SQL and Relational Theory

How to Write Accurate SQL Code

Author: C.J. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 9780596555429

Category: Computers

Page: 428

View: 1034

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Understanding SQL's underlying theory is the best way to guarantee that your SQL code is correct and your database schema is robust and maintainable. On the other hand, if you're not well versed in the theory, you can fall into several traps. In SQL and Relational Theory, author C.J. Date demonstrates how you can apply relational theory directly to your use of SQL. With numerous examples and clear explanations of the reasoning behind them, you'll learn how to deal with common SQL dilemmas, such as: Should database access granted be through views instead of base tables? Nulls in your database are causing you to get wrong answers. Why? What can you do about it? Could you write an SQL query to find employees who have never been in the same department for more than six months at a time? SQL supports "quantified comparisons," but they're better avoided. Why? How do you avoid them? Constraints are crucially important, but most SQL products don't support them properly. What can you do to resolve this situation? Database theory and practice have evolved since Edgar Codd originally defined the relational model back in 1969. Independent of any SQL products, SQL and Relational Theory draws on decades of research to present the most up-to-date treatment of the material available anywhere. Anyone with a modest to advanced background in SQL will benefit from the many insights in this book.

SQL and Relational Theory

How to Write Accurate SQL Code

Author: C. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449316409

Category: Computers

Page: 428

View: 3467

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SQL is full of difficulties and traps for the unwary. You can avoid them if you understand relational theory, but only if you know how to put the theory into practice. In this insightful book, author C.J. Date explains relational theory in depth, and demonstrates through numerous examples and exercises how you can apply it directly to your use of SQL. This second edition includes new material on recursive queries, “missing information” without nulls, new update operators, and topics such as aggregate operators, grouping and ungrouping, and view updating. If you have a modest-to-advanced background in SQL, you’ll learn how to deal with a host of common SQL dilemmas. Why is proper column naming so important? Nulls in your database are causing you to get wrong answers. Why? What can you do about it? Is it possible to write an SQL query to find employees who have never been in the same department for more than six months at a time? SQL supports “quantified comparisons,” but they’re better avoided. Why? How do you avoid them? Constraints are crucially important, but most SQL products don’t support them properly. What can you do to resolve this situation? Database theory and practice have evolved since the relational model was developed more than 40 years ago. SQL and Relational Theory draws on decades of research to present the most up-to-date treatment of SQL available. C.J. Date has a stature that is unique within the database industry. A prolific writer well known for the bestselling textbook An Introduction to Database Systems (Addison-Wesley), he has an exceptionally clear style when writing about complex principles and theory.

Relational Theory for Computer Professionals

Author: C.J. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449369464

Category: Computers

Page: 284

View: 7325

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All of today’s mainstream database products support the SQL language, and relational theory is what SQL is supposed to be based on. But are those products truly relational? Sadly, the answer is no. This book shows you what a real relational product would be like, and how and why it would be so much better than what’s currently available. With this unique book, you will: Learn how to see database systems as programming systems Get a careful, precise, and detailed definition of the relational model Explore a detailed analysis of SQL from a relational point of view There are literally hundreds of books on relational theory or the SQL language or both. But this one is different. First, nobody is more qualified than Chris Date to write such a book. He and Ted Codd, inventor of the relational model, were colleagues for many years, and Chris’s involvement with the technology goes back to the time of Codd’s first papers in 1969 and 1970. Second, most books try to use SQL as a vehicle for teaching relational theory, but this book deliberately takes the opposite approach. Its primary aim is to teach relational theory as such. Then it uses that theory as a vehicle for teaching SQL, showing in particular how that theory can help with the practical problem of using SQL correctly and productively. Any computer professional who wants to understand what relational systems are all about can benefit from this book. No prior knowledge of databases is assumed.

