The Arabic Plotinus

A Philosophical Study of the 'Theology of Aristotle'

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781463207182

Category: History

Page: 260

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The so-called "Theology of Aristotle" is a translation of the Enneads of Plotinus, the most important representative of late ancient Platonism. It was produced in the 9th century CE within the circle of al-Kindī, one of the most important groups for the early reception of Greek thought in Arabic. In part because the "Theology" was erroneously transmitted under Aristotle's authorship, it became the single most important conduit by which Neoplatonism reached the Islamic world. It is referred to by such thinkers as al-Fārābī, in an attempt to demonstrate the agreement between Platonism and Aristotelianism, Avicenna, who wrote a set of comments on the text, and later on thinkers of Safavid Persia including Mullā Ṣadrā. Yet the "Theology" is not just a translation. It may in fact more accurately be described as a creative paraphrase, which takes frequent liberties with the source text and even includes whole paragraphs' worth of new material. Adamson's book offers a philosophical interpretation of the changes introduced in the Arabic version. It is argued that these changes were in part intended to show the relevance of Plotinus' thought for contemporary Islamic culture, for instance by connecting the Neoplatonist theory of the First Principle to theological disputes within Islam over the status of God's attributes. At the same time the paraphrase reflects a tendency to harmonize the various strands of Greek thought, so that a critique by Plotinus of Aristotle's theory of the soul is subtly changed into a defense of Aristotle's theory against a possible misinterpretation. The upshot, or so Adamson argues, is that the "Theology" needs to be read as an original philosophical work in its own right, and understood within the context of the ʿAbbāsid era.

Oriens , Volume 36 Volume 36

Author: Brill,R. Sellheim,G. Endress

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9789004121355

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 1611

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Volume 36 of Oriens is a priceless collection of articles for Franz Rosenthal by a great number of his many friends, colleagues and former students.With contributions by Franz Rosenthal, Hans Hinrich Biesterfeldt (Bochum), Joshua Blau (Jerusalem), Gerhard Böwering (New Haven, Conn.), C.E. Bosworth (Manchester), Heribert Busse (Mühlheim am Main), Christina D'Ancona (Padua), Gerhard Endress (Bochum), Josef van Ess (Tübingen), Wolfdietrich Fischer (Erlangen), Alfred Ivry (New York), Remke Kruk (Leiden), Michael Lecker (Jerusalem), Stefan Leder (Halle), John O'Kane (Amsterdam), Lutz Richter-Bernburg (Tübingen), Uri Rubin (Tel Aviv), Gotthard Strohmaier (Berlin).

Western Sufism

From the Abbasids to the New Age

Author: Mark Sedgwick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199977658

Category: Religion

Page: 320

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Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book Mark Sedgwick argues that it has deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later origins in repeated intercultural transfers from the Muslim world to the West, in the thought of the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, and in the intellectual and religious ferment of the nineteenth century. He then follows the development of organized Sufism in the West from 1915 until 1968, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based on purely Islamic models was founded. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins, of thought both familiar and less familiar: Neoplatonic emanationism, perennialism, pantheism, universalism, and esotericism. Western Sufism is the product not of the new age but of Islam, the ancient world, and centuries of Western religious and intellectual history. Using sources from antiquity to the internet, Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism draws on centuries of intercultural transfers and is part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam.

