Technology as Human Social Tradition

Cultural Transmission Among Hunter-Gatherers

Author: Peter Jordan

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520276922

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 541

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"This book examines three interlocking topics that are central to all archaeological and anthropological inquiry: the role of technology in human existence; the reproduction of social traditions; the factors that generate cultural diversity and change. The overall aim is to outline a new kind of approach for researching variability and transformation in human material culture, and the main argument is that these technological traditions exhibit heritable continuity: they consist of information stored in human brains and then passed onto others through social learning. Technological traditions can therefore be understood as manifestations of a complex transmission system, and applying this new perspective to human material culture builds on, but also largely transcends, much of the earlier work conducted by archaeologists and anthropologists into the significance, function and social meanings associated with tools, objects and vernacular architecture"--

Orderly Anarchy

Sociopolitical Evolution in Aboriginal California

Author: Robert L. Bettinger

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520959191

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 9130

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Orderly Anarchy delivers a provocative and innovative reexamination of sociopolitical evolution among Native American groups in California, a region known for its wealth of prehistoric languages, populations, and cultural adaptations. Scholars have tended to emphasize the development of social complexity and inequality to explain this diversity. Robert L. Bettinger argues instead that "orderly anarchy," the emergence of small, autonomous groups, provided a crucial strategy in social organization. Drawing on ethnographic and archaeological data and evolutionary, economic, and anthropological theory, he shows that these small groups devised diverse solutions to environmental, technological, and social obstacles to the intensified use of resources. This book revises our understanding of how California became the most densely populated landscape in aboriginal North America.

Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter-Gatherers

Evolutionary and Ethnographic Perspectives

Author: Hideaki Terashima,Barry S. Hewlett

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 4431559973

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 7946

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This is the first book to examine social learning and innovation in hunter–gatherers from around the world. More is known about social learning in chimpanzees and nonhuman primates than is known about social learning in hunter–gatherers, a way of life that characterized most of human history. The book describes diverse patterns of learning and teaching behaviors in contemporary hunter–gatherers from the perspectives of cultural anthropology, ecological anthropology, biological anthropology, and developmental psychology. The book addresses several theoretical issues including the learning hypothesis which suggests that the fate of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the last glacial period might have been due to the differences in learning ability. It has been unequivocally claimed that social learning is intrinsically important for human beings; however, the characteristics of human learning remain under a dense fog despite innumerable studies with children from urban–industrial cultures. Controversy continues on problems such as: do hunter–gatherers teach? If so, what types of teaching occur, who does it, how often, under what contexts, and so on. The book explores the most basic and intrinsic aspects of social learning as well as the foundation of innovative activities in everyday activities of contemporary hunter–gatherer people across the earth. The book examines how hunter-gatherer core values, such as gender and age egalitarianism and extensive sharing of food and childcare are transmitted and acquired by children. Chapters are grouped into five sections: 1) theoretical perspectives of learning in hunter–gatherers, 2) modes and processes of social learning in hunter–gatherers, 3) innovation and cumulative culture, 4) play and other cultural contexts of social learning and innovation, 5) biological contexts of learning and innovation. Ideas and concepts based on the data gathered through an intensive fieldwork by the authors will give much insight into the mechanisms and meanings of learning and education in modern humans.

Culture Evolves

Author: Andrew Whiten

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199608962

Category: Medical

Page: 454

View: 5169

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Culture and cultural evolution are uniquely significant phenomena in evolutionary biology: they are products of biological evolution, yet they supplement genetic transmission with social transmission, thus achieving a certain independence from natural selection. However, cultural evolution nevertheless expresses key Darwinian processes itself and also interacts with genetic evolution. Just how culture fits into the grander framework of evolution is a big issuethough, yet one that has received relatively little scientific attention compared to, for example, genetic evolution. Culture Evolves is the outcome of a major interdisciplinarymeeting held by The Royal Society and the British Academy which explored new discoveries and controversies regarding cultural evolution - from the roots of culture in the animal kingdom to investigations of the cognitive adaptations shaping our special cultural nature. The book contains papers writeen by leading experts from the fields of ethology, behavioural ecology, primatology, comparative psychology, archaeology, anthropology, evolutionary biology and developmental psychology.