Time and Relational Theory

Temporal Databases in the Relational Model and SQL

Author: C.J. Date,Hugh Darwen,Nikos Lorentzos

Publisher: Morgan Kaufmann

ISBN: 0128006757

Category: Computers

Page: 560

View: 4779

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Time and Relational Theory provides an in-depth description of temporal database systems, which provide special facilities for storing, querying, and updating historical and future data. Traditionally, database management systems provide little or no special support for temporal data at all. This situation is changing because: Cheap storage enables retention of large volumes of historical data in data warehouses Users are now faced with temporal data problems, and need solutions Temporal features have recently been incorporated into the SQL standard, and vendors have begun to add temporal support to their DBMS products Based on the groundbreaking text Temporal Data & the Relational Model (Morgan Kaufmann, 2002) and new research led by the authors, Time and Relational Theory is the only book to offer a complete overview of the functionality of a temporal DBMS. Expert authors Nikos Lorentzos, Hugh Darwen, and Chris Date describe an approach to temporal database management that is firmly rooted in classical relational theory and will stand the test of time. This book covers the SQL:2011 temporal extensions in depth and identifies and discusses the temporal functionality still missing from SQL. Understand how the relational model provides an ideal basis for taming the complexities of temporal databases Learn how to analyze and evaluate commercial temporal products with this timely and important information Be able to use sound principles in designing and using temporal databases Understand the temporal support recently added to SQL with coverage of the new SQL features in this unique, accurate, and authoritative reference Appreciate the benefits of a truly relational approach to the problem with this clear, user friendly presentation

Database Design and Relational Theory

Normal Forms and All That Jazz

Author: Chris Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449328016

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 3863

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Because databases often stay in production for decades, careful design is critical to making the database serve the needs of your users over years, and to avoid subtle errors or performance problems. In this book, C.J. Date, a leading exponent of relational databases, lays out the principles of good database design.

View Updating and Relational Theory

Author: Chris Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449357849

Category: Computers

Page: 240

View: 8976

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Views are virtual tables. That means they should be updatable, just as "real" or base tables are. In fact, view updatability isn’t just desirable, it’s crucial, for practical reasons as well as theoretical ones. But view updating has always been a controversial topic. Ever since the relational model first appeared, there has been widespread skepticism as to whether (in general) view updating is even possible. In stark contrast to this conventional wisdom, this book shows how views, just like base tables, can always be updated (so long as the updates don’t violate any integrity constraints). More generally, it shows how updating always ought to work, regardless of whether the target is a base table or a view. The proposed scheme is 100% consistent with the relational model, but rather different from the way updating works in SQL products today. This book can: Help database products improve in the future Help with a "roll your own" implementation, absent such product improvements Make you aware of the crucial role of predicates and constraints Show you how relational products are really supposed to behave Anyone with a professional interest in the relational model, relational technology, or database systems in general can benefit from this book.

Einführung in SQL

Author: Alan Beaulieu

Publisher: O'Reilly Germany

ISBN: 3897219387

Category: Computers

Page: 353

View: 2154

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SQL kann Spaß machen! Es ist ein erhebendes Gefühl, eine verworrene Datenmanipulation oder einen komplizierten Report mit einer einzigen Anweisung zu bewältigen und so einen Haufen Arbeit vom Tisch zu bekommen. Einführung in SQL bietet einen frischen Blick auf die Sprache, deren Grundlagen jeder Entwickler beherrschen muss. Die aktualisierte 2. Auflage deckt die Versionen MySQL 6.0, Oracle 11g und Microsoft SQL Server 2008 ab. Außerdem enthält sie neue Kapitel zu Views und Metadaten. SQL-Basics - in null Komma nichts durchstarten: Mit diesem leicht verständlichen Tutorial können Sie SQL systematisch und gründlich lernen, ohne sich zu langweilen. Es führt Sie rasch durch die Basics der Sprache und vermittelt darüber hinaus eine Reihe von häufig genutzten fortgeschrittenen Features. Mehr aus SQL-Befehlen herausholen: Alan Beaulieu will mehr vermitteln als die simple Anwendung von SQL-Befehlen: Er legt Wert auf ein tiefes Verständnis der SQL-Features und behandelt daher auch den Umgang mit Mengen, Abfragen innerhalb von Abfragen oder die überaus nützlichen eingebauten Funktionen von SQL. Die MySQL-Beispieldatenbank: Es gibt zwar viele Datenbankprodukte auf dem Markt, aber welches wäre zum Erlernen von SQL besser geeignet als MySQL, das weit verbreitete relationale Datenbanksystem? Der Autor hilft Ihnen, eine MySQL-Datenbank anzulegen, und nutzt diese für die Beispiele in diesem Buch. Übungen mit Lösungen: Zu jedem Thema finden Sie im Buch gut durchdachte Übungen mit Lösungen. So ist sichergestellt, dass Sie schnell Erfolgserlebnisse haben und das Gelernte auch praktisch umsetzen können.

