The Atmosphere over Mountainous Regions

Author: Miguel A. C. Teixeira,Daniel J. Kirshbaum,Haraldur Ólafsson,,Peter F. Sheridan,Ivana Stiperski

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889450163

Category:

Page: N.A

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Mountainous regions occupy a significant fraction of the Earth's continents and are characterized by specific meteorological phenomena operating on a wide range of scales. Being a home to large human populations, the impact of mountains on weather and hydrology has significant practical consequences. Mountains modulate the climate and create micro-climates, induce different types of thermally and dynamically driven circulations, generate atmospheric waves of various scales (known as mountain waves), and affect the boundary layer characteristics and the dispersion of pollutants. At the local scale, strong downslope winds linked with mountain waves (such as the Foehn and Bora) can cause severe damage. Mountain wave breaking in the high atmosphere is a source of Clear Air Turbulence, and lee wave rotors are a major near-surface aviation hazard. Mountains also act to block strongly stratified air layers, leading to the formation of valley cold air-pools (with implications for road safety, pollution, crop damage, etc.) and gap flows. Presently, neither the fine-scale structure of orographic precipitation nor the initiation of deep convection by mountainous terrain can be resolved adequately by regional-to global-scale models, requiring appropriate downscaling or parameterization. Additionally, the shortest mountain waves need to be parameterized in global weather and climate prediction models, because they exert a drag on the atmosphere. This drag not only decelerates the global atmospheric circulation, but also affects temperatures in the polar stratosphere, which control ozone depletion. It is likely that both mountain wave drag and orographic precipitation lead to non-trivial feedbacks in climate change scenarios. Measurement campaigns such as MAP, T-REX, Materhorn, COLPEX and i-Box provided a wealth of mountain meteorology field data, which is only starting to be explored. Recent advances in computing power allow numerical simulations of unprecedented resolution, e.g. LES modelling of rotors, mountain wave turbulence, and boundary layers in mountainous regions. This will lead to important advances in understanding these phenomena, as well as mixing and pollutant dispersion over complex terrain, or the onset and breakdown of cold air pools. On the other hand, recent analyses of global circulation biases point towards missing drag, especially in the southern hemisphere, which may be due to processes currently neglected in parameterizations. A better understanding of flow over orography is also crucial for a better management of wind power and a more effective use of data assimilation over complex terrain. This Research Topic includes contributions that aim to shed light on a number of these issues, using theory, numerical modelling, field measurements, and laboratory experiments.

Atmospheric Processes over Complex Terrain

Author: William Blumen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1935704257

Category: Science

Page: 323

View: 9079

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The objectives of the American Meteorological Society are "the development and dissemination of knowledge of meteorology in all its phases and applications, and the advancement of its professional ideals." The organization of the Society took place in affiliation with the American Association for the Advancement of Science at Saint Louis, Missouri, December 29, 1919, and its incorporation, at Washington, D. C., January 21, 1920. The work of the Society is carried on by the Bulletin, the Journal, and Meteorological Monographs, by papers and discussions at meetings of the Society, through the offices of the Secretary and the Executive Secretary, and by correspondence. All of the Americas are represented in the membership of the Society as well as many foreign countries.

A Field Guide to the Atmosphere

Author: Vincent J. Schaefer,John A. Day,Jay Pasachoff

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780395976319

Category: Nature

Page: 384

View: 3148

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Photographs show phenomena of the atmosphere, describing types of atmospheric particles, rainbows, clouds, and precipitation.