Hunter-Gatherers

Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory

Author: Robert L. Bettinger,Raven Garvey,Shannon Tushingham

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489975810

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 2543

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Hunter-gatherer research has played a historically central role in the development of anthropological and evolutionary theory. Today, research in this traditional and enduringly vital field blurs lines of distinction between archaeology and ethnology, and seeks instead to develop perspectives and theories broadly applicable to anthropology and its many sub disciplines. In the groundbreaking first edition of Hunter-Gatherers: Archaeological and Evolutionary Theory (1991), Robert Bettinger presented an integrative perspective on hunter-gatherer research and advanced a theoretical approach compatible with both traditional anthropological and contemporary evolutionary theories. Hunter-Gatherers remains a well-respected and much-cited text, now over 20 years since initial publication. Yet, as in other vibrant fields of study, the last two decades have seen important empirical and theoretical advances. In this second edition of Hunter-Gatherers, co-authors Robert Bettinger, Raven Garvey, and Shannon Tushingham offer a revised and expanded version of the classic text, which includes a succinct and provocative critical synthesis of hunter-gatherer and evolutionary theory, from the Enlightenment to the present. New and expanded sections relate and react to recent developments—some of them the authors’ own—particularly in the realms of optimal foraging and cultural transmission theories. An exceptionally informative and ambitious volume on cultural evolutionary theory, Hunter-Gatherers, second edition, is an essential addition to the libraries of anthropologists, archaeologists, and human ecologists alike.

Die Evolution der Kooperation

Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss

Author: Robert Axelrod

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3486851748

Category: Philosophy

Page: 245

View: 1974

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Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 3984

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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Encyclopedia of cognitive science

Author: Lynn Nadel

Publisher: Nature Pub Group

ISBN: 9780333792612

Category: Psychology

Page: 4361

View: 9947

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Reviews the themes: information, information processing, representation, and computation, psychology, philosophy, linguistics, computer science, neuroscience, education, economics, evolutionary biology, anthropology.

Arm und reich

die Schicksale menschlicher Gesellschaften

Author: Jared M. Diamond

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783596149674

Category: Kontinent - Gesellschaft - Entwicklung - Umweltfaktor - Vor- und Frühgeschichte

Page: 550

View: 5217

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Investigating prehistoric hunter-gatherer identities

case studies from Palaeolithic and Mesolithic Europe

Author: Hannah L. Cobb

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports Ltd

ISBN: 9781841718545

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 105

View: 6718

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This volume stems from sessions at the 2004 Theoretical Archaeology Conference at Glasgow University, entitled "Hunter-Gatherers in Early Prehistory" and "Hunting for Meaning: Interpretive Approaches to the Mesolithic." The sessions came about as a response to a continuing lack of appreciation of new developments in theoretical approaches to the archaeology of prehistoric hunter-gatherers both in the Pleistocene and Holocene. Contents: 1) Hunter-Gatherers in Early Prehistory (Fiona Coward & Lucy Grimshaw); 2) Upper Palaeolithic Social Colonisation and Lower Palaeolithic Biological Dispersal? A Consideration of the Nature of Movements into Europe During the Pleistocene (Lucy Grimshaw); 3) Transitions, Change and Prehistory: An Ecosystemic Approach to Change in the Archaeological Record (Fiona Coward); 4) Darwin Vs. Bourdieu - Celebrity Deathmatch or Postrocessual Myth? A Prolegomenon for the Reconciliation of Agentive-Interpretive and Ecological-Evolutionary Archaeology (Felix Riede); 5) We're Not Waiting Any More - Or, Hunting for Meaning in the Mesolithic of North-West Europe (Hannah Cobb & Steven Price); 6) Midden, Meaning, Person, Place: Interpreting the Mesolithic of Western Scotland (Hannah Cobb); 7) Reconstructing the Social Topography of an Irish Mesolithic Lakescape (Aimee Little); 8) Can't See the Trees for the Wood: The Social Life of Trees in the Mesolithic of Southern Scandinavia.