The Art of SQL

Author: Stephane Faroult,Peter Robson

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 9780596555368

Category: Computers

Page: 372

View: 9010

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For all the buzz about trendy IT techniques, data processing is still at the core of our systems, especially now that enterprises all over the world are confronted with exploding volumes of data. Database performance has become a major headache, and most IT departments believe that developers should provide simple SQL code to solve immediate problems and let DBAs tune any "bad SQL" later. In The Art of SQL, author and SQL expert Stephane Faroult argues that this "safe approach" only leads to disaster. His insightful book, named after Art of War by Sun Tzu, contends that writing quick inefficient code is sweeping the dirt under the rug. SQL code may run for 5 to 10 years, surviving several major releases of the database management system and on several generations of hardware. The code must be fast and sound from the start, and that requires a firm understanding of SQL and relational theory. The Art of SQL offers best practices that teach experienced SQL users to focus on strategy rather than specifics. Faroult's approach takes a page from Sun Tzu's classic treatise by viewing database design as a military campaign. You need knowledge, skills, and talent. Talent can't be taught, but every strategist from Sun Tzu to modern-day generals believed that it can be nurtured through the experience of others. They passed on their experience acquired in the field through basic principles that served as guiding stars amid the sound and fury of battle. This is what Faroult does with SQL. Like a successful battle plan, good architectural choices are based on contingencies. What if the volume of this or that table increases unexpectedly? What if, following a merger, the number of users doubles? What if you want to keep several years of data online? Faroult's way of looking at SQL performance may be unconventional and unique, but he's deadly serious about writing good SQL and using SQL well. The Art of SQL is not a cookbook, listing problems and giving recipes. The aim is to get you-and your manager-to raise good questions.

Microsoft SQL Server 2012 T-SQL Fundamentals

Author: Itzik Ben-Gan

Publisher: Pearson Education

ISBN: 0735673950

Category: Computers

Page: 448

View: 6568

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Gain a solid understanding of T-SQL—and write better queries Master the fundamentals of Transact-SQL—and develop your own code for querying and modifying data in Microsoft SQL Server 2012. Led by a SQL Server expert, you’ll learn the concepts behind T-SQL querying and programming, and then apply your knowledge with exercises in each chapter. Once you understand the logic behind T-SQL, you’ll quickly learn how to write effective code—whether you’re a programmer or database administrator. Discover how to: Work with programming practices unique to T-SQL Create database tables and define data integrity Query multiple tables using joins and subqueries Simplify code and improve maintainability with table expressions Implement insert, update, delete, and merge data modification strategies Tackle advanced techniques such as window functions, pivoting and grouping sets Control data consistency using isolation levels, and mitigate deadlocks and blocking Take T-SQL to the next level with programmable objects

Pro Oracle SQL

Author: Karen Morton,Kerry Osborne,Robyn Sands,Riyaj Shamsudeen,Jared Still

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430262206

Category: Computers

Page: 580

View: 7946

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Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition unlocks the power of SQL in the Oracle database—one of the most potent SQL implementations on the market today. To master it requires a multi-pronged approach: learn the language features, learn how and why the language features work, learn the supporting features that Oracle provides to help use the language effectively, and learn to think and work in sets. Karen Morton has updated the content for Oracle version 12c and helps you master powerful aspects of Oracle SQL from the inside-out. You’ll learn analytic functions, the MODEL clause, and advanced grouping syntax—features that will help in creating good queries for reporting and business intelligence applications. Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition also helps you minimize parsing overhead, read execution plans, test for correct results, understand performance management, and exert control over SQL execution in your database. You’ll learn when to create indexes, how to verify that they make a difference, how to use SQL Baselines and Profiles to optimize and stabilize SQL execution plans, and much more. You’ll also understand how SQL is optimized for working in sets, and that the key to getting accurate results lies in making sure that queries ask clear and precise questions. Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition helps you work at a truly professional level in the Oracle dialect of SQL. You’ll master the language, the tools to work effectively with the language, and the right way to think about a problem in SQL. Endorsed by the OakTable Network, a group of Oracle technologists well-known for their rigorous and scientific approach to Oracle Database performance Comprehensive—goes beyond the language with a focus on what you need to know to write successful queries and data manipulation statements. Performance focused—teaches you how to measure the performance of your SQL statements and not just the syntax. What you’ll learn Master powerful SQL features implemented in the Oracle Database Understand how the Oracle Optimizer develops execution plans Read and interpret SQL execution plans Quickly diagnose and fix badly performing SQL Control execution plans through hints, profiles, and plan baselines Optimize queries within packaged applications without touching the code Recognize when not to waste time on SQL that is performing optimally Who this book is for Pro Oracle SQL, Second Edition is aimed at developers and database administrators who submit SQL for execution by an Oracle database. Readers should already know the basic four SQL statements, and be ready to learn deeply about Oracle’s specific implementation of the language, including Oracle-specific features and syntax. Readers should also want to learn about Oracle Database features such as analytic queries, the MODEL clause, and the WITH clause (subquery factoring) that are designed to help developers and database administrators exert control over their SQL environment and its execution. Table of Contents Core SQL SQL Execution Access and Join Methods SQL is About Sets It’s About the Question SQL Execution Plans Advanced Grouping Analytic Functions The Model Clause Subquery Factoring Semi-joins and Anti-joins Indexes Beyond the SELECT Transaction Processing Testing and Quality Assurance Plan Stability Plan Management/Control Cool SQL Constructs

