Maritime Terrorism

Risk and Liability

Author: Michael D. Greenberg,Peter Chalk,Henry H. Willis

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833040308

Category: Political Science

Page: 167

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Policymakers have become increasingly concerned in recent years about the possibility of future maritime terrorist attacks. Though the historical occurrence of such attacks has been limited, recognition that maritime vessels and facilities may be particularly vulnerable to terrorism has galvanized concerns. In addition, some plausible maritime attacks could have very significant consequences, in the form of mass casualties, severe property damage, and attendant disruption of commerce. Understanding the nature of maritime terrorism risk requires an investigation of threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences associated with potential attacks, as grounded both by relevant historical data and by intelligence on the capabilities and intentions of known terrorist groups. These risks also provide the context for understanding government institutions that will respond to future attacks, and particularly so with regard to the U.S. civil justice system. In principle, civil liability operates to redistribute the harms associated with legally redressable claims, so that related costs are borne by the parties responsible for having caused them. In connection with maritime terrorism, civil liability creates the prospect that independent commercial defendants will be held responsible for damages caused by terrorist attacks. This book explores risks and U.S. civil liability rules as they may apply in the context of these types of attacks.

The History of Terrorism

From Antiquity to ISIS

Author: Gérard Chaliand,Arnaud Blin

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520292502

Category: History

Page: 536

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First published in English in 2007 under title: The history of terrorism: from antiquity to al Qaeda.

Breaching the Fortress Wall

Understanding Terrorist Efforts to Overcome Defensive Technologies

Author: Brian Anthony Jackson

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833039148

Category: Political Science

Page: 153

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Technology systems play a key role within a larger, integrated strategy to target groups' efforts and protect the public from the threat of terrorist violence. This study draws on relevant data from the history of a variety of terrorist conflicts to understand terrorists' counter-technology efforts. Fully exploring adversaries' counter-technology behaviors can help make the best choices to protect from the nation from the threat of terrorism.

More Freedom, Less Terror?

Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World

Author: Dalia Dassa Kaye,Frederic Wehrey,Audra K. Grant,Dale Stahl

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833046454

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

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A key tenet of U.S. foreign policy has been that promoting democracy reduces terrorism; however, scant empirical evidence links democracy to terrorism, positively or negatively. This study explores the relationship between the two by examining the effects of liberalization processes on political violence in six Arab cases.

Suicide Terrorism

Author: Ami Pedahzur

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745633831

Category: Philosophy

Page: 261

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Suicide terrorism in its modern form made its first appearance in Lebanon in the early 1980s. Over the last quarter century, terrorist attacks perpetrated by suicide bombers have spread to many corners of the world and have become a major threat for both the governments and citizens of numerous countries. Can this devastating phenomenon be attributed to a specific religion or culture? What are the causes and motivations that lead ordinary people to embark upon suicide attacks? How are potential bombers trained for their mission? And is it possible for democratic governments to effectively cope with this challenge? In this compelling book, Ami Pedazhur investigates the root causes of suicide terrorism and its rapid proliferation in recent years. Drawing on a variety of sources, the book explores the use of human bombs in Lebanon, Israel, Sri Lanka, Turkey, Chechnya, Iraq, and the ostentatious attacks of Al–Qaeda and the global jihad. It is the only book to offer such an in–depth, up–to–date, cross cultural analysis of suicide terrorism in the twenty–first Century.

The Psychology of Terrorism

Author: John G. Horgan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134701497

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 1921

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This new edition of John Horgan's critically acclaimed book is fully revised and expanded. The book presents a critical analysis of our existing knowledge and understanding of terrorist psychology. Despite the on-going search for a terrorist pathology, the most insightful and evidence-based research to date not only illustrates the lack of any identifiable psychopathology in terrorists, but demonstrates how frighteningly 'normal' and unremarkable in psychological terms are those who engage in terrorist activity. By producing a clearer map of the processes that impinge upon the individual terrorist, a different type of terrorist psychology emerges, one which has clearer implications for efforts at countering and disrupting violent extremism in today's world. In this 2nd edition, Horgan further develops his approach to the arc of terrorism by delving deeper into his IED model of Involvement, Engagement and Disengagement – the three phases of terrorism experienced by every single terrorist. Drawing on new and exciting research from the past decade, with new details from interviews with terrorists ranging from al-Qaeda to left-wing revolutionaries, biographies and autobiographies of former terrorists, and insights from historic and contemporary terrorist attacks since 2005, Horgan presents a fully revised and expanded edition of his signature text. This new edition of The Psychology of Terrorism will be essential reading for students of terrorism and political violence, and counterterrorism studies, and recommended for forensic psychology, criminology, international security and IR in general.

The 9/11 Commission Report

Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Authorized Edition

Author: National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 9780393060416

Category: History

Page: 604

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Provides the final report of the 9/11 Commission detailing their findings on the September 11 terrorist attacks.

