Stellar Explosions

Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

Author: Jordi Jose

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439853088

Category: Science

Page: 452

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Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

Fundamentals of Radio Astronomy

Observational Methods

Author: Jonathan M. Marr,Ronald L. Snell,Stanley E. Kurtz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498770193

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 7132

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As evidenced by five Nobel Prizes in physics, radio astronomy in its 80-year history has contributed greatly to our understanding of the universe. Yet for too long, there has been no suitable textbook on radio astronomy for undergraduate students. Fundamentals of Radio Astronomy: Observational Methods is the first undergraduate-level textbook exclusively devoted to radio astronomy telescopes and observation methods. This book, the first of two volumes, explains the instrumentation and techniques needed to make successful observations in radio astronomy. With examples interspersed throughout and problems at the end of each chapter, it prepares students to contribute to a radio astronomy research team. Requiring no prior knowledge of astronomy, the text begins with a review of pertinent astronomy basics. It then discusses radiation physics, the collection and detection of astronomical radio signals using radio telescopes, the functioning of various components of radio telescopes, and the processes involved in making successful radio observations. The book also provides a conceptual understanding of the fundamental principles of aperture synthesis and a more advanced undergraduate-level discussion of real-world interferometry observations. Web Resource A set of laboratory exercises is available for download on the book’s CRC Press web page. These labs use the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) developed for educational use by MIT’s Haystack Observatory. The web page also includes a Java package that demonstrates the principles of Fourier transforms, which are needed for the analysis of interferometric data.

Cosmology for Physicists

Author: David Lyth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149875533X

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 9919

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Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.

Cosmology

Author: Nicola Vittorio

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149873135X

Category: Science

Page: 428

View: 948

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Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives. This book is divided into three main parts: Part I provides a pedagogical, but rigorous, general relativity-based discussion of cosmological models, showing the evidence for dark energy, the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis and the need for inflation Part II introduces density fluctuations and their statistical description, discussing different theoretical scenarios, such as CDM, as well as observations Part III introduces the general relativity approach to structure formation and discusses the physics behind the CMB temperature and polarization pattern of the microwave sky Carefully adapted from the course taught by Prof. Vittorio at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, this book will be an ideal companion for advanced students undertaking a course in cosmology.

Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963681

Category: Science

Page: 2979

View: 7889

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Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Astronomy and Astrophysics. The editors have built Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Astronomy and Astrophysics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis

An Investigation of the History of Matter, from the Big Bang to the Present

Author: David Arnett

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691011479

Category: Science

Page: 598

View: 9130

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This book investigates the question of how matter has evolved since its origin in the Big Bang, from the cosmological synthesis of hydrogen and helium to the generation of the complex set of nuclei that comprise our world and our selves. A central theme is the evolution of gravitationally contained thermonuclear reactors, otherwise known as stars. Our current understanding is presented systematically and quantitatively, by combining simple analytic models with new state-of-the-art computer simulations. The narrative begins with the clues (primarily the solar system abundance pattern), the constraining physics (primarily nuclear and particle physics), and the thermonuclear burning in the Big Bang itself. It continues with a step-by-step description of how stars evolve by nuclear reactions, a critical investigation of supernova explosion mechanisms and the formation of neutron stars and of black holes, and an analysis of how such explosions appear to astronomers (illustrated by comparison with recent observations). It concludes with a synthesis of these ideas for galactic evolution, with implications for nucleosynthesis in the first generation of stars and for the solar system abundance pattern. Emphasis is given to questions that remain open, and to active research areas that bridge the disciplines of astronomy, cosmochemistry, physics, and planetary and space science. Extensive references are given.

