Statistical Methods in Hydrology and Hydroclimatology

Author: Rajib Maity

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811087792

Category: Science

Page: 444

View: 5556

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This book focuses on the application of statistical methods in the field of hydrology and hydroclimatology. Among the latest theories being used in these fields, the book introduces the theory of copulas and its applications in this context. The purpose is to develop an understanding and illustrate the usefulness of the statistical techniques with detailed theory and numerous worked out examples. Apart from this, MATLAB-based codes and solutions of some worked out examples are also provided to assist the readers to handle real life data. This book presents a comprehensive knowledge of statistical techniques combining the basics of probability and the current advances in stochastic hydrology. Besides serving as a textbook for graduate courses on stochastic modeling in hydrology and related disciplines, the book offers valuable resources for researchers and professionals involved in the field of hydrology and climatology.

Statistical Methods in Water Resources

Author: D.R. Helsel,R.M. Hirsch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080875088

Category: Mathematics

Page: 546

View: 9549

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Data on water quality and other environmental issues are being collected at an ever-increasing rate. In the past, however, the techniques used by scientists to interpret this data have not progressed as quickly. This is a book of modern statistical methods for analysis of practical problems in water quality and water resources. The last fifteen years have seen major advances in the fields of exploratory data analysis (EDA) and robust statistical methods. The 'real-life' characteristics of environmental data tend to drive analysis towards the use of these methods. These advances are presented in a practical and relevant format. Alternate methods are compared, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each as applied to environmental data. Techniques for trend analysis and dealing with water below the detection limit are topics covered, which are of great interest to consultants in water-quality and hydrology, scientists in state, provincial and federal water resources, and geological survey agencies. The practising water resources scientist will find the worked examples using actual field data from case studies of environmental problems, of real value. Exercises at the end of each chapter enable the mechanics of the methodological process to be fully understood, with data sets included on diskette for easy use. The result is a book that is both up-to-date and immediately relevant to ongoing work in the environmental and water sciences.

Stochastic and Statistical Methods in Hydrology and Environmental Engineering

Volume 2: Stochastic and Statistical Modelling with Groundwater and Surface Water Applications

Author: Keith W. Hipel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401110727

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 1507

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Objectives The current global environmental crisis has reinforced the need for developing flexible mathematical models to obtain a better understanding of environmental problems so that effective remedial action can be taken. Because natural phenomena occurring in hydrology and environmental engineering usually behave in random and probabilistic fashions, stochastic and statistical models have major roles to play in the protection and restoration of our natural environment. Consequently, the main objective of this edited volume is to present some of the most up-to-date and promising approaches to stochastic and statistical modelling, especially with respect to groundwater and surface water applications. Contents As shown in the Table of Contents, the book is subdivided into the following main parts: GENERAL ISSUES PART I PART II GROUNDWATER PART III SURFACE WATER PART IV STOCHASTIC OPTIMIZATION PART V MOMENT ANALYSIS PART VI OTHER TOPICS Part I raises some thought-provoking issues about probabilistic modelling of hydro logical and environmental systems. The first two papers in Part I are, in fact, keynote papers delivered at an international environmetrics conference held at the University of Waterloo in June, 1993, in honour of Professor T. E. Unny. In his keynote pa per, Dr. S. J. Burges of the University of Washington places into perspective the historical and future roles of stochastic modelling in hydrology and environmental engineering. Additionally, Dr. Burges stresses the need for developing a sound scien tific basis for the field of hydrology. Professor P. E.

Stahlbetonbrücken

Author: Eugen Brühwiler,Christian Menn

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3709160707

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 552

View: 3219

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Die dritte Auflage des Klassikers Stahlbetonbrücken behandelt in umfassender Form die Grundlagen des konzeptionellen Entwurfs sowie der Projektierung, Ausführung und Erhaltung von Brücken aus Stahl- und Spannbeton. Diese Grundlagen sind entscheidend für die Ästhetik, Tragsicherheit, Dauerhaftigkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit einer Brücke. Mit einfachen Modellen wird ein Höchstmaß an Klarheit und Verständlichkeit erreicht. Auf Detailberechnungen wird verzichtet, da sie meist von sekundärer Bedeutung sind und weder auf die Qualität noch auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer Brücke einen nennenswerten Einfluss haben. Für Qualität und Dauerhaftigkeit von Stahlbetonkonstruktionen spielen die Anordnung der Bewehrung und die konstruktive Ausbildung eine entscheidende Rolle, weshalb grundsätzliche Lösungsmöglichkeiten dargestellt werden. Die Themen Entwurf, Baustoffe, Einwirkungen, Ausrüstungsteile, Schrägkabelbrücken und Erhaltung wurden grundlegend überarbeitet und erweitert.

