Taphonomy of Human Remains

Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Author: Eline M. J. Schotsmans,Nicholas Márquez-Grant,Shari L. Forbes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118953347

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 9372

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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology Combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance

Taphonomy of Human Remains

Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Author: Eline M. J. Schotsmans,Nicholas Márquez-Grant,Shari L. Forbes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118953320

Category: Medical

Page: 542

View: 6284

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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science. The book combines essential theory with practical crime scene work, includes case studies, is applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology, and combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance.

Taphonomy of Human Remains

Forensic Analysis of the Dead and the Depositional Environment

Author: Eline M. J. Schotsmans,Nicholas Márquez-Grant,Shari L. Forbes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118953339

Category: Medical

Page: 544

View: 2922

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A truly interdisciplinary approach to this core subject within Forensic Science Combines essential theory with practical crime scene work Includes case studies Applicable to all time periods so has relevance for conventional archaeology, prehistory and anthropology Combines points of view from both established practitioners and young researchers to ensure relevance

The Analysis of Burned Human Remains

Author: Christopher W. Schmidt,Steven A. Symes

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 008055928X

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 7287

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This unique reference provides a primary source for osteologists and the medical/legal community for the understanding of burned bone remains in forensic or archaeological contexts. It describes in detail the changes in human bone and soft tissues as a body burns at both the chemical and gross levels and provides an overview of the current procedures in burned bone study. Case studies in forensic and archaeological settings aid those interested in the analysis of burned human bodies, from death scene investigators, to biological anthropologists looking at the recent or ancient dead. Includes the diagnostic patterning of color changes that give insight to the severity of burning, the positioning of the body, and presence (or absence) of soft tissues during the burning event Chapters on bones and teeth give step-by-step recommendations for how to study and recognize burned hard tissues

Manual of Forensic Taphonomy

Author: James Pokines,Steven A. Symes

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439878439

Category: Law

Page: 496

View: 1154

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Forensic taphonomy is the study of the postmortem changes to human remains, focusing largely on environmental effects—including decomposition in soil and water and interaction with plants, insects, and other animals. While other books have focused on subsets such as forensic botany and entomology, Manual of Forensic Taphonomy is the first update of the entire domain in more than ten years and the first book to consider distinguishing among multiple types of taphonomic changes. Edited by two of the most distinguished experts in the field, this volume examines taphonomic alterations to bone and related taphonomic processes common to cases of forensic interest. Specific chapters address a range of issues related to: Varying burial environments Animal scavenging and transport Fluvial and human transport Cultural modifications Marine environments Subaerial weathering Thermal alteration Recovery methods used in collecting the remains The book discusses inherent variations in survivability of different bones, degradation of DNA in different environments, and organisms involved in soft-tissue decomposition which result in skeletonization. It also describes microscopic alterations, color changes, macroscopic physical damage of multiple types, and bone loss through dispersal away from the location of initial body deposition. The authors present methods that can be employed to determine the timing of taphonomic damage (perimortem vs. postmortem) as well as checklists for the collection of microscopic and macroscopic taphonomic data. The ability to recognize taphonomic characteristics and discriminate between osseous alterations with similar appearances but dissimilar origins is essential to those engaged in the analysis of skeletal remains. This volume is an ideal guide for students and non-specialists as well as a reference manual for professionals.

Osteoarchaeology

A Guide to the Macroscopic Study of Human Skeletal Remains

Author: Efthymia Nikita

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128040971

Category: Law

Page: 462

View: 5219

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Osteoarchaeology: A Guide to the Macroscopic Study of Human Skeletal Remains covers the identification of bones and teeth, taphonomy, sex, ancestry assessment, age estimation, the analysis of biodistances, growth patterns and activity markers, and paleopathology. The book aims to familiarize the reader with the main applications of osteoarchaeology and provide the necessary knowledge required for the implementation of a broad range of osteological methods. It is ideal as a complement to existing textbooks used in upper level undergraduate and graduate courses on osteoarchaeology, human osteology, and, to some extent, forensic anthropology. Pedagogical features include ample illustrations, case study material, revision exercises, and a glossary. Additional features comprise macros that facilitate data processing and analysis, as well as an extensive chapter on applied statistics. Contains coverage of nearly every aspect of human osteological macroscopic analysis Presents detailed descriptions of the application of different methods Includes a variety of online resources, including macros designed by the author for the calculation of the number of individuals in commingled assemblages, processing cranial landmarks and nonmetric traits, and more