Essentials of Meteorology: An Invitation to the Atmosphere

Author: C. Donald Ahrens,Robert Henson

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1337515396

Category: Nature

Page: 508

View: 9269

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ESSENTIALS OF METEOROLOGY: AN INVITATION TO THE ATMOSPHERE, 8th Edition, is written by the most widely read and authoritative author in introductory meteorology, Donald Ahrens, together with a new coauthor -- meteorologist and award-winning science writer Robert Henson. Their ability to explain relatively complicated ideas in a student-friendly way allows both science and nonscience majors to visualize the principles of meteorology. The text's clear and inviting narrative is supplemented by pedagogical features that encourage observing, calculating, and synthesizing information, and recent weather and climate events are incorporated to enhance student interest. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Mountain Weather Research and Forecasting

Recent Progress and Current Challenges

Author: Fotini K. Chow,Stephan F.J. De Wekker,Bradley J. Snyder

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400740980

Category: Science

Page: 750

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This book provides readers with a broad understanding of the fundamental principles driving atmospheric flow over complex terrain and provides historical context for recent developments and future direction for researchers and forecasters. The topics in this book are expanded from those presented at the Mountain Weather Workshop, which took place in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, August 5-8, 2008. The inspiration for the workshop came from the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Mountain Meteorology Committee and was designed to bridge the gap between the research and forecasting communities by providing a forum for extended discussion and joint education. For academic researchers, this book provides some insight into issues important to the forecasting community. For the forecasting community, this book provides training on fundamentals of atmospheric processes over mountainous regions, which are notoriously difficult to predict. The book also helps to provide a better understanding of current research and forecast challenges, including the latest contributions and advancements to the field. The book begins with an overview of mountain weather and forecasting chal- lenges specific to complex terrain, followed by chapters that focus on diurnal mountain/valley flows that develop under calm conditions and dynamically-driven winds under strong forcing. The focus then shifts to other phenomena specific to mountain regions: Alpine foehn, boundary layer and air quality issues, orographic precipitation processes, and microphysics parameterizations. Having covered the major physical processes, the book shifts to observation and modelling techniques used in mountain regions, including model configuration and parameterizations such as turbulence, and model applications in operational forecasting. The book concludes with a discussion of the current state of research and forecasting in complex terrain, including a vision of how to bridge the gap in the future.

Global Warming and the Future of the Earth

Author: Robert G. Watts

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1598293400

Category: Science

Page: 113

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The globally averaged surface temperature of the Earth has increased during the past century by about 0.7°C. Most of the increase can be attributed to the greenhouse effect, the increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide that is emitted when fossil fuels are burned to produce energy.The book begins with the important distinction between weather and climate, followed by data showing how carbon dioxide has increased and the incontrovertible evidence that it is caused by burning fossil fuels (i.e., coal, oil, and natural gas). I also address the inevitable skepticism that global warming arouses and offer a number of responses to the global warming skeptics. After dealing with the skeptics, I analyze both the current and future effects of global warming. These future effects are based on scenarios or “storylines†put forth by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. In closing, I address the controversial (and grim) suggestion that we have already passed the “tipping point,†which is the time after which, regardless of our future actions, global warming will cause considerable hardship on human society. I intend this book to be approachable for all concerned citizens, but especially students of the sciences and engineering who will soon be in a position to make a difference in the areas of energy and the environment. I have tried to frame the debate in terms of what the engineering community must do to help combat global warming. We have no choice but to think in terms of global environmental constraints as we design new power plants, factories, automobiles, buildings, and homes. The best thing for scientists to do is to present what we know, clearly separating what is known from what is suspected, in a non-apocalyptic manner. If matters are clearly and passionately presented to the public, we must be prepared to accept the will of the people. This presents the scientific community with an enormous responsibility, perhaps unlike any we have had in the past.Contents: Weather and Climate (and a Little History) / Are the Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases in the Atmosphere Increasing? / The Greenhouse Effect and the Evidence of Global Warming / The Skeptics: Are Their Doubts Scientifically Valid / Impacts: The "So What" Question / The Bottom Line

Aviation Education Source Book

Subject Matter and Activities Drawn from Aviation, Suitable for Inclusion in Textbooks and Courses of Study for Elementary and Junior High Grades

Author: Stanford University. School of Education

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aeronautics

Page: 855

View: 923

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Understand The Weather: Teach Yourself

