and the black Mormon experience, the book offers a powerful analysis of the challenges facing black athletes today.

Cutting Along the Color Line

Black Barbers and Barber Shops in America

Author: Quincy T. Mills

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812245415

Category: History

Page: 319

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Examines the history of black-owned barber shops in the United States, from pre-Civil War Era through today.

Jack Johnson, Rebel Sojourner

Boxing in the Shadow of the Global Color Line

Author: Theresa Runstedtler

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520271602

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 348

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Discusses the life and boxing career of Jack Johnson.

Desegregating the Dollar

African American Consumerism in the Twentieth Century

Author: Robert E. Weems

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814792901

Category: Social Science

Page: 195

View: 9200

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"Basing his conclusions on exhaustive research in trade journals and other primary and secondary materials, Robert E. Weems Jr. has given us the definitive account of the complicated relationship between African Americans, capitalism, and consumerism."--BOOK JACKET.

The Problem of the Color Line at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

The Essential Early Essays

Author: W. E. B. Du Bois

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0823254550

Category: Philosophy

Page: 370

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This volume assembles essential essays some published only posthumously, others obscure, another only recently translated by W. E. B. Du Bois from 1894 to early 1906. They show the first formulations of some of his most famous ideas, namely, "the veil," "double-consciousness," and the "problem of the color line." Moreover, the deep historical sense of the formation of the modern world that informs Du Bois's thought and gave rise to his understanding of "the problem of the color line" is on display here. Indeed, the essays constitute an essential companion to Du Bois's masterpiece published in 1903 as The Souls of Black Folk. The collection is based on two editorial principles: presenting the essays in their entirety and in strict chronological order. Copious annotation affords both student and mature scholar an unprecedented grasp of the range and depth of Du Boiss everyday intellectual and scholarly reference. These essays commence at the moment of Du Bois's return to the United States from two years of graduate-level study in Europe at the University of Berlin. At their center is the moment of Du Boi's first full, self-reflexive formulation of a sense of vocation: as a student and scholar in the pursuit of the human sciences (in their still-nascent disciplinary organization that is, the institutionalization of a generalized "sociology" or general "ethnology"), as they could be brought to bear on the study of the situation of the so-called Negro question in the United States in all of its multiply refracting dimensions. They close with Du Bois's realization that the commitments orienting his work and intellectual practice demanded that he move beyond the institutional frames for the practice of the human sciences. The ideas developed in these early essays remained the fundamental matrix for the ongoing development of Du Boiss thought. The essays gathered here will therefore serve as the essential reference for those seeking to understand the most profound registers of this major American thinker.

Out of the Shadows

A Biographical History of African American Athletes

Author: David K. Wiggins

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781610752954

Category: GAMES

Page: 459

View: 3228

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The original essays in this comprehensive collection examine the lives and sports of famous and not-so-famous African American male and female athletes from the nineteenth century to today. Here are twenty insightful biographies that furnish perspectives on the changing status of these athletes and how these changes mirrored the transformation of sports, American society, and civil rights legislation. Some of the athletes discussed include Marshall Taylor (bicycling), William Henry Lewis (football), Jack Johnson, Satchel Paige, Jesse Owens, Joe Lewis, Alice Coachman (track and field), Althea Gibson (tennis), Wilma Rudolph, Bill Russell, Jim Brown, Arthur Ashe, Michael Jordan, Tiger Woods, and Venus and Serena Williams.

Critical Race Theory: Black Athletic Sporting Experiences in the United States

Author: Billy J. Hawkins,Akilah R. Carter-Francique,Joseph N. Cooper

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137600381

Category: Education

Page: 330

View: 2311

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This book examines the role of race in athletic programs in the United States. Intercollegiate athletics remains a contested terrain where race and racism are critical issues often absent in the public discourse. Recently, the economic motives of intercollegiate athletic programs and academic indiscretions have unveiled behaviors that stand to tarnish the images of institutions of higher education and reinforce racial stereotypes about the intellectual inabilities of Black males. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory (CRT), this volume analyzes sport as the platform that reflects and reinforces ideas about race within American culture, as well as the platform where resistance is forged against dominant racial ideologies.

Black scholars on the line

race, social science, and American thought in the twentieth century

Author: Jonathan Scott Holloway,Ben Keppel

Publisher: Univ of Notre Dame Pr

ISBN: 9780268030797

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 507

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Black Scholars on the Line: Race, Social Science, and American Thought in the Twentieth Century explores the development of American social science by highlighting the contributions of those scholars who were both students and objects of a segregated society. The book asks how segregation has influenced, and continues to influence, the development of American social thought and social science scholarship.

Playing America's Game

Baseball, Latinos, and the Color Line

Author: Adrian Burgos

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520940776

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 384

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Although largely ignored by historians of both baseball in general and the Negro leagues in particular, Latinos have been a significant presence in organized baseball from the beginning. In this benchmark study on Latinos and professional baseball from the 1880s to the present, Adrian Burgos tells a compelling story of the men who negotiated the color line at every turn—passing as "Spanish" in the major leagues or seeking respect and acceptance in the Negro leagues. Burgos draws on archival materials from the U.S., Cuba, and Puerto Rico, as well as Spanish- and English-language publications and interviews with Negro league and major league players. He demonstrates how the manipulation of racial distinctions that allowed management to recruit and sign Latino players provided a template for Brooklyn Dodgers’ general manager Branch Rickey when he initiated the dismantling of the color line by signing Jackie Robinson in 1947. Burgos's extensive examination of Latino participation before and after Robinson's debut documents the ways in which inclusion did not signify equality and shows how notions of racialized difference have persisted for darker-skinned Latinos like Orestes ("Minnie") Miñoso, Roberto Clemente, and Sammy Sosa.

Rivals

Legendary Matchups That Made Sports History

Author: David K. Wiggins,R . Pierre Rodgers

Publisher: University of Arkansas Press

ISBN: 9781610753494

Category: GAMES

Page: 465

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The sixteen original essays in this collection cover influential and famous rivalries from a variety of sports, including track and field, golf, boxing, basketball, tennis, ice skating, baseball, football, soccer, and more. The essays are diverse, but together they illustrate what is common to any rivalry: equally matched opponents that often have decidedly different backgrounds, styles, and personalities. These differences may center on race and culture, political and societal ideologies, personality, geography, or religion—a mix intensified by fans and the media. From highly publicized and emotionally charged individual competitions to bitterly fought team contests, Rivals illuminates what one-of-a-kind opponents and the passion they inspire tell us about ourselves and our society.