Symbols, Impossible Numbers, and Geometric Entanglements

British Algebra Through the Commentaries on Newton's Universal Arithmetick

Author: Helena M. Pycior

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521027403

Category: Mathematics

Page: 344

View: 5559

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Symbols, Impossible Numbers, and Geometric Entanglements is the first history of the development and reception of algebra in early modern England and Scotland. Not primarily a technical history, this book analyzes the struggles of a dozen British thinkers to come to terms with early modern algebra, its symbolical style, and negative and imaginary numbers. Professor Pycior uncovers these thinkers as a "test-group" for the symbolic reasoning that would radically change not only mathematics but also logic, philosophy, and language studies. The book also shows how pedagogical and religious concerns shaped the British debate over the relative merits of algebra and geometry. The first book to position algebra firmly in the Scientific Revolution and pursue Newton the algebraist, it highlights Newton's role in completing the evolution of algebra from an esoteric subject into a major focus of British mathematics. Other thinkers covered include Oughtred, Harriot, Wallis, Hobbes, Barrow, Berkeley, and MacLaurin.

Form, Zahl, Ordnung

Studien zur Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte : Ivo Schneider zum 65. Geburtstag

Author: Rudolf Seising,Menso Folkerts,Ulf Hashagen

Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag

ISBN: 9783515085250

Category: History

Page: 926

View: 4332

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Dieser Band mit 42 aktuellen Arbeiten von 45 Wissenschafts- und Technikwissenschaftlern erscheint aus Anlass des 65. Geburtstages des Muenchner Wissenschaftshistorikers Ivo Schneider. In den einzelnen Beitragen der Autoren, von denen die meisten der Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte, einige aber auch der Wissenschaftsphilosophie bzw. anderen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen entstammen, werden Arbeiten zur gesamten Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert prasentiert. Aus den verschiedenen Kontexten heraus verweisen die Beitrage auf die Bedeutung von Form(en) in Mathematik und Philosophie, sie zeigen, dass keine moderne Naturwissenschaft ohne Zahl und Ordnung auskommt, wie auch die (moderne) Mathematik oft mehr mit Ordnung denn mit Zahl zu tun hat. Dem Leser wird in diesem Band das groae Spektrum reflektionswissenschaftlicher Forschung ausgebreitet, das in der gegenwartigen Wissenschaftslandschaft leider immer weniger beruecksichtigt wird.

Reading the Principia

The Debate on Newton's Mathematical Methods for Natural Philosophy from 1687 to 1736

Author: Niccol- Guicciardini

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521544030

Category: Science

Page: 292

View: 6399

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The mathematical methods employed by Newton in the Principia stimulated much debate among contemporaries. This book explains how Newton addressed these issues, taking into consideration the values that directed his research. It will be of interest to researchers and students in history and philosophy of science, physics, mathematics and astronomy.

From Discrete to Continuous

The Broadening of Number Concepts in Early Modern England

Author: K. Neal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940170077X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 175

View: 6981

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In the early modern period, a crucial transformation occurred in the classical conception of number and magnitude. Traditionally, numbers were merely collections of discrete units that measured some multiple. Magnitude, on the other hand, was usually described as being continuous, or being divisible into parts that are infinitely divisible. This traditional idea of discrete number versus continuous magnitude was challenged in the early modern period in several ways. This detailed study explores how the development of algebraic symbolism, logarithms, and the growing practical demands for an expanded number concept all contributed to a broadening of the number concept in early modern England. An interest in solving practical problems was not, in itself, enough to cause a generalisation of the number concept. It was the combined impact of novel practical applications together with the concomitant development of such mathematical advances as algebraic notation and logarithms that produced a broadened number concept.