Soul Friends

The Transforming Power of Deep Human Connection

Author: Stephen Cope

Publisher: Hay House, Inc

ISBN: 140195166X

Category: Self-Help

Page: 376

View: 1742

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“Most of us will have many friends throughout our lifetimes —friends of all shapes, sizes, and callings. Many of these are wonderful, meaningful friendships. Some are difficult. But some magic few of these are connections that have gone right to our soul. These five or seven or ten friendships have been powerful keys to determining who we have become and who we will become. . . . These are the people I call Soul Friends.” As the Senior Scholar-in-Residence for over 25 years at the renowned Kripalu Center, Stephen Cope has spent decades investigating —and writing about —the integration of body, mind, and spirit and the rich complexity of our relationships with others, and with ourselves. Perhaps the central truth that arises from his work is this: human beings are universally wired for one thing —vital connection with one another. Soul Friends invites us on a compelling journey into the connectivity of the human psyche, the study of which has fascinated scholars, philosophers, and thinkers for centuries. Cope seamlessly blends science, scholarship, and storytelling, drawing on his own life as well as the histories of famous figures —from Eleanor Roosevelt to Charles Darwin to Queen Victoria —whose formative relationships shed light on the nature of friendship itself. In his exploration, he distills human connection into six distinct yet interconnected mechanisms: containment, twinship, adversity, mirroring, identification, and conscious partnership. Then he invites us to reflect on how these forms of connection appear in our own lives, helping us work toward a fuller understanding of “who we have become and who we will become.” Without a doubt, the journey to our most fulfilled selves requires us to look within. But in order to truly thrive, we must make the most of who we are in relation to one another as well. Unsparingly honest, deeply wise, and irresistibly readable, Soul Friends gives us a map to find our way.

Forensic Taphonomy and Ecology of North American Scavengers

Author: Susan N. Sincerbox,Elizabeth A. DiGangi

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128132639

Category: Law

Page: 232

View: 4193

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Forensic Taphonomy and Ecology of North American Scavengers compiles research on vertebrate scavenging behavior from numerous academic fields, including ecology and forensic anthropology. Scavenging behavior can displace remains from their depositional context, confound postmortem interval estimation, destroy osteological markers, and inflict damage that mimics or disguises perimortem trauma. Consequently, the actions of vertebrate scavengers can significantly impact the medicolegal investigation of human remains. It is therefore critical when interpreting a death scene and its associated evidence that scavenging be recognized and the possible effects of scavenging behavior considered. This book is an ideal reference for both students and medicolegal professionals, serving as a field manual for the identification of common scavenging species known to modify human remains in North America. In addition, this book presents a framework to guide investigators in optimizing their approach to scavenged cases, promoting more complete recovery of human remains and the accuracy of forensic reconstructions of peri- and postmortem events. Examines scavenging behavior through an evolutionary and ecological lens, integrating research from diverse fields. Includes brief summaries of the taphonomic signatures and ecological contexts of common or well-studied North American scavenging taxa Proposes strategies to maximize the recovery of vertebrate-scavenged human remains and improve forensic reconstructions of peri- and postmortem events

Interpreting Evidence

Evaluating Forensic Science in the Courtroom

Author: Bernard Robertson,G. A. Vignaux,Charles E. H. Berger

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111849248X

Category: Medical

Page: 214

View: 5738

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This book explains the correct logical approach to analysis of forensic scientific evidence. The focus is on general methods of analysis applicable to all forms of evidence. It starts by explaining the general principles and then applies them to issues in DNA and other important forms of scientific evidence as examples. Like the first edition, the book analyses real legal cases and judgments rather than hypothetical examples and shows how the problems perceived in those cases would have been solved by a correct logical approach. The book is written to be understood both by forensic scientists preparing their evidence and by lawyers and judges who have to deal with it. The analysis is tied back both to basic scientific principles and to the principles of the law of evidence. This book will also be essential reading for law students taking evidence or forensic science papers and science students studying the application of their scientific specialisation to forensic questions.

The Many Deaths of Tsar Nicholas II

Relics, Remains and the Romanovs

Author: Wendy Slater

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134283334

Category: History

Page: 208

View: 2792

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How did Nicholas II, Russia’s last Tsar, meet his death? Shot point blank in a bungled execution by radical Bolsheviks in the Urals, Nicholas and his family disappeared from history in the Soviet era. But in the 1970s, a local geologist and a crime fiction writer discovered the location of their clandestine mass grave, and secretly removed three skulls, before reburying them, afraid of the consequences of their find. Yet the history of Nicholas’ execution and the discovery of his remains are not the only stories connected with the death of the last Tsar. This book recounts the horrific details of his death and the thrilling discovery of the bones, and also investigates the alternative narratives that have grown up around these events. Stories include the contention that the Tsar’s killing was a Jewish plot, in which Nicholas’ severed head was taken to Moscow as proof of his death; tales of would-be survivors of the execution, self-confessed children of the Tsar claiming their true identity; and accounts of miracles performed by Nicholas, who was made a saint by the Russian church in 2000. Not least among these alternative narratives is the romanticization of the Romanovs, epitomized by the numerous photographs of the family released from the Russian archives.

