The Atmosphere over Mountainous Regions

Author: Miguel A. C. Teixeira,Daniel J. Kirshbaum,Haraldur Ólafsson,,Peter F. Sheridan,Ivana Stiperski

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889450163

Category:

Page: N.A

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Mountainous regions occupy a significant fraction of the Earth's continents and are characterized by specific meteorological phenomena operating on a wide range of scales. Being a home to large human populations, the impact of mountains on weather and hydrology has significant practical consequences. Mountains modulate the climate and create micro-climates, induce different types of thermally and dynamically driven circulations, generate atmospheric waves of various scales (known as mountain waves), and affect the boundary layer characteristics and the dispersion of pollutants. At the local scale, strong downslope winds linked with mountain waves (such as the Foehn and Bora) can cause severe damage. Mountain wave breaking in the high atmosphere is a source of Clear Air Turbulence, and lee wave rotors are a major near-surface aviation hazard. Mountains also act to block strongly stratified air layers, leading to the formation of valley cold air-pools (with implications for road safety, pollution, crop damage, etc.) and gap flows. Presently, neither the fine-scale structure of orographic precipitation nor the initiation of deep convection by mountainous terrain can be resolved adequately by regional-to global-scale models, requiring appropriate downscaling or parameterization. Additionally, the shortest mountain waves need to be parameterized in global weather and climate prediction models, because they exert a drag on the atmosphere. This drag not only decelerates the global atmospheric circulation, but also affects temperatures in the polar stratosphere, which control ozone depletion. It is likely that both mountain wave drag and orographic precipitation lead to non-trivial feedbacks in climate change scenarios. Measurement campaigns such as MAP, T-REX, Materhorn, COLPEX and i-Box provided a wealth of mountain meteorology field data, which is only starting to be explored. Recent advances in computing power allow numerical simulations of unprecedented resolution, e.g. LES modelling of rotors, mountain wave turbulence, and boundary layers in mountainous regions. This will lead to important advances in understanding these phenomena, as well as mixing and pollutant dispersion over complex terrain, or the onset and breakdown of cold air pools. On the other hand, recent analyses of global circulation biases point towards missing drag, especially in the southern hemisphere, which may be due to processes currently neglected in parameterizations. A better understanding of flow over orography is also crucial for a better management of wind power and a more effective use of data assimilation over complex terrain. This Research Topic includes contributions that aim to shed light on a number of these issues, using theory, numerical modelling, field measurements, and laboratory experiments.

Camping & Wilderness Survival

The Ultimate Outdoors Book

Author: Paul Tawrell

Publisher: Paul Tawrell

ISBN: 9780974082028

Category: Sports & Recreation

Page: 1080

View: 4426

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Presents information on basic camping and survival skills while in the wilderness, covering topics such as getting lost, navigating through different terrains and climate conditions, first aid, using compasses and binoculars, wildlife, and cooking.

Global Warming and the Future of the Earth

Author: Robert G. Watts

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598293400

Category: Science

Page: 113

View: 4149

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The globally averaged surface temperature of the Earth has increased during the past century by about 0.7°C. Most of the increase can be attributed to the greenhouse effect, the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide that is emitted when fossil fuels are burned to produce energy.The book begins with the important distinction between weather and climate, followed by data showing how carbon dioxide has increased and the incontrovertible evidence that it is caused by burning fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas). I also address the inevitable skepticism that global warming arouses and offer a number of responses to the global warming skeptics. After dealing with the skeptics, I analyze both the current and future effects of global warming. These future effects are based on scenarios or “storylines†put forth by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. In closing, I address the controversial (and grim) suggestion that we have already passed the “tipping point,†which is the time after which, regardless of our future actions, global warming will cause considerable hardship on human society. I intend this book to be approachable for all concerned citizens, but especially students of the sciences and engineering who will soon be in a position to make a difference in the areas of energy and the environment. I have tried to frame the debate in terms of what the engineering community must do to help combat global warming. We have no choice but to think in terms of global environmental constraints as we design new power plants, factories, automobiles, buildings, and homes. The best thing for scientists to do is to present what we know, clearly separating what is known from what is suspected, in a non-apocalyptic manner. If matters are clearly and passionately presented to the public, we must be prepared to accept the will of the people. This presents the scientific community with an enormous responsibility, perhaps unlike any we have had in the past.Contents: Weather and Climate (and a Little History) / Are the Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Increasing? / The Greenhouse Effect and the Evidence of Global Warming / The Skeptics: Are Their Doubts Scientifically Valid / Impacts: The "So What" Question / The Bottom Line