Hydrology and Hydroclimatology

Principles and Applications

Author: M. Karamouz,S. Nazif,M. Falahi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466512202

Category: Science

Page: 740

View: 821

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This book presents a systematic approach to understanding and applying the principles of hydrology and hydroclimatology, examining the interactions among different components of the water cycle. It takes a fresh look at the fundamentals and challenges in hydrologic and hydroclimatic systems as well as climate change. The author describes the application of nontraditional data sets and new investigation techniques to water-related problems. He also examines long lead forecasting and simulation, time series analysis, and risk and uncertainty in hydrologic design.

Workshop on Nonstationarity, Hydrologic Frequency Analysis, and Water Management , January 13-15, 2010, Boulder, Colorado

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Climatic changes

Page: 304

View: 2596

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"An underlying assumption of traditional hydrologic frequency analysis is that climate, and hence the frequency of hydrologic events, is stationary, or unchanging over time. A stationary series is relatively easy to forecast: one simply predicts that statistical properties will be the same in the future as they have been in the past. Anthropogenic climate change and better understanding of decadal and multi-decadal climate variability present a challenge to the validity of this assumption. The workshop ... was organized to present and discuss possible operational alternatives to the assumption of stationarity in hydrologic frequency analysis."--Abstract.

Statistical Methods for Trend Detection and Analysis in the Environmental Sciences

Author: Richard Chandler,Marian Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111999196X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 388

View: 3817

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The need to understand and quantify change is fundamental throughout the environmental sciences. This might involve describing past variation, understanding the mechanisms underlying observed changes, making projections of possible future change, or monitoring the effect of intervening in some environmental system. This book provides an overview of modern statistical techniques that may be relevant in problems of this nature. Practitioners studying environmental change will be familiar with many classical statistical procedures for the detection and estimation of trends. However, the ever increasing capacity to collect and process vast amounts of environmental information has led to growing awareness that such procedures are limited in the insights that they can deliver. At the same time, significant developments in statistical methodology have often been widely dispersed in the statistical literature and have therefore received limited exposure in the environmental science community. This book aims to provide a thorough but accessible review of these developments. It is split into two parts: the first provides an introduction to this area and the second part presents a collection of case studies illustrating the practical application of modern statistical approaches to the analysis of trends in real studies. Key Features: Presents a thorough introduction to the practical application and methodology of trend analysis in environmental science. Explores non-parametric estimation and testing as well as parametric techniques. Methods are illustrated using case studies from a variety of environmental application areas. Looks at trends in all aspects of a process including mean, percentiles and extremes. Supported by an accompanying website featuring datasets and R code. The book is designed to be accessible to readers with some basic statistical training, but also contains sufficient detail to serve as a reference for practising statisticians. It will therefore be of use to postgraduate students and researchers both in the environmental sciences and in statistics.

Zeitreihenmodelle

Author: Andrew C. Harvey

Publisher: De Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN: 9783486230062

Category:

Page: 379

View: 9755

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Gegenstand des Werkes sind Analyse und Modellierung von Zeitreihen. Es wendet sich an Studierende und Praktiker aller Disziplinen, in denen Zeitreihenbeobachtungen wichtig sind.

Stochastic and Statistical Methods in Hydrology and Environmental Engineering: Stochastic and statistical modelling with groundwater and surface water applications

Author: Keith W. Hipel

Publisher: Kluwer Academic Pub

ISBN: 9780792327578

Category: Science

Page: 372

View: 5343

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World renowned scientists present valuable contributions to stochastic and statistical modelling of groundwater and surface water systems. The philosophy of probabilistic modelling in the hydrological sciences is put into proper perspective and the importance of stochastic differential equations in the environmental sciences is explained and illustrated. The new research ideas put forward in groundwater modelling will assist decision makers in tackling challenging problems such as controlling pollution of underground aquifers and obtaining adequate water supplies. Additionally, different types of stochastic models are used in modelling a range of interesting surface water problems. Other topics covered in this landmark volume include stochastic optimization, moment analysis, carbon dioxide modelling and rainfall prediction. Audience The book is of interest to researchers, teachers, students and practitioners who wish to be at the leading edge of stochastic and statistical modelling in the environmental sciences.