Philosophy and the Abrahamic Religions

Scriptural Hermeneutics and Epistemology

Author: Torrance Kirby,Rahim Acar

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 1443845582

Category: Philosophy

Page: 435

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From Greco-Roman Antiquity through to the European Enlightenment, philosophy and religious thought were inseparably interwoven. This was equally the case for the popular natural or ‘pagan’ religions of the ancient world as it was for the three pre-eminent ‘religions of the book’, namely Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The lengthy and involved encounter of the Greek philosophical tradition – and especially of the Platonic, Aristotelian, and Neoplatonic strands of that tradition – initially with the Hellenistic cults and subsequently with the three Abrahamic religions, played a critical role in shaping the basic contours of Western intellectual history from Plato to Philo of Alexandria, Plotinus, Porphyry, Augustine, and Proclus; from Aristotle to al-Fārābī, Avicenna, al-Ġazālī, Aquinas and the medieval scholastics, and eventually to Meister Eckhart and Nicholas Cusanus and such modern philosophers and theologians as Richard Hooker, the Cambridge Platonists, Jacob Boehme, and G. W. F. Hegel to name but a few. The aim of the twenty-four essays comprising this volume is to explore the intellectual worlds of the three Abrahamic religious traditions, their respective approaches to scriptural hermeneutics, and their interaction over many centuries on the common ground of the inheritance of classical Greek philosophy. The shared goal of the contributors is to demonstrate the extent to which the three Abrahamic religions have created similar shared patterns of thought in dealing with crucial religious concepts such as the divine, creation, providence, laws both natural and revealed, such problems as the origin of evil and the possibility of salvation, as well as defining hermeneutics, that is to say the manner of interpreting their sacred writings.

The Letter before the Spirit: The Importance of Text Editions for the Study of the Reception of Aristotle

Author: N.A

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004235086

Category: Philosophy

Page: 542

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The Letter before the Spirit underlines the importance for scholars to have at their disposal reliable scientific text editions – book editions or digital editions – of Aristotle’s works in the Semitico-Latin, and the Graeco-Latin, translation and commentary traditions.

Words, Texts, and Concepts Cruising the Mediterranean Sea

Studies on the Sources, Contents and Influences of Islamic Civilization and Arabic Philosophy and Science : Dedicated to Gerhard Endress on His Sixty-fifth Birthday

Author: Gerhard Endress,Rüdiger Arnzen,Jörn Thielmann

Publisher: Peeters Publishers

ISBN: 9789042914896

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 655

View: 1373

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The remarkable extension in depth and width of Muslim intellectual life can be fathomed and measured only against the background of what went on immediately before, and simultaneously elsewhere, or it will remain, in any real sense, unexplored." This statement by the late Franz Rosenthal is, in a sense, the red thread of the present volume which unites 35 articles by renowned scholars of Islamic Studies, Middle Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and various allied fields of research in honour of a scholar congenial to Franz Rosenthal and exemplary in his scientific carefulness and integrity: Dr Gerhard Endress, Professor of Oriental Philology and Islamic Studies at the Ruhr University Bochum. Central topics of the contributions include Arabic philosophy and its Greek sources and Latin reception, the history and historiography of Arabic-Islamic science, and Islamic concepts of language, knowledge, science and pedagogy. Other articles deal with qur'anic studies, Arabic lexicography and linguistics, the history of Middle Eastern civilizations, the medieval translation movements from Greek into Arabic and from Arabic into Latin as well as with political and eschatological theories of medieval Islam. Rooted in different scientific traditions and methodological approaches the studies collected in this Festschrift form a vivid and stimulating synopsis of more than 1000 years of Middle Eastern and Mediterranean intellectual, social and cultural history.

Al-Kindi

Author: Peter Adamson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198040071

Category: Religion

Page: 288

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Al-Kindi was the first philosopher of the Islamic world. He lived in Iraq and studied in Baghdad, where he became attached to the caliphal court. In due course he would become an important figure at court: a tutor to the caliph's son, and a central figure in the translation movement of the ninth century, which rendered much of Greek philosophy, science, and medicine into Arabic. Al-Kindi's wide-ranging intellectual interests included not only philosophy but also music, astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. Through deep engagement with Greek tradition al-Kindi developed original theories on key issues in the philosophy of religion, metaphysics, physical science, and ethics. He is especially known for his arguments against the world's eternity, and his innovative use of Greek ideas to explore the idea of God's unity and transcendence. Despite al-Kindi's historical and philosophical importance no book has presented a complete, in-depth look at his thought until now. In this accessible introduction to al-Kindi's works, Peter Adamson surveys what is known of his life and examines his method and his attitude towards the Greek tradition, as well as his subtle relationship with the Muslim intellectual culture of his day. Above all the book focuses on explaining and evaluating the ideas found in al-Kindi's wide-ranging philosophical corpus, including works devoted to science and mathematics. Throughout, Adamson writes in language that is both serious and engaging, academic and approachable. This book will be of interest to experts in the field, but it requires no knowledge of Greek or Arabic, and is also aimed at non-experts who are simply interested in one of the greatest of Islamic philosophers.