Abfragen von Microsoft SQL Server 2012 - Original Microsoft Training für Examen 70-461

Praktisches Selbststudium und Prüfungsvorbereitung

Author: Itzik Ben-Gan,Dejan Sarka,Ron Talmage

Publisher: Microsoft Press Deutschland

ISBN: 3848301679

Category: Computers

Page: 700

View: 8933

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Erlernen Sie das Abfragen von Microsoft SQL Server 2012 und bereiten Sie sich gleichzeitig auf das Examen 70-461 vor. Das vorliegende Buch bietet Ihnen einen umfassenden Lehrbuchteil, mit dem Sie selbständig lernen und anhand praktischer Übungen die prüfungsrelevanten Fähigkeiten erwerben. Die anschließende Lernzielkontrolle ermöglicht Ihnen, anhand von Fragen und Antworten Ihre Kenntnisse zu überprüfen. Das Buch eignet sich auch als Nachschlagewerk für die tägliche Arbeit. Auf CD finden Sie eine Testprüfung mit 200 Fragen (englischsprachig). Verbessern Sie Ihre Kenntnisse und Ihre beruflichen Chancen mit diesem Original Microsoft Training.

Pro SQL Server 2008 Relational Database Design and Implementation

Author: Louis Davidson,Kevin Kline,Scott Klein,Kurt Windisch

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430208678

Category: Computers

Page: 680

View: 1000

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Learn effective and scalable database design techniques in a SQL Server environment. Pro SQL Server 2008 Relational Database Design and Implementation covers everything from design logic that business users will understand, all the way to the physical implementation of the design in a SQL Server database. Grounded in best practices and a solid understanding of the underlying theory, authors Louis Davidson, Kevin Kline, Scott Klein, and Kurt Windisch show how to 'get it right' in SQL Server database design and lay a solid groundwork for the future use of valuable business data. Solid foundation in best practices and relational theory Maximize SQL Server features to enhance security, performance, scalability Thorough treatment from conceptual design to an effective, physical implementation

Oracle Essentials

Oracle Database 12c

Author: Rick Greenwald,Robert Stackowiak,Jonathan Stern

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449343171

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 8008

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Written by Oracle insiders, this indispensable guide distills an enormous amount of information about the Oracle Database into one compact volume. Ideal for novice and experienced DBAs, developers, managers, and users, Oracle Essentials walks you through technologies and features in Oracle’s product line, including its architecture, data structures, networking, concurrency, and tuning. Complete with illustrations and helpful hints, this fifth edition provides a valuable one-stop overview of Oracle Database 12c, including an introduction to Oracle and cloud computing. Oracle Essentials provides the conceptual background you need to understand how Oracle truly works. Topics include: A complete overview of Oracle databases and data stores, and Fusion Middleware products and features Core concepts and structures in Oracle’s architecture, including pluggable databases Oracle objects and the various datatypes Oracle supports System and database management, including Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Security options, basic auditing capabilities, and options for meeting compliance needs Performance characteristics of disk, memory, and CPU tuning Basic principles of multiuser concurrency Oracle’s online transaction processing (OLTP) Data warehouses, Big Data, and Oracle’s business intelligence tools Backup and recovery, and high availability and failover solutions