Dying to Win

The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism

Author: Robert Anthony Pape

Publisher: Random House Incorporated

ISBN: 0812973380

Category: Political Science

Page: 353

View: 422

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A sobering, thought-provoking study of suicide terrorism analyzes the political logic and motivations behind the phenomenon, charting incidents of suicide terrorism around the world since World War II, examining key patterns in the events, assessing their impact on the political process, and outlining ways in which governments and society can fight them. Reprint. 35,000 first printing.

Violence as communication

insurgent terrorism and the Western news media

Author: Alex Peter Schmid,Janny de Graaf

Publisher: Sage Publications (CA)

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 283

View: 6135

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The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research

Author: Alex P. Schmid

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136810404

Category: Political Science

Page: 736

View: 1320

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This major new Handbook synthesises more than two decades of scholarly research, and provides a comprehensive overview of the field of terrorism studies. The content of the Handbook is based on the responses to a questionnaire by nearly 100 experts from more than 20 countries as well as the specific expertise and experience of the volume editor and the various contributors. Together, they guide the reader through the voluminous literature on terrorism, and propose a new consensus definition of terrorism, based on an extensive review of existing conceptualisations. The work also features a large collection of typologies and surveys a wide range of theories of terrorism. Additional chapters survey terrorist databases and provide a guide to available resources on terrorism in libraries and on the Internet. It also includes the most comprehensive World Directory of Extremist, Terrorist and other Organizations associated with Guerrilla Warfare, Political Violence, Protest and Organized- and Cyber-Crime. The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research will be an essential work of reference for students and researchers of terrorism and political violence, security studies, criminology, political science and international relations, and of great interest to policymakers and professionals in the field of counter-terrorism.

Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism

Author: Committee on Research Standards and Practices to Prevent the Destructive Application of Biotechnology,Development, Security, and Cooperation,Policy and Global Affairs,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309089778

Category: Political Science

Page: 164

View: 3598

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In recent years much has happened to justify an examination of biological research in light of national security concerns. The destructive application of biotechnology research includes activities such as spreading common pathogens or transforming them into even more lethal forms. Policymakers and the scientific community at large must put forth a vigorous and immediate response to this challenge. This new book by the National Research Council recommends that the government expand existing regulations and rely on self-governance by scientists rather than adopt intrusive new policies. One key recommendation of the report is that the government should not attempt to regulate scientific publishing but should trust scientists and journals to screen their papers for security risks, a task some journals have already taken up. With biological information and tools widely distributed, regulating only U.S. researchers would have little effect. A new International Forum on Biosecurity should encourage the adoption of similar measures around the world. Seven types of risky studies would require approval by the Institutional Biosafety Committees that already oversee recombinant DNA research at some 400 U.S. institutions. These "experiments of concern" include making an infectious agent more lethal and rendering vaccines powerless.

The Military's Role in Counterterrorism

Examples and Implications for Liberal Democracies

Author: Geraint Hughes

Publisher: Strategic Studies Institute

ISBN: 1584874899

Category: Internal security

Page: 204

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The author examines historical and contemporary examples of military involvement in counterterrorism, outlining the specific roles which the armed forces of liberal democracies have performed in combating terrorism, both in a domestic and international context. He describes the political, strategic, conceptual, diplomatic, and ethical problems that can arise when a state's armed forces become engaged in counterterrorism, and argues that military power can only be employed as part of a coordinated counterterrorist strategy aimed at the containment and frustration -- rather than the physical elimination -- of the terrorist group(s) concerned.

Protecting Individual Privacy in the Struggle Against Terrorists:

A Framework for Program Assessment

Author: Committee on Technical and Privacy Dimensions of Information for Terrorism Prevention and Other National Goals,Committee on Law and Justice,Committee on National Statistics,Computer Science and Telecommunications Board,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309124883

Category: Computers

Page: 376

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All U.S. agencies with counterterrorism programs that collect or "mine" personal data -- such as phone records or Web sites visited -- should be required to evaluate the programs' effectiveness, lawfulness, and impacts on privacy. A framework is offered that agencies can use to evaluate such information-based programs, both classified and unclassified. The book urges Congress to re-examine existing privacy law to assess how privacy can be protected in current and future programs and recommends that any individuals harmed by violations of privacy be given a meaningful form of redress. Two specific technologies are examined: data mining and behavioral surveillance. Regarding data mining, the book concludes that although these methods have been useful in the private sector for spotting consumer fraud, they are less helpful for counterterrorism because so little is known about what patterns indicate terrorist activity. Regarding behavioral surveillance in a counterterrorist context, the book concludes that although research and development on certain aspects of this topic are warranted, there is no scientific consensus on whether these techniques are ready for operational use at all in counterterrorism.