Forensic Taphonomy

The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains

Author: Marcella H. Sorg,William D. Haglund

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439821923

Category: Law

Page: 668

View: 8047

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Links have recently been established between the study of death assemblages by archaeologists and paleontologists (taphonomy) and the application of physical anthropology concepts to the medicolegal investigation of death (forensic anthropology). Forensic Taphonomy explains these links in a broad-based, multidisciplinary volume. It applies taphonomic models in modern forensic contexts and uses forensic cases to extend taphonomic theories. Review articles, case reports, and chapters on methodology round out this book's unique approach to forensic science.

The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation

An International Guide to Laws and Practice in the Excavation and Treatment of Archaeological Human Remains

Author: Nicholas Marquez-Grant,Linda Fibiger

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136879560

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 662

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Methodologies and legislative frameworks regarding the archaeological excavation, retrieval, analysis, curation and potential reburial of human skeletal remains differ throughout the world. As work forces have become increasingly mobile and international research collaborations are steadily increasing, the need for a more comprehensive understanding of different national research traditions, methodologies and legislative structures within the academic and commercial sector of physical anthropology has arisen. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation provides comprehensive information on the excavation of archaeological human remains and the law through 62 individual country contributions from Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Australasia. More specifically, the volume discusses the following: What is the current situation (including a brief history) of physical anthropology in the country? What happens on discovering human remains (who is notified, etc.)? What is the current legislation regarding the excavation of archaeological human skeletal remains? Is a license needed to excavate human remains? Is there any specific legislation regarding excavation in churchyards? Any specific legislation regarding war graves? Are physical anthropologists involved in the excavation process? Where is the cut-off point between forensic and archaeological human remains (e.g. 100 years, 50 years, 25 years...)? Can human remains be transported abroad for research purposes? What methods of anthropological analysis are mostly used in the country? Are there any methods created in that country which are population-specific? Are there particular ethical issues that need to be considered when excavating human remains, such as religious groups or tribal groups? In addition, an overview of landmark anthropological studies and important collections are provided where appropriate. The entries are contained by an introductory chapter by the editors which establish the objectives and structure of the book, setting it within a wider archaeological framework, and a conclusion which explores the current European and world-wide trends and perspectives in the study of archaeological human remains. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation makes a timely, much-needed contribution to the field of physical anthropology and is unique as it combines information on the excavation of human remains and the legislation that guides it, alongside information on the current state of physical anthropology across several continents. It is an indispensible tool for archaeologists involved in the excavation of human remains around the world.

Forensic Ecogenomics

The Application of Microbial Ecology Analyses in Forensic Contexts

Author: T. Komang Ralebitso-Senior

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128096098

Category: Law

Page: 258

View: 5183

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Forensic Ecogenomics: The Application of Microbial Ecology Analyses in Forensic Contexts provides intelligence on important topics, including environmental sample provenance, how to indicate the body decomposition timeline to support postmortem interval (PMI) and postmortem submersion interval (PMSI) estimates, and how to enhance identification of clandestine and transit grave locations. A diverse group of international experts have come together to present a clear perspective of forensic ecogenomics that encapsulates cutting-edge, topical and relevant cross-disciplinary approaches vital to the field. Considers the effects of decomposition on bacterial, fungal and mesofaunal populations in pristine ecosystems Examines the role of the microbiome, necrobiome and thanatomicrobiome in postmortem interval estimations Focuses on the application of different analytical techniques across forensics to enhance/expand the crime scene investigation toolkit Written by a wide range of international experts in their respective fields

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton

Author: M. Anne Katzenberg,Anne L. Grauer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119151627

Category: Social Science

Page: 680

View: 9741

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An Indispensable Resource on Advanced Methods of Analysis of Human Skeletal and Dental Remains in Archaeological and Forensic Contexts Now in its third edition, Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton has become a key reference for bioarchaeologists, human osteologists, and paleopathologists throughout the world. It builds upon basic skills to provide the foundation for advanced scientific analyses of human skeletal remains in cultural, archaeological, and theoretical contexts. This new edition features updated coverage of topics including histomorphometry, dental morphology, stable isotope methods, and ancient DNA, as well as a number of new chapters on paleopathology. It also covers bioarchaeological ethics, taphonomy and the nature of archaeological assemblages, biomechanical analyses of archaeological human skeletons, and more. Fully updated and revised with new material written by leading researchers in the field Includes many case studies to demonstrate application of methods of analysis Offers valuable information on contexts, methods, applications, promises, and pitfalls Covering the latest advanced methods and techniques for analyzing skeletal and dental remains from archaeological discoveries, Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton is a trusted text for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and professionals in human osteology, bioarchaeology, and paleopathology.