High Performance MySQL

Optimization, Backups, and Replication

Author: Baron Schwartz,Peter Zaitsev,Vadim Tkachenko

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449332498

Category: Computers

Page: 826

View: 778

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How can you bring out MySQL’s full power? With High Performance MySQL, you’ll learn advanced techniques for everything from designing schemas, indexes, and queries to tuning your MySQL server, operating system, and hardware to their fullest potential. This guide also teaches you safe and practical ways to scale applications through replication, load balancing, high availability, and failover. Updated to reflect recent advances in MySQL and InnoDB performance, features, and tools, this third edition not only offers specific examples of how MySQL works, it also teaches you why this system works as it does, with illustrative stories and case studies that demonstrate MySQL’s principles in action. With this book, you’ll learn how to think in MySQL. Learn the effects of new features in MySQL 5.5, including stored procedures, partitioned databases, triggers, and views Implement improvements in replication, high availability, and clustering Achieve high performance when running MySQL in the cloud Optimize advanced querying features, such as full-text searches Take advantage of modern multi-core CPUs and solid-state disks Explore backup and recovery strategies—including new tools for hot online backups

Type Inheritance and Relational Theory

Subtypes, Supertypes, and Substitutability

Author: C.J. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1491959940

Category: Computers

Page: 572

View: 7885

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Type inheritance is that phenomenon according to which we can say, for example, that every square is also a rectangle, and so properties that apply to rectangles in general apply to squares in particular. In other words, squares are a subtype of rectangles, and rectangles are a supertype of squares. Recognizing and acting upon such subtype / supertype relationships provides numerous benefits: Certainly it can help in data modeling, and it can also provide for code reuse in applications. For these reasons, many languages, including the standard database language SQL, have long supported such relationships. However, there doesn’t seem to be any consensus in the community at large on a formal, rigorous, and abstract model of inheritance. This book proposes such a model, one that enjoys several advantages over other approaches, not the least of which it is that it’s fully compatible with the well known relational model of data. Topics the model covers include: Both single and multiple inheritance Scalar, tuple, and relation inheritance Type lattices and union and intersection types Polymorphism and substitutability Compile time and run time binding All of these topics are described in detail in the book, with numerous illustrative examples, exercises, and answers. The book also discusses several alternative approaches. In particular, it includes a detailed discussion and analysis of inheritance as supported in the SQL standard.

Pro SQL Server 2012 Relational Database Design and Implementation

Author: Louis Davidson,Jessica Moss

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 1430236965

Category: Computers

Page: 784

View: 1184

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Learn effective and scalable database design techniques in a SQL Server environment. Pro SQL Server 2012 Relational Database Design and Implementation covers everything from design logic that business users will understand, all the way to the physical implementation of design in a SQL Server database. Grounded in best practices and a solid understanding of the underlying theory, Louis Davidson shows how to “get it right” in SQL Server database design and lay a solid groundwork for the future use of valuable business data. Gives a solid foundation in best practices and relational theory Covers the latest implementation features in SQL Server Takes you from conceptual design to an effective, physical implementation

Database in Depth

Relational Theory for Practitioners

Author: C.J. Date

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449342647

Category: Computers

Page: 232

View: 944

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This book sheds light on the principles behind the relational model, which is fundamental to all database-backed applications--and, consequently, most of the work that goes on in the computing world today. Database in Depth: The Relational Model for Practitioners goes beyond the hype and gets to the heart of how relational databases actually work.Ideal for experienced database developers and designers, this concise guide gives you a clear view of the technology--a view that's not influenced by any vendor or product. Featuring an extensive set of exercises, it will help you: understand why and how the relational model is still directly relevant to modern database technology (and will remain so for the foreseeable future) see why and how the SQL standard is seriously deficient use the best current theoretical knowledge in the design of their databases and database applications make informed decisions in their daily database professional activities Database in Depth will appeal not only to database developers and designers, but also to a diverse field of professionals and academics, including database administrators (DBAs), information modelers, database consultants, and more. Virtually everyone who deals with relational databases should have at least a passing understanding of the fundamentals of working with relational models.Author C.J. Date has been involved with the relational model from its earliest days. An exceptionally clear-thinking writer, Date lays out principle and theory in a manner that is easily understood. Few others can speak as authoritatively the topic of relational databases as Date can.

Pro SQL Server 2005 Database Design and Optimization

Author: Kurt Windisch,Kevin Kline,Louis Davidson

Publisher: Apress

ISBN: 9781430201618

Category: Computers

Page: 672

View: 900

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* An essential book for new and migration projects for SQL Server 2005: will ensure that that such projects have a well-designed database and secure, optimized data access strategies right from the start. * Describes all new SQL Server 2005 features related to physical database design and provides completely new chapters on designing for fast data access, and exploiting .NET code in the database for optimum distribution of application logic. * An excellent foundation for MCAD/MCSE/MCDBA Database Design and Implementation exam. * Deep experience and advice, along with many tips or tricks, from an MVP lead author with over ten years of experience with SQL Server.