Teilchenastrophysik

Author: Kai Zuber

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322905489

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 8110

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Die letzten bei den Jahrzehnte haben eine explosive Entwicklung der Teil und Kosmologie erlebt. Die Teilchenphysik erwies chenphysik, Astrophysik sich als ein entscheidendes Mittel zum tieferen Verständnis des Universums. Das Aufkommen der Theorien der Großen Vereinigung der Kräfte in der Teil chenphysik erlaubte, das frühe Universum bis zu den frühesten Zeitpunkten zurückzuverfolgen. Umgekehrt treten in astrophysikalischen und kosmologi schen Prozessen Energien auf, die man in Beschleunigern auf absehbare oder besser unabsehbare Zeit nicht erreichen kann, und die die Realisierung ei nes Teils der Fülle der exotischen teilchentheoretischen Vorhersagen erlaubt haben könnten: Baryogenese, Inflation, die Produktion exotischer Teilchen - Monopole, kosmische Strings, Axionen und viele andere. Supersymmetri sche Teilchen (Neutralinos) sind Kandidaten für kalte dunkle Materie, die die soeben der Beobachtung zugänglich gewordene großräumige Struktur des Universums und ihre Entstehung verständlich machen könnten. Neutrinos sind Kandidaten für heiße dunkle Materie. Eigenschaften von Neutrinos be einflussen die Explosion der Supernovae. Astrophysikalische Neutrinoquellen helfen bei der Bestimmung von Neutrino-Eigenschaften, die eine Schlüssel funktion für die Struktur der Elementarteilchen-Theorien einnehmen. Astro physikalisch erzeugte Axionen sondieren das starke CP-Problem der QCD. Es entstand ein neues Forschungsgebiet, die Teilchenastrophysik, in der man von zwei Seiten versucht, einigen der fundamentalen Probleme der modernen Physik näherzukommen. Das enorme Wachstum in diesem Bereich macht es - insbesondere für den Anfänger auf diesem Gebiet - zunehmend schwieriger, der Entwicklung auf dem Wege über die Fachliteratur zu folgen.

Einführung in die Extragalaktische Astronomie und Kosmologie

Author: Peter Schneider

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540305890

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 1373

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In diesem kompetent geschriebenen Lehrbuch wird, ausgehend von der Beschreibung unserer Milchstraße, die Astronomie der Galaxien und ihrer großräumigen Verteilung eingehend dargestellt und schließlich im kosmologischen Kontext diskutiert. Aufbauend auf eine Einführung in die moderne beobachtende und theoretische Kosmologie wird die Entstehung von Strukturen und astronomischen Objekten im frühen Universum besprochen.

Massive Stars as Cosmic Engines (IAU S250)

Author: International Astronomical Union. Symposium

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521874724

Category: Science

Page: 590

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Reviews our current understanding of the life, evolution and death of massive stars; for researchers and graduate students.

Die Sonne, Stern unserer Erde

Author: Kenneth R. Lang

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662066823

Category: Science

Page: 282

View: 9744

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Eine faszinierende Entdeckungsreise zur Sonne und ihren unsichtbaren Welten. Für Fachkundige ebenso spannend zu lesen wie für Astronomie-Interessierte, führt das Buch verständlich in die Physik der Sonne ein und zeigt eindrucksvoll die Bedeutung des Sonnenlichts für das Leben auf der Erde. Gestützt auf neueste Forschungsergebnisse aus Radioteleskop- und Satellitenbeobachtungen beschreibt Kenneth Lang die gewaltigen atomenergetischen Prozesse der Sonne, den von ihr ausgehenden Neutrinofluß, ihre seismischen Aktivitäten, ihre Magnetfelder und Sonnenflecken, die Sonnenausbrüche und Protuberanzen, den Sonnenwind und den Einfluß der Sonne auf unser Klima und Wetter. Das Buch ist mit einer Fülle hervorragender Abbildungen ausgestattet, u.a. mit Fotomaterial der NASA, das hier zum ersten Mal veröffentlicht wird.

Das Buch der Universen

Author: John D. Barrow

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593393379

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 8041

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Jahrtausendelang war für uns Menschen das eigene Universum so unbegreiflich, dass der Gedanke an andere Welten unvorstellbar war. Erst die moderne Physik mit der Theorie der Multiversen schuf die Voraussetzung, andere, neue Universen zu beschreiben, wie sie nach den Gesetzen der Physik möglich sind. John Barrow zeigt uns die bislang entdeckten Lösungen für Einsteins Universumsgleichung in diesem faszinierenden Buch: rotierende und unberechenbare, sich aufblähende und schrumpfende, heiße und kalte, bucklige und glatte, flache Universen und solche mit einem Loch in der Mitte, Universen voller Leben und Universen, die plötzlich aufhören zu existieren. Eine spektakuläre Reise in die fantastischen Welten der modernen Kosmologie – und an die Grenzen unseres eigenen Vorstellungsvermögens.