Handbook of Forensic Anthropology and Archaeology

Author: Joshua Blau

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315427761

Category: Social Science

Page: 534

View: 5989

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Over the last 10 years interest in the disciplines of forensic anthropology and archaeology has exploded. In order to provide archaeologists and their students with a reliable understanding of these disciplines, this authoritative volume draws contributions from fifty experienced practitioners from around the world to offer a solid foundation in both the practical and ethical components of forensic work. Over 40 chapters weave together historical development, current field methods in analyzing crime, natural disasters and human atrocities, an array of laboratory techniques, key case studies, legal, professional, and ethical issues, and promising future directions, all from a global perspective. This volume will be the benchmark for the understanding of anthropological and archaeological forensics for years to come.

Recovery, Analysis, and Identification of Commingled Human Remains

Author: Bradley J. Adams,John E. Byrd

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781597453165

Category: Medical

Page: 374

View: 6512

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Commingling of human remains presents an added challenge to all phases of the forensic process. This book brings together tools from diverse sources within forensic science to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to handling commingled remains. It details the recovery of commingled remains in the field, the use of triage in the assessment of commingling, various analytical techniques for sorting and determining the number of individuals, the role of DNA in the overall process, ethical considerations, and data management. In addition, the book includes case examples that illustrate techniques found to be successful and those that proved problematic.

West Virginia's Dark Tourism

Author: Tony Urban

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780764350078

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 144

View: 6464

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West Virginia is famous for its mountains, nature, and scenery, but it's also a treasure trove for tourists who prefer to visit history's darker and stranger side. Hitch along with the author as he visits over 60 West Virginia strange and spooky landmarks, including the Trans Allegheny Lunatic Asylum and haunted Moundsville State Prison. Learn about Charles Manson's childhood hometown, the "Hillbilly Black Dahlia," and serial killer Harry Powers, whose story inspired Night of the Hunter. Haunted houses, colleges, and cemeteries, otherwordly alien encounters, cursed amusement parks, and more are explored in detail. You'll even discover Bat Boy's cave, Sasquatch's hideouts, werewolf country, and read about the time Teddy Roosevelt went monster hunting. Each location is complete with visitor information and a bounty of odd history.

Skeletal Trauma Analysis

Case Studies in Context

Author: Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Christopher W. Rainwater

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118384202

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 5765

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In the post-Daubert era, forensic science disciplines are increasingly informed by robust, statistically-sound experimental research. The educational value of the well-documented case study, however, remains as important as ever. Emphasizing known contextual information, this volume serves as a case-driven guide to skeletal trauma analysis through the unique perspective of each chapter’s authors. Both forensic anthropologists and pathologists contribute skeletal trauma cases covering a range of topics including child abuse, blunt force trauma, descents from height, plane crashes, sharp force trauma and dismemberment, gunshot wounds, blast trauma, and burned body interpretation. Several chapters also include a discussion of potentially confounding taphonomic influences such as animal scavenging, water immersion, burning, and extended postmortem intervals. Detailed descriptions with multiple supporting images allow the practitioner’s skeletal trauma interpretation to be compared to the “answer” as it pertains to the known circumstances surrounding the traumatic events of each case.

The Geological Record of Ecological Dynamics

Understanding the Biotic Effects of Future Environmental Change

Author: National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Committee on the Geologic Record of Biosphere Dynamics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165327

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 3173

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In order to answer important questions about ecosystems and biodiversity, scientists can look to the past geological recordâ€"which includes fossils, sediment and ice cores, and tree rings. Because of recent advances in earth scientists’ ability to analyze biological and environmental information from geological data, the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Geological Survey asked a National Research Council (NRC) committee to assess the scientific opportunities provided by the geologic record and recommend how scientists can take advantage of these opportunities for the nation’s benefit. The committee identified three initiatives for future research to be developed over the next decade: (1) use the geological record as a “natural laboratory†to explore changes in living things under a range of past conditions, (2) use the record to better predict the response of biological systems to climate change, and (3) use geologic information to evaluate the effects of human and non-human factors on ecosystems. The committee also offered suggestions for improving the field through better training, improved databases, and additional funding.

Bitemark Evidence

A Color Atlas and Text, 2nd Edition

Author: Robert B.J. Dorion

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439818633

Category: Law

Page: 680

View: 1944

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The first stand-alone textbook on the subject, this illuminating reference compiles the expertise and recommendations of a team of 21 eminent specialists from the disciplines of forensic odontology, DNA analysis, pathology, and jurisprudence. It is generously illustrated with more than 543 black and white photographs and 32 full-color pages that serve to illustrate the many facets of bitemark recognition, diagnosis, handling, excision, lifting, transillumination, storage, preservation, transportation, analysis, and comparison. Thirty comprehensive chapters illustrate animal and human bitemarks on the living, the deceased, and on objects-incorporating sections on the history of bitemark evidence, salivary DNA, genotypic comparison of oral bacteria, legal and courtroom implications, and expert witness liability.