Statistical Downscaling for Hydrological and Environmental Applications

Author: Taesam Lee,Vijay P. Singh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0429861141

Category: Science

Page: 165

View: 5656

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This book presents statistical downscaling techniques in a practical manner so that readers can easily adopt the techniques for hydrological applications and designs in response to climate change. It also provides numerous examples and background information on reliability of impact assessments of climate change and what the results imply.

Die Ostsahara im Spätquartär

Ökosystemwandel im größten hyperariden Raum der Erde

Author: Hans-Joachim Pachur,Norbert Altmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540476253

Category: Science

Page: 662

View: 3928

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Erstmals eine Synthese aktueller geowissenschaftlich-ökosystemarer Analysen des größten hyperariden Raums der Erde: der Ostsahara. Forschungen belegen den dramatischen Klimawandel innerhalb der letzten ca. 13.000 Jahre. Die Rekonstruktion der ostsaharischen Geoökosysteme führt zu überraschenden Ergebnissen. Dieses Buch stellt potenzielle Geo-Biosphärenreservate vor und benennt Ziele eines "sanften" Tourismus. Mit 7 detaillierten Kartenbeilagen.

Theoretische Bodenmechanik

Author: Karl Terzaghi

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3642532446

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 506

View: 8602

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2 nung der durch Änderungen in der Belastung und in den Entwässe rungsbedingungen verursachten Wirkungen meist nur sehr gering sind. Diese Feststellung gilt im besonderen Maße für alle jene Auf gaben, die sich mit der Wirkung des strömenden Wasser befassen, weil hier untergeordnete Abweichungen in der Schichtung, die durch Probebohrungen nicht aufgeschlossen werden, von großem Einfluß sein können. Aus diesem Grunde unterscheidet sich die Anwendung der theoretischen Bodenmechanik auf den Erd- und Grundbau ganz wesentlich von der Anwendung der technischen Mechanik auf den Stahl-, Holz- und Massivbau. Die elastischen Größen der Baustoffe Stahl oder Stahlbeton sind nur wenig veränderlich, und die Gesetze der angewandten Mechanik können für die praktische Anwendung ohne Einschränkung übertragen werden. Demgegenüber stellen die theoretischen Untersuchungen in der Bodenmechanik nur Arbeits hypothesen dar, weil unsere Kenntnisse über die mittleren physikalischen Eigenschaften des Untergrundes und über den Verlauf der einzelnen Schichtgrenzen stets unvollkommen und sogar oft äußerst unzuläng lich sind. Vom praktischen Standpunkt aus gesehen, sind die in der Bodenmechanik entwickelten Arbeitshypothesen jedoch ebenso an wendbar wie die theoretische Festigkeitslehre auf andere Zweige des Bauingenieurwesens. Wenn der Ingenieur sich der in den grundlegen den Annahmen enthaltenen Unsicherheiten bewußt ist, dann ist er auch imstande, die Art und die Bedeutung der Unterschiede zu er kennen, die zwischen der Wirklichkeit und seiner Vorstellung über die Bodenverhältnisse bestehen.

Klimaanpassung in Forschung und Politik

Author: Andreas Marx

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3658055782

Category: Science

Page: 260

View: 9095

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Dieses Buch präsentiert das Themenfeld Anpassung an den Klimawandel erstmals aus unterschiedlichen, disziplinären Sichtweisen – von der Ökonomie über Geographie und Rechtswissenschaft bis hin zu Politikwissenschaft und Soziologie. Darüber hinaus werden Vulnerabilität und Resilienz sowie Indikatoren und Leitfäden für die Anpassung diskutiert. Konkrete Beispiele aus der urbanen Anpassung und dem Komplex Klimaschutz/Anpassung/Ökosystemdienstleistungen runden die Thematik ab. Erkenntnisse über die Anpassung an den Klimawandel haben nach der gesellschaftlichen Diskussion längst auch Entscheidungsträger auf europäischer sowie kommunaler Ebene erreicht. Das Buch behandelt das Thema Anpassung auf diesen unterschiedlichen Ebenen. Vor allem auf der lokalen Entscheidungsebene liegen bis heute wenig wissenschaftlich gesicherte Daten zu Klimawandel und seinen Auswirkungen vor. Das Buch zeigt, dass und warum Handeln unter Unsicherheit, das Arbeiten mit Szenarien oder das Zusammenführen von natur- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Informationen auf der Tagesordnung der Anpassungsforschung und -politik stehen.