Author: Peter Inness

Publisher: Teach Yourself

ISBN: 1444132016

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 8207

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Understand the Weather is a comprehensive and practical guide to the workings of the atmosphere. It will ensure that you not only understand what causes changes in the weather on a local, national and global scale but that you can also fully interpret weather broadcasts and are able to make your own predictions. Packed full of case studies, this book will explain both the weather we experience daily (winds, cold fronts, rain and shine) and the extreme weather that makes the headlines all too often (El Nino, Hurricane Katrina, floods). It will also focus on climate change and its effects - how will our weather be different in the future? Whether your job or leisure pursuits rely on the weather, or you just want to understand more about it, this book is ideal. NOT GOT MUCH TIME? One, five and ten-minute introductions to key principles to get you started. AUTHOR INSIGHTS Lots of instant help with common problems and quick tips for success, based on the author's many years of experience. EXTEND YOUR KNOWLEDGE Extra online articles at www.teachyourself.com to give you a richer understanding. FIVE THINGS TO REMEMBER Quick refreshers to help you remember the key facts. TRY THIS Innovative exercises illustrate what you've learnt and how to use it.

The Turbulent Ocean

Author: S. A. Thorpe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139445795

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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The subject of ocean turbulence is in a state of discovery and development with many intellectual challenges. This book describes the principal dynamic processes that control the distribution of turbulence, its dissipation of kinetic energy and its effects on the dispersion of properties such as heat, salinity, and dissolved or suspended matter in the deep ocean, the shallow coastal and the continental shelf seas. It focuses on the measurement of turbulence, and the consequences of turbulent motion in the oceanic boundary layers at the sea surface and near the seabed. Processes are illustrated by examples of laboratory experiments and field observations. The Turbulent Ocean provides an excellent resource for senior undergraduate and graduate courses, as well as an introduction and general overview for researchers. It will be of interest to all those involved in the study of fluid motion, in particular geophysical fluid mechanics, meteorology and the dynamics of lakes.

Atmospheric Convection: Research and Operational Forecasting Aspects

Author: Dario B. Giaiotti,Reinhold Steinacker,Fulvio Stel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3211692916

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 222

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This book treats atmospheric convection from different angles including the theoretical aspects of atmospheric deep convection and the weather phenomena related to convection. The problem of boundary conditions that result in severe convective weather patterns is explored within the framework of worldwide climatology. The book bridges the gap between theory and its operational application both within the fields of weather forecasting and that of risk management.

Fundamentals of Physics and Chemistry of the Atmosphere

Author: Guido Visconti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540674207

Category: Nature

Page: 593

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This book is intended mainly as an introductory course to the physics and chemistry of the atmosphere and to climate dynamics. The basics in thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, radiation and chemistry are given and aimed at explaining the most interesting problems existing in the study of the atmospheres of the Earth and planets. The originality of the book is that it even offers the computer programs to solve these problems. A particular effort is made to approach the different topics intuitively. Among the themes covered is the most recent evolution concerning the ozone hole, the carbon dioxide problem and the chaos theory. The CD-ROM containing solutions with computer models is attached to the book. This CD includes few program listings (in FORTRAN) and the instructions to run them in order to solve a number of problems. There are also two energy balance climate models, programs for the dynamics and a simulation for the ice ages based on the stochastic resonance theory.

NOLS Lightning

Author: John Gookin,Scott Morris

Publisher: Stackpole Books

ISBN: 0811759342

Category: Nature

Page: 144

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Field guide for making careful decisions in the backcountry and relying on informed observation.

Climatology

Author: Louisiana State University Baton Rouge Robert V Rohli,Robert V. Rohli,Anthony J. Vega

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Publishers

ISBN: 1449655912

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 9791

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Ideal for the upper-level undergraduate or introductory-level graduate courses, the second edition presents students with a thorough foundation on the climactic system. The authors begin with an overview of climatology basics, including a discussion on climatology versus meteorology and an introduction to the atmosphere. They then introduce more advanced concepts, such as microscale transfer of energy, matter, and momentum; the global water balance; global atmospheric circulation; climatic classification with special emphasis on the regional differences within the same climate types; and much more.

An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves

Author: Carmen J. Nappo

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080491660

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 8417

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Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation. Foreword is written by Prof. George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interactions of gravity waves with turbulence. CD containing real data, computer codes for data analysis and linear gravity wave models included with the text