Aristotle and the Arabic Tradition

Author: Ahmed Alwishah,Josh Hayes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107101735

Category: History

Page: 266

View: 5561

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This volume of essays by scholars in ancient Greek, medieval, and Arabic philosophy examines the full range of Aristotle's influence upon the Arabic tradition. It explores central themes from Aristotle's corpus, including logic, rhetoric and poetics, physics and meteorology, psychology, metaphysics, ethics and politics, and examines how these themes are investigated and developed by Arabic philosophers including al-Kind, al-Frb, Avicenna, al-Ghazl, Ibn Bjja and Averroes. The volume also includes essays which explicitly focus upon the historical reception of Aristotle, from the time of the Greek and Syriac transmission of his texts into the Islamic world to the period of their integration and assimilation into Arabic philosophy. This rich and wide-ranging collection will appeal to all those who are interested in the themes, development and context of Aristotle's enduring legacy within the Arabic tradition.

Consciousness

From Perception to Reflection in the History of Philosophy

Author: Sara Heinämaa,Vili Lähteenmäki,Pauliina Remes

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402060823

Category: Philosophy

Page: 366

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This collection represents the first historical survey focusing on the notion of consciousness. It approaches consciousness through its constitutive aspects, such as subjectivity, reflexivity, intentionality and selfhood. Covering discussions from ancient philosophy all the way to contemporary debates, the book enriches current systematic debates by uncovering historical roots of the notion of consciousness.

The Classical Heritage in Islam

Author: Franz Rosenthal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134901283

Category: History

Page: 322

View: 9022

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The influence of classical antiquity on the religious disciplines, theology, mysticism and law of Islam cannot be overestimated. This work demonstrates the significance of the classical heritage by drawing together a great range of literary renderings, paraphrases, commentaries and imitations, as well as independent Islamic elaborations. Professor Rosenthal's collection includes the work of early authors, authors of the Golden Age and later writers who imitated their works. The Classical Heritage in Islam reveals that the Muslim adoption of and dependence on classical texts was not blind imitation or a casual compounding of traditions, but rather an original synthesis and therefore a unique achievement.

Interpreting Avicenna

Science And Philosophy In Medieval Islam-Proceedings Of The Second Conference Of The Avicenna Study Group

Author: Avicenna Study Group. Conference

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004139605

Category: Philosophy

Page: 262

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The work treats various aspects of Avicennan philosophy and science. The topics include methods for establishing an authentic Avicenna corpus, natural philosophy and science, theology and metaphysics and Avicenna's subsequent historical influence.

The Routledge Companion to Ethics

Author: John Skorupski

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136964215

Category: Philosophy

Page: 880

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The Routledge Companion to Ethics is an outstanding survey of the whole field of ethics by a distinguished international team of contributors. Over 60 chapters are divided into six clear sections: the history of ethics meta-ethics perspectives from outside ethics ethical perspectives morality debates in ethics. The Companion opens with a comprehensive historical overview of ethics, including chapters on Plato, Aristotle, Hume, and Kant, and ethical thinking in China, India and the Arabic tradition. The second part covers the domain of meta-ethics. The third part covers important challenges to ethics from the fields of anthropology, psychology, sociobiology and economics. The fourth and fifth sections cover competing theories of ethics and the nature of morality respectively, with entries on consequentialism, Kantian morality, virtue ethics, relativism, evil, and responsibility amongst many others. A comprehensive final section includes the most important topics and controversies in applied ethics, such as rights, justice and distribution, the end of life, the environment, poverty, war and terrorism. The Routledge Companion to Ethics is a superb resource for anyone interested in the subject, whether in philosophy or related disciplines such as politics, education, or law. Fully indexed and cross-referenced, with helpful further reading sections at the end of each chapter, it is ideal for those coming to the field of ethics for the first time as well as readers already familiar with the subject.