Hydrological Drought

Processes and Estimation Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater

Author: Lena M. Tallaksen,Henny A. J. van Lanen

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444517678

Category: Science

Page: 579

View: 8035

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Hydrological drought is a textbook for university students, practising hydrologists and researchers. The main scope of this book is to provide the reader with a comprehensive review of processes and estimation methods for streamflow and groundwater drought. It includes a qualitative conceptual understanding of drought features and processes, a detailed presentation of estimation methods and tools, practical examples and key aspects of operational practice. The methods are demonstrated using sample data sets and tools that are provided on the accompanying CD. The drought phenomenon and its diversity across the world are illustrated using a global set of daily streamflow series, whereas regional and local aspects of drought are studied using a combination of hydrological time series and catchment information. The book concludes with human impacts, ecological issues and examples of procedures for designing and operating water resources schemes. The majority of the examples are taken from regions where the rivers run most of the year. The material presented ranges from well established knowledge and analysing methods to recent developments in drought research. Its nature varies accordingly, from a more traditional textbook with its clear overview to that of a research paper, which introduces new approaches and methodologies for drought analysis. Also available in paperback, ISBN 0-444-51767-7.

Grundwasserchemie

Praxisorientierter Leitfaden zur numerischen Modellierung von Beschaffenheit, Kontamination und Sanierung aquatischer Systeme

Author: Broder J. Merkel,Britta Planer-Friedrich

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 366207611X

Category: Science

Page: 219

View: 8738

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Die Autoren konzentrieren sich in ihrem Werk auf die Lösung praxisorientierter hydrogeochemischer Fragestellungen und schließen damit eine Lücke im Bereich anwendungsorientierter Lehrbücher. Ein erster Teil fasst dabei die Theorie soweit zusammen, daß es auch Neulingen im Bereich der Modellierung und Nichtchemikern leicht gemacht wird, das anspruchsvolle Thema zu erfassen. Akademikern mit hydrogeologischer oder chemischer Grundausbildung sowie Studenten höherer Semester in den relevanten Fachgebieten erlaubt das Buch, anhand der beschriebenen Beispiele und Lösungen, eine eigenständige Erarbeitung der Sachverhalte. Die beiliegende CD-ROM ermöglicht zudem eine rasche Überprüfung der Ergebnisse, bzw. das Nachvollziehen aller Aufgaben und Lösungen anhand der beigefügten PhreeC-Eingabedateien. Da das Programm PhreeC kostenfrei verfügbar ist und mit Windows-Oberfläche auf der CD-ROM vorhanden ist, kann sofort mit der Modellierung begonnen werden.

Physik unserer Umwelt: Die Atmosphäre

Author: Walter Roedel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662126966

Category: Law

Page: 467

View: 5370

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Das vorliegende Buch verfolgt zwei Ziele. Es dient zunächst der Einführung in die allgemeine Physik der Atmosphäre und macht das Funktionieren des Systems Atmosphäre verständlich; darüber hinaus bietet es einen Überblick über umweltrelevante Aspekte der atmosphärischen Physik.

Improving American River Flood Frequency Analyses

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources,Committee on American River Flood Frequencies

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309173124

Category: Science

Page: 132

View: 5933

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Sacramento, California, has grown literally at the edge of the Sacramento and American Rivers and for 150 years has struggled to protect itself from periodic floods by employing structural and land management measures. Much of the population lives behind levees, and most of the city's downtown business and government area is vulnerable to flooding. A major flood in 1986 served as impetus for efforts by federal, state, and local entities to identify an acceptable and feasible set of measures to increase Sacramento's level of safety from American River floods. Numerous options were identified in 1991 by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) in a report known as the American River Watershed Investigation. Due to the controversial nature of many of the alternatives identified in that report, study participants were not able to reach consensus on any of the flood control options. In response, the Congress directed the USACE to reevaluate available flood control options and, at the same time, asked the USACE to engage the National Research Council (NRC) as an independent advisor on these difficult studies. In 1995 NRC's Committee on Flood Control Alternatives in the American River Basin issued Flood Risk Management and the American River Basin: An Evaluation. This report outlined an approach for improving the selection of a flood risk reduction strategy from the many available.