Understand The Weather: Teach Yourself

Author: Peter Inness

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1444132016

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 7702

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Understand the Weather is a comprehensive and practical guide to the workings of the atmosphere. It will ensure that you not only understand what causes changes in the weather on a local, national and global scale but that you can also fully interpret weather broadcasts and are able to make your own predictions. Packed full of case studies, this book will explain both the weather we experience daily (winds, cold fronts, rain and shine) and the extreme weather that makes the headlines all too often (El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, floods). It will also focus on climate change and its effects - how will our weather be different in the future? Whether your job or leisure pursuits rely on the weather, or you just want to understand more about it, this book is ideal. NOT GOT MUCH TIME? One, five and ten-minute introductions to key principles to get you started. AUTHOR INSIGHTS Lots of instant help with common problems and quick tips for success, based on the author's many years of experience. EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGE Extra online articles at www.teachyourself.com to give you a richer understanding. FIVE THINGS TO REMEMBER Quick refreshers to help you remember the key facts. TRY THIS Innovative exercises illustrate what you've learnt and how to use it.

The Turbulent Ocean

Author: S. A. Thorpe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139445795

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The subject of ocean turbulence is in a state of discovery and development with many intellectual challenges. This book describes the principal dynamic processes that control the distribution of turbulence, its dissipation of kinetic energy and its effects on the dispersion of properties such as heat, salinity, and dissolved or suspended matter in the deep ocean, the shallow coastal and the continental shelf seas. It focuses on the measurement of turbulence, and the consequences of turbulent motion in the oceanic boundary layers at the sea surface and near the seabed. Processes are illustrated by examples of laboratory experiments and field observations. The Turbulent Ocean provides an excellent resource for senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as an introduction and general overview for researchers. It will be of interest to all those involved in the study of fluid motion, in particular geophysical fluid mechanics, meteorology and the dynamics of lakes.

Aviation Education Source Book

Subject Matter and Activities Drawn from Aviation, Suitable for Inclusion in Textbooks and Courses of Study for Elementary and Junior High Grades

Author: Stanford University. School of Education

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aeronautics

Page: 855

View: 5278

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NOLS Lightning

Author: John Gookin,Scott Morris

Publisher: Stackpole Books

ISBN: 0811759342

Category: Nature

Page: 144

View: 2673

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Field guide for making careful decisions in the backcountry and relying on informed observation.

Atmospheric Convection: Research and Operational Forecasting Aspects

Author: Dario B. Giaiotti,Reinhold Steinacker,Fulvio Stel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211692916

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

View: 5997

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This book treats atmospheric convection from different angles including the theoretical aspects of atmospheric deep convection and the weather phenomena related to convection. The problem of boundary conditions that result in severe convective weather patterns is explored within the framework of worldwide climatology. The book bridges the gap between theory and its operational application both within the fields of weather forecasting and that of risk management.

Climatology

Author: Robert Rohli,Anthony J. Vega

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763791018

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 6035

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Ideal for allied health and pre-nursing students, Alcamos Fundamentals of Microbiology, Body Systems Edition, retains the engaging, student-friendly style and active learning approach for which award-winning author and educator Jeffrey Pommerville is known. It presents diseases, complete with new content on recent discoveries, in a manner that is directly applicable to students and organized by body system. A captivating art program, learning design format, and numerous case studies draw students into the text and make them eager to learn more about the fascinating world of microbiology.

Climatology

Author: Louisiana State University Baton Rouge Robert V Rohli,Robert V. Rohli,Anthony J. Vega

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449655912

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 7497

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Ideal for the upper-level undergraduate or introductory-level graduate courses, the second edition presents students with a thorough foundation on the climactic system. The authors begin with an overview of climatology basics, including a discussion on climatology versus meteorology and an introduction to the atmosphere. They then introduce more advanced concepts, such as microscale transfer of energy, matter, and momentum; the global water balance; global atmospheric circulation; climatic classification with special emphasis on the regional differences within the same climate types; and much more.

Mountain Meteorology

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: C. David Whiteman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198030447

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 8617

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Mountain Meteorology: Fundamentals and Applications offers first an introduction to the basic principles and concepts of mountain meteorology, then goes on to discuss their application in natural resources management. It includes over two hundred beautiful, full-color photographs, figures, and diagrams, as well as observable indicators of atmospheric processes--such as winds, temperature, and clouds--to facilitate the recognition of weather systems and events for a variety of readers. It is ideal for those who spend time in or near mountains and whose daily activities are affected by weather. As a comprehensive work filled with diverse examples and colorful illustrations, it is essential for professionals, scholars, and students of meteorology.