Friction

How Conflict Radicalizes Them and Us, Revised and Expanded Edition

Author: Clark McCauley,Sophia Moskalenko

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190629339

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

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Terrorism is an extreme form of radicalization. In this ground-breaking and important book, Clark McCauley and Sophia Moskalenko identify and outline twelve mechanisms of political radicalization that can move individuals, groups, and the masses to increased sympathy and support for political violence. Co-authored by two psychologists both acknowledged in their field as experts in radicalization and consultants to the Department of Homeland Security and other government agencies, Friction draws on wide-ranging case histories to show striking parallels between 1800s anti-czarist terrorism, 1970s anti-war terrorism, and 21st century jihadist terrorism. Altogether, the twelve mechanisms of political radicalization demonstrate how unexceptional people are moved to exceptional violence in the conflict between states and non-state challengers. In this revised and expanded edition, McCauley and Moskalenko use the twelve mechanisms to analyze recent cases of lone-wolf terrorists and illustrate how individuals can become radicalized to jihadist violence with group influence or organizational support. Additionally, in the context of the Islamic State's worldwide efforts to radicalize moderate Muslims for jihad, they advance a model that differentiates radicalization in opinion from radicalization in action, and suggest different strategies for countering these diverse forms of radicalization. As a result, the authors conclude that the same mechanisms are at work in radicalizing both terrorists and states targeted by terrorists, implying that these conclusions are as relevant for policy-makers and security officers as they are for citizens facing the threat of terror today.

Fresh Perspectives on the 'War on Terror'

Author: Miriam Gani,Penelope Mathew

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921313749

Category: Social Science

Page: 419

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On 20 September 2001, in an address to a Joint Session of Congress and the American people, President George W Bush declared a 'war on terror'. The concept of the 'war on terror' has proven to be both an attractive and a potent rhetorical device. It has been adopted and elaborated upon by political leaders around the world, particularly in the context of military action in Afghanistan and Iraq. But use of the rhetoric has not been confined to the military context. The 'war on terror' is a domestic one, also, and the phrase has been used to account for broad criminal legislation, sweeping agency powers and potential human rights abuses throughout much of the world. This collection seeks both to draw on and to engage critically with the metaphor of war in the context of terrorism. It brings together a group of experts from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, France and Germany who write about terrorism from a variety of disciplinary perspectives including international law and international relations, public and constitutional law, criminal law and criminology, legal theory, and psychology and law.

Mali's Next Battle

Improving Counterterrorism Capabilities

Author: Michael Shurkin,Stephanie Pezard,S. Rebecca Zimmerman

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833091905

Category: History

Page: 142

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"This report examines Mali's counterterrorism requirements in light of recent evolutions in the country's security environment. In spite of the achievements of France, the United Nations, and the European Union, the terrorist threat in Mali is growing, but Mali's military remains largely ineffective. Part of the challenge is the interconnected nature of Mali's terrorist problem and the political strife that afflicts Mali's northern half, which the peace agreement signed in Algiers in June 2015 only somewhat addresses. Moreover, Bamako's response remains focused to an inappropriate degree on acquiring the military capabilities it hopes will help redress the balance of power in the North while leveraging proxy ethnic militias. These militias, though more effective on the battlefield than Mali's own forces, have the potential to further aggravate northern Mali's instability. The report argues that it is not possible to strengthen Mali's counterterrorism capabilities in isolation from its general military capabilities, which are in need of fundamental reforms. Such reforms should include making the armed forces more inclusive of minority groups and more attentive to relations with northern communities, improving the effectiveness and accountability of defense institutions, building human capital and leadership, and enhancing operational capabilities. In all cases, the United States must coordinate its efforts with the other actors on the ground in Mali, especially the French and the European Union, to ensure complementarity."--Publisher's web site.

An Economic Analysis of the Financial Records of al-Qa'ida in Iraq

Author: Benjamin Bahney,Howard J. Shatz,Carroll Ganier,Renny McPherson,Barbara Sude

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 0833051628

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 114

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This monograph analyzes the finances of the militant group al-Qa'ida in Iraq in Anbar province during 2005 and 2006, at the peak of the group's power and influence. The authors draw on captured financial documents that give details on the daily financial transactions of one specific sector within Anbar province and of the financial transactions of the AQI provincial administration.

Understanding and Influencing Public Support for Insurgency and Terrorism

Author: Paul K. Davis,Eric V. Larson,Zachary Haldeman,Mustafa Oguz,Yashodhara Rana

Publisher: Rand Corporation

ISBN: 9780833058775

Category: Political Science

Page: 270

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Using and testing a conceptual model that draws on social science and particularly social movement theory, this volume examines public support for al-Qa'ida's transnational jihadist movement, the Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan, the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in Turkey, and the Maoist insurgency in Nepal. The authors discuss which factors were most salient across cases, how their importance varied in each case, and how this understanding can inform strategy.