Der Zahlensinn oder Warum wir rechnen können

Author: Stanislas Dehaene

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3034878257

Category: Science

Page: 311

View: 2601

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Wir sind umgeben von Zahlen. Ob auf Kreditkarten gestanzt oder auf Münzen geprägt, ob auf Schecks gedruckt oder in den Spalten computerisierter Tabellen aufgelistet, überall beherrschen Zahlen unser Leben. Sie sind auch der Kern unserer Technologie. Ohne Zahlen könnten wir weder Raketen starten, die das Sonnensystem erkunden, noch Brücken bauen, Güter austauschen oder Rech nungen bezahlen. In gewissem Sinn sind Zahlen also kulturelle Erfindungen, die sich ihrer Bedeutung nach nur mit der Landwirtschaft oder mit dem Rad vergleichen lassen. Aber sie könnten sogar noch tiefere Wurzeln haben. Tausende von Jahren vor Christus benutzten babylonische Wissenschaftler Zahlzeichen, um erstaun lich genaueastronomische Tabellen zu berechnen. Zehntausende von Jahren zuvor hatten Menschen der Steinzeit die ersten geschriebenen Zahlenreihen geschaffen, indem sie Knochen einkerbten oder Punkte auf Höhlenwände malten. Und, wie ich später überzeugend darzustellen hoffe, schon vor weiteren Millionen von Jahren, lange bevor es Menschen gab, nahmen Tiere aller Arten Zahlen zur Kenntnis und stellten mit ihnen einfache Kopfrechnungen an. Sind Zahlen also fast so alt wie das Leben selbst? Sind sie in der Struktur unseres Gehirns verankert? Besitzen wir einen Zahlensinn, eine spezielle Intuition, die uns hilft, Zahlen und Mathematik mit Sinn zu erfüllen? Ich wurde vor fünfzehn Jahren, während meiner Ausbildung zum Mathema tiker, fasziniert von den abstrakten Objekten, mit denen ich umzugehen lernte, vor allem von den einfachsten von ihnen- den Zahlen.

The Acceleration of Cultural Change

From Ancestors to Algorithms

Author: R. Alexander Bentley,Michael J. O'Brien,John Maeda

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262036959

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 1780

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How culture evolves through algorithms rather than knowledge inherited from ancestors.

Rediscovering Darwin

Evolutionary Theory and Archeological Explanation

Author: C. Michael Barton,Geoffrey A. Clark,Douglas B. Bamforth,American Anthropological Association

Publisher: Amer Anthropological Assn

ISBN: 9780913167878

Category: Archaeology

Page: 322

View: 8889

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Knowledge and Power in Prehistoric Societies

Orality, Memory, and the Transmission of Culture

Author: Lynne Kelly

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107059372

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 8313

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In this book, Lynne Kelly explores the role of formal knowledge systems in small-scale oral cultures in both historic and archaeological contexts. In the first part, she examines knowledge systems within historically recorded oral cultures, showing how the link between power and the control of knowledge is established. Analyzing the material mnemonic devices used by documented oral cultures, she demonstrates how early societies maintained a vast corpus of pragmatic information concerning animal behavior, plant properties, navigation, astronomy, genealogies, laws and trade agreements, among other matters. In the second part Kelly turns to the archaeological record of three sites, Chaco Canyon, Poverty Point and Stonehenge, offering new insights into the purpose of the monuments and associated decorated objects. This book demonstrates how an understanding of rational intellect, pragmatic knowledge and mnemonic technologies in prehistoric societies offers a new tool for analysis of monumental structures built by non-literate cultures.

Guide

A Guide to Departments, a Directory of Members

Author: American Anthropological Association

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Anthropology

Page: N.A

View: 3309

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LBK dialogues

studies in the formation of the Linear Pottery Culture

Author: Alena Lukes,Marek Zvelebil

Publisher: British Archaeological Reports

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 205

View: 5731

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