Mathematics in Victorian Britain

Author: photographer and broadcaster Foreword by Dr Adam Hart-Davis

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191627941

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 1040

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During the Victorian era, industrial and economic growth led to a phenomenal rise in productivity and invention. That spirit of creativity and ingenuity was reflected in the massive expansion in scope and complexity of many scientific disciplines during this time, with subjects evolving rapidly and the creation of many new disciplines. The subject of mathematics was no exception and many of the advances made by mathematicians during the Victorian period are still familiar today; matrices, vectors, Boolean algebra, histograms, and standard deviation were just some of the innovations pioneered by these mathematicians. This book constitutes perhaps the first general survey of the mathematics of the Victorian period. It assembles in a single source research on the history of Victorian mathematics that would otherwise be out of the reach of the general reader. It charts the growth and institutional development of mathematics as a profession through the course of the 19th century in England, Scotland, Ireland, and across the British Empire. It then focuses on developments in specific mathematical areas, with chapters ranging from developments in pure mathematical topics (such as geometry, algebra, and logic) to Victorian work in the applied side of the subject (including statistics, calculating machines, and astronomy). Along the way, we encounter a host of mathematical scholars, some very well known (such as Charles Babbage, James Clerk Maxwell, Florence Nightingale, and Lewis Carroll), others largely forgotten, but who all contributed to the development of Victorian mathematics.

Historical Abstracts

Modern history abstracts, 1775-1914

Author: Eric H. Boehm

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History, Modern

Page: N.A

View: 2847

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Math Through the Ages

A Gentle History for Teachers and Others

Author: William P. Berlinghoff,Fernando Quadros Gouvêa

Publisher: Oxton House Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Mathematics

Page: 216

View: 5248

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Om matematikkens historie og hvordan den kan anvendes i matematikundervisningen

Skepticism in Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Thought

New Interpretations

Author: José Raimundo Maia Neto,Richard Henry Popkin

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 4363

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This second volume in the Journal of the History of Philosophy book series (JHP Books) is devoted to the resurgence of skepticism in the Renaissance and after. It contains eight original essays by historians of early modern philosophy from Europe and North and South America, with concluding remarks by Richard H. Popkin, who reviews fifty years of scholarship on the history of early modern skepticism and evaluates its present stage. The essays uncover new material relevant to the history of skepticism in the period and propose new interpretations of the nature, role, and influence of skepticism from Montaigne to Berkeley. The contributors discuss such important figures as Michel de Montaigne, Thomas Hobbes, Pierre Bayle, Henry More, René Descartes, Pierre-Daniel Huet, Pierre Gassendi, and George Berkeley. By indicating a number of new problems brought about by the early modern philosophers’ engagement with and reaction to skepticism, the authors of the important essays in this volume make a major contribution to our understanding of ancient and modern skepticism.

The Brokered World

Go-betweens and Global Intelligence, 1770-1820

Author: Simon Schaffer

Publisher: Science History Publications/USA

ISBN: 9780881353747

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 5524

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Collection of essays focusing on the roles of intermediaries such as brokers and spies, messengers and translators, missionaries and entrepreneurs, in linking different parts of the ever more densely entangled systems of knowledge production and circulation at a key moment in the development of global scientific, commercial and political systems. The period 1770-1820 was decisive for the reformation of imperial projects in the wake of military catastrophe and politico-economic crisis, both in the Atlantic and the Asian/Pacific spheres -- economic and political worlds dominated by complex trade systems and violent contest. This conjuncture also saw the overhaul of networks and institutions of natural knowledge, whether commercial, voluntary or organs of state. Both the industrial and the second scientific revolutions have been dated to this moment. New and decisive relations were forged between different cultures' knowledge carriers. The authors consider knowledge movements of the epoch that escape simple models of metropolitan centre and remote colonial periphery. They question the immutable character of mediators and agents in knowledge communication.

Numbers and Things

Nominalism and Constructivism in Seventeenth-century Mathematical Philosophy

Author: David Christopher Sepkoski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 682

View: 9454

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The Continuum encyclopedia of British philosophy

Author: A. C. Grayling,Andrew Pyle

Publisher: Thoemmes Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 3606

View: 3040

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Including entries of writers on mainstream philosophical topics whose contribution was small (writers of textbooks or minor critics of major figures), this encyclopedia also includes figures from other intellectual domains (poets, mathematicians, scientists and clergymen), who had something to say on topics that count as broadly philosophical.