Stellar Explosions

Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis

Author: Jordi Jose

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439853088

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 9825

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Stars are the main factories of element production in the universe through a suite of complex and intertwined physical processes. Such stellar alchemy is driven by multiple nuclear interactions that through eons have transformed the pristine, metal-poor ashes leftover by the Big Bang into a cosmos with 100 distinct chemical species. The products of stellar nucleosynthesis frequently get mixed inside stars by convective transport or through hydrodynamic instabilities, and a fraction of them is eventually ejected into the interstellar medium, thus polluting the cosmos with gas and dust. The study of the physics of the stars and their role as nucleosynthesis factories owes much to cross-fertilization of different, somehow disconnected fields, ranging from observational astronomy, computational astrophysics, and cosmochemistry to experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. Few books have simultaneously addressed the multidisciplinary nature of this field in an engaging way suitable for students and young scientists. Providing the required multidisciplinary background in a coherent way has been the driving force for Stellar Explosions: Hydrodynamics and Nucleosynthesis. Written by a specialist in stellar astrophysics, this book presents a rigorous but accessible treatment of the physics of stellar explosions from a multidisciplinary perspective at the crossroads of computational astrophysics, observational astronomy, cosmochemistry, and nuclear physics. Basic concepts from all these different fields are applied to the study of classical and recurrent novae, type I and II supernovae, X-ray bursts and superbursts, and stellar mergers. The book shows how a multidisciplinary approach has been instrumental in our understanding of nucleosynthesis in stars, particularly during explosive events.

Fundamentals of Radio Astronomy

Observational Methods

Author: Jonathan M. Marr,Ronald L. Snell,Stanley E. Kurtz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498770193

Category: Science

Page: 332

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As evidenced by five Nobel Prizes in physics, radio astronomy in its 80-year history has contributed greatly to our understanding of the universe. Yet for too long, there has been no suitable textbook on radio astronomy for undergraduate students. Fundamentals of Radio Astronomy: Observational Methods is the first undergraduate-level textbook exclusively devoted to radio astronomy telescopes and observation methods. This book, the first of two volumes, explains the instrumentation and techniques needed to make successful observations in radio astronomy. With examples interspersed throughout and problems at the end of each chapter, it prepares students to contribute to a radio astronomy research team. Requiring no prior knowledge of astronomy, the text begins with a review of pertinent astronomy basics. It then discusses radiation physics, the collection and detection of astronomical radio signals using radio telescopes, the functioning of various components of radio telescopes, and the processes involved in making successful radio observations. The book also provides a conceptual understanding of the fundamental principles of aperture synthesis and a more advanced undergraduate-level discussion of real-world interferometry observations. Web Resource A set of laboratory exercises is available for download on the book’s CRC Press web page. These labs use the Small Radio Telescope (SRT) and the Very Small Radio Telescope (VSRT) developed for educational use by MIT’s Haystack Observatory. The web page also includes a Java package that demonstrates the principles of Fourier transforms, which are needed for the analysis of interferometric data.

Cosmology for Physicists

Author: David Lyth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149875533X

Category: Science

Page: 180

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Written by an award-winning cosmologist, this brand new textbook provides advanced undergraduate and graduate students with coverage of the very latest developments in the observational science of cosmology. The book is separated into three parts; part I covers particle physics and general relativity, part II explores an account of the known history of the universe, and part III studies inflation. Full treatment of the origin of structure, scalar fields, the cosmic microwave background and the early universe are provided. Problems are included in the book with solutions provided in a separate solutions manual. More advanced extension material is offered in the Appendix, ensuring the book is fully accessible to students with a wide variety of background experience.

Cosmology

Author: Nicola Vittorio

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 149873135X

Category: Science

Page: 428

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Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives. This book is divided into three main parts: Part I provides a pedagogical, but rigorous, general relativity-based discussion of cosmological models, showing the evidence for dark energy, the constraints from primordial nucleosynthesis and the need for inflation Part II introduces density fluctuations and their statistical description, discussing different theoretical scenarios, such as CDM, as well as observations Part III introduces the general relativity approach to structure formation and discusses the physics behind the CMB temperature and polarization pattern of the microwave sky Carefully adapted from the course taught by Prof. Vittorio at the University of Rome Tor Vergata, this book will be an ideal companion for advanced students undertaking a course in cosmology.

Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963681

Category: Science

Page: 2979

View: 3346

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Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Astronomy and Astrophysics. The editors have built Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Astronomy and Astrophysics in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Astronomy and Astrophysics: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

New Quests in Stellar Astrophysics II

Ultraviolet Properties of Evolved Stellar Populations

Author: Miguel Chavez Dagostino,Emanuele Bertone,Daniel Rosa Gonzalez,Lino Hector Rodriguez-Merino

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387876219

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 4491

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Evolution of Stars and Stellar Populations

Author: Maurizio Salaris,Santi Cassisi

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470092224

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 4513

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Evolution of Stars and Stellar Populations is a comprehensive presentation of the theory of stellar evolution and its application to the study of stellar populations in galaxies. Taking a unique approach to the subject, this self-contained text introduces first the theory of stellar evolution in a clear and accessible manner, with particular emphasis placed on explaining the evolution with time of observable stellar properties, such as luminosities and surface chemical abundances. This is followed by a detailed presentation and discussion of a broad range of related techniques, that are widely applied by researchers in the field to investigate the formation and evolution of galaxies. This book will be invaluable for undergraduates and graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics, and will also be of interest to researchers working in the field of Galactic, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. * comprehensive presentation of stellar evolution theory * introduces the concept of stellar population and describes "stellar population synthesis" methods to study ages and star formation histories of star clusters and galaxies. * presents stellar evolution as a tool for investigating the evolution of galaxies and of the universe in general.

Supernovae and Nucleosynthesis

An Investigation of the History of Matter, from the Big Bang to the Present

Author: David Arnett

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691011479

Category: Science

Page: 598

View: 2218

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This book investigates the question of how matter has evolved since its origin in the Big Bang, from the cosmological synthesis of hydrogen and helium to the generation of the complex set of nuclei that comprise our world and our selves. A central theme is the evolution of gravitationally contained thermonuclear reactors, otherwise known as stars. Our current understanding is presented systematically and quantitatively, by combining simple analytic models with new state-of-the-art computer simulations. The narrative begins with the clues (primarily the solar system abundance pattern), the constraining physics (primarily nuclear and particle physics), and the thermonuclear burning in the Big Bang itself. It continues with a step-by-step description of how stars evolve by nuclear reactions, a critical investigation of supernova explosion mechanisms and the formation of neutron stars and of black holes, and an analysis of how such explosions appear to astronomers (illustrated by comparison with recent observations). It concludes with a synthesis of these ideas for galactic evolution, with implications for nucleosynthesis in the first generation of stars and for the solar system abundance pattern. Emphasis is given to questions that remain open, and to active research areas that bridge the disciplines of astronomy, cosmochemistry, physics, and planetary and space science. Extensive references are given.

Nuclear Physics of Stars

Author: Christian Iliadis

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527336516

Category: Science

Page: 672

View: 1300

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Most elements are synthesized, or "cooked", by thermonuclear reactions in stars. The newly formed elements are released into the interstellar medium during a star's lifetime, and are subsequently incorporated into a new generation of stars, into the planets that form around the stars, and into the life forms that originate on the planets. Moreover, the energy we depend on for life originates from nuclear reactions that occur at the center of the Sun. Synthesis of the elements and nuclear energy production in stars are the topics of nuclear astrophysics, which is the subject of this book. It presents nuclear structure and reactions, thermonuclear reaction rates, experimental nuclear methods, and nucleosynthesis in detail. These topics are discussed in a coherent way, enabling the reader to grasp their interconnections intuitively. The book serves both as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, with worked examples and end-of-chapter excercises, but also as a reference book for use by researchers working in the field of nuclear astrophysics.

Stellar Evolution, Nuclear Astrophysics, and Nucleogenesis

Author: A. G. W. Cameron,David Miles Kahl,Jordi Jose

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486498557

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 6473

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Along with classic papers byFowler, Hoyle, and the Burbidges,this work stands as a key foundationin the development of nuclear astrophysics. Long out ofprint and very hard to find, this remarkable work has beenedited and re-typeset by an atomic expert. Now availablein an affordable paperback edition for the very first time,it addresses interrelated questions — What are stars? Howdoes the sun shine? Why is gold so rare, and Where did theelements come from? — that have puzzled observers fromtime immemorial.Edited and re-typeset reprint of the original Atomic Energy ofCanada, Ltd., 1957 edition.

Astrophysics in a Nutshell

Second Edition

Author: Dan Maoz

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140088117X

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 7604

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Winner of the American Astronomical Society's Chambliss Award, Astrophysics in a Nutshell has become the text of choice in astrophysics courses for science majors at top universities in North America and beyond. In this expanded and fully updated second edition, the book gets even better, with a new chapter on extrasolar planets; a greatly expanded chapter on the interstellar medium; fully updated facts and figures on all subjects, from the observed properties of white dwarfs to the latest results from precision cosmology; and additional instructive problem sets. Throughout, the text features the same focused, concise style and emphasis on physics intuition that have made the book a favorite of students and teachers. Written by Dan Maoz, a leading active researcher, and designed for advanced undergraduate science majors, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is a brief but thorough introduction to the observational data and theoretical concepts underlying modern astronomy. Generously illustrated, it covers the essentials of modern astrophysics, emphasizing the common physical principles that govern astronomical phenomena, and the interplay between theory and observation, while also introducing subjects at the forefront of modern research, including black holes, dark matter, dark energy, and gravitational lensing. In addition to serving as a course textbook, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is an ideal review for a qualifying exam and a handy reference for teachers and researchers. The most concise and current astrophysics textbook for science majors—now expanded and fully updated with the latest research results Contains a broad and well-balanced selection of traditional and current topics Uses simple, short, and clear derivations of physical results Trains students in the essential skills of order-of-magnitude analysis Features a new chapter on extrasolar planets, including discovery techniques Includes new and expanded sections and problems on the physics of shocks, supernova remnants, cosmic-ray acceleration, white dwarf properties, baryon acoustic oscillations, and more Contains instructive problem sets at the end of each chapter Solutions manual (available only to professors)

Astrophysics for Physicists

Author: Arnab Rai Choudhuri

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139486918

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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Designed for teaching astrophysics to physics students at advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level, this textbook also provides an overview of astrophysics for astrophysics graduate students, before they delve into more specialized volumes. Assuming background knowledge at the level of a physics major, the textbook develops astrophysics from the basics without requiring any previous study in astronomy or astrophysics. Physical concepts, mathematical derivations and observational data are combined in a balanced way to provide a unified treatment. Topics such as general relativity and plasma physics, which are not usually covered in physics courses but used extensively in astrophysics, are developed from first principles. While the emphasis is on developing the fundamentals thoroughly, recent important discoveries are highlighted at every stage.

Solar Astrophysics

Author: Peter V. Foukal

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527618082

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 3248

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This revised edition of Solar Astrophysics describes our current understanding of the sun - from its deepest interior, via the layers of the directly observable atmosphere to the solar wind, right out to its farthest extension into interstellar space. It includes a comprehensive account of the history of solar astrophysics, along with an overview of the key instruments throughout the various periods. In contrast to other books on this topic, the choice of material deals evenhandedly with the entire scope of important topics covered in solar research. The authors make the advances in our understanding of the sun accessible to students and non-specialists by way of careful use of relatively simple physical concepts. The book offers an incisive, reliable, and well-planned look at all that is fascinating and new in studies of the sun.

The Origin of the Galaxy and Local Group

Saas-Fee Advanced Course 37 Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy

Author: Joss Bland-Hawthorn,Kenneth Freeman,Francesca Matteucci

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642417205

Category: Science

Page: 231

View: 8365

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This volume contains the updated and expanded lecture notes of the 37th Saas-Fee Advanced Course organised by the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy. It offers the most comprehensive and up to date review of one of the hottest research topics in astrophysics - how our Milky Way galaxy formed. Joss Bland-Hawthorn & Ken Freeman lectured on Near Field Cosmology - The Origin of the Galaxy and the Local Group. Francesca Matteucci’s chapter is on Chemical evolution of the Milky Way and its Satellites. As designed by the SSAA, books in this series – and this one too – are targeted at graduate and PhD students and young researchers in astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology. Lecturers and researchers entering the field will also benefit from the book.

Classical Nova Explosions

International Conference on Classical Nova Explosions, Sitges, Spain, 20-24 May, 2002

Author: Margarita Hernanz,Jordi Jose

Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 590

View: 7738

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The book reviews our current knowledge about Classical Nova Explosions, including all the recent advances from both theoretical and observational points of view. The volume covers a large number of topics, such as the astrophysical scenario, the explosion mechanism (including recent multidimensional approaches), light curves and spectra, and observations based on ground and space facilities, covering all wavelength ranges from radio and infrared to X and gamma-rays. Topics include: novae, cataclysmic variables, nucleosynthesis, white dwarfs, observations (optical, IR, radio, UV, x-rays, gamma-rays).

Find a Hotter Place!

A History of Nuclear Astrophysics

Author: Ludwik Marian Celnikier

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812773967

Category: Science

Page: 191

View: 5250

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Find a hotter place! is the insightful story of the tortured path that led to our current understanding of how the elements in the Universe came to be. This is a story which began in Greek Antiquity, with the first musings on the nature of matter and the void, and continues today with ever more refined analyses involving virtually every aspect of 20th century physics, astronomy, cosmology and information technology. Identifying the source of stellar energy, probing the earliest instants of the Universe, and discovering of how and where each element was made are some of the outstanding success stories of the 20th century, but have received little attention beyond the specialized literature.The year 2007 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of one of the key papers on stellar nucleosynthesis, universally referred to as the B2FH paper. This book is a timely survey of how a new discipline OCo nuclear astrophysics OCo was born, and how it has matured. Almost completely non-technical, the book remains scientifically rigorous, and thereby fills an important gap.Science is not a linear process, as the ill-named OC scientific methodOCO might suggest to the unwary. The author emphasizes the meanders, the dead ends and the obsessive dogmas which have guided researchers through the 20th century. He also makes it clear that our understanding of where the elements come from has come through discoveries in diverse, not necessarily related, disciplines."

Astronomy with Radioactivities

Author: Roland Diehl,Dieter H. Hartmann,Nikos Prantzos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642126979

Category: Science

Page: 564

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This book introduces the reader to the field of nuclear astrophysics, i.e. the acquisition and reading of measurements on unstable isotopes in different parts of the universe. The authors explain the role of radioactivities in astrophysics, discuss specific sources of cosmic isotopes and in which special regions they can be observed. More specifically, the authors address stars of different types, stellar explosions which terminate stellar evolutions, and other explosions triggered by mass transfers and instabilities in binary stars. They also address nuclear reactions and transport processes in interstellar space, in the contexts of cosmic rays and of chemical evolution. A special chapter is dedicated to the solar system which even provides material samples. The book also contains a description of key tools which astrophysicists employ in those particular studies and a glossary of key terms in astronomy with radioactivities.

Stellar Structure and Evolution

Author: Rudolf Kippenhahn,Alfred Weigert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642615236

Category: Science

Page: 468

View: 1812

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A complete and comprehensive treatment of the physics of the stellar interior and the underlying fundamental processes and parameters. The text presents an overview of the models developed to explain the stability, dynamics and evolution of the stars, and great care is taken to detail the various stages in a star's life. The authors have succeeded in producing a unique text based on their own pioneering work in stellar modeling. Since its publication, this textbook has come to be considered a classic by both readers and teachers in astrophysics. This study edition is intended for students in astronomy and physics alike.

Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis

Author: Sean G. Ryan,Andrew J. Norton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521196093

Category: Nature

Page: 236

View: 6561

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An ideal bridging text for astrophysics and physics majors looking to move on from the introductory texts.

Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System

Author: John Lewis

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323145841

Category: Science

Page: 566

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Physics and Chemistry of the Solar System focuses on planetary physics and chemistry. This book consists of 12 chapters. Chapters I to IV cover the general properties and environment of the planetary system. The solar system beyond Mars is elaborated in Chapters V to VIII, while the inner solar system is considered in Chapters XI to XII. In these chapters, this compilation specifically discusses the limitations on big bang nucleosynthesis; structure and classification of galaxies; and mass and angular momentum distribution. The radio wave propagation in space plasmas; interiors of Jupiter and Saturn; density and composition of icy satellites; and evaporation and non-gravitational forces are also deliberated. This text also explains the physical properties of meteorites; geology of the Moon; geophysical data on Mars; and search for extraterrestrial intelligence. This publication is a good reference for first-year graduate students who intend to take graduate courses in specialized areas of planetary sciences, as well as practicing Ph.D. scientists with training in physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy, meteorology, and biology.