The Heart of Islamic Philosophy

The Quest for Self-Knowledge in the Teachings of Afdal al-Din Kashani

Author: William C. Chittick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198031864

Category: Religion

Page: 384

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This book introduces the work of an important medieval Islamic philosopher who is little known outside the Persian world. Afdal al-Din Kashani was a contemporary of a number of important Muslim thinkers, including Averroes and Ibn al-Arabi. Kashani did not write for advanced students of philosophy but rather for beginners. In the main body of his work, he offers especially clear and insightful expositions of various philosophical positions, making him an invaluable resource for those who would like to learn the basic principles and arguments of this philosophical tradition but do not have a strong background in philosophy. Here, Chittick uses Kashani and his work to introduce the basic issues and arguments of Islamic philosophy to modern readers.

The Libraries of the Neoplatonists

Proceedings of the Meeting of the European Science Foundation Network "Late Antiquity and Arabic Thought : Patterns in the Constitution of European Culture", Held in Strasbourg, March 12-14, 2004 Under the Impulsion of the Scientific Committee of the Meeting, Composed by Matthias Baltes, Michel Cacouros, Cristina D'Ancona, Tiziano Dorandi, Gerhard Endress, Philippe Hoffmann, Henri Hugonnard Roche

Author: Cristina D'Ancona Costa

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004156410

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 531

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The transmission of Greek learning to the Arabic-speaking world paved the way to the rise of Arabic philosophy. This volume offers a deep and multifarious survey of transmission of Greek philosophy through the schools of late Antiquity to the Syriac-speaking and Arabic-speaking worlds.

Aesthetic Themes in Pagan and Christian Neoplatonism

From Plotinus to Gregory of Nyssa

Author: Daniele Iozzia

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472572335

Category: Philosophy

Page: 160

View: 9603

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Whilst aesthetics as a discipline did not exist before the modern age, ancient philosophers give many insights about beauty and art. In Late Antiquity Plotinus confronted the problem of beauty and the value of the arts. Plotinus' reflections have an important role in the development of the concept of the value of artistic imagination during the Renaissance and the Romantic era, but he also influenced the artistic taste of his time. Aesthetic Themes in Pagan and Christian Neoplatonism reconstructs the aesthetic philosophical views of Late Antiquity, and their relation to artistic production of the time. By examining the resonance of Plotinus' thought with contemporary artists and with Christian thinkers, including Gregory of Nyssa, the book demonstrates the importance of Plotinus' treatise On Beauty for the development of late ancient aesthetics. The Cappadocian fathers' interest in Plotinus is explored, as well as the consequent legacy of the pagan thinker's philosophy within Christian thought, such as the concept of beauty and the narration of the contemplative experience. Uniquely utilising philological and philosophical insight, as well as exploring both pagan and Christian philosophy, Aesthetic Themes in Pagan and Christian Neoplatonism represents the first comprehensive synthesis of aesthetic thought of Late Antiquity.

The Continuum Companion to Plato

Author: Gerald A. Press

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441161414

Category: Philosophy

Page: 376

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Plato, mathematician, philosopher and founder of the Academy in Athens, is, together with his teacher, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, universally considered to have laid the foundations of Western philosophy. His philosophical dialogues remain among the most widely read and influential of all philosophical texts and his enduring influence on virtually every area of philosophical enterprise cannot be exaggerated. This comprehensive and accessible guide to Plato's life and times includes more than 140 entries, written by a team of leading experts in the field of ancient philosophy, covering every aspect of Plato's thought. The Companion presents details of Plato's life, historical, philosophical and literary context, synopses of all the dialogues attributed to Plato, a comprehensive overview of the various features, themes and topics apparent in the dialogues, and a thorough account of his enduring influence and the various interpretative approaches applied to his thought throughout the history of philosophy. This is an essential reference tool for anyone working in the field